Britain geography and english society


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Britain geography and english society

  1. 1. Chapter 2 The Regions of Great Britain and English Society The Island….
  2. 2. Quick Geography • England, Scotland, and Wales occupy one island (Great Britain). • Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland occupy the second island. • GB covers 244,000 sq. km. • 965 km in length, 508 km wide. • Britain can be divided into Lowland Britain and Highland Britain
  3. 3. Lowland Britain • Located in South East Britain (Blue). • Consists of low-lying and fertile land suited for agriculture. • The climate is warmer than in the north. • More heavily populated than the north.
  4. 4. Highland Britain • North West (Scotland) • Consists of hilly or mountainous countryside. • Thin soils, with pockets of fertile lowland.
  5. 5. English Society in the 17th Century • England became a colonizing nation because they were wealthy and powerful, and by defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588 they had the freedom to travel the high seas. • England built colonies in India, South Africa,North America, and other parts of the world. • Trade with the colonies enriched England even more.
  6. 6. English Society • English population grew rapidly • English entrepeneurs (merchants, manufactures, and landholders) found unprecedented opportunities to become wealthy. • To the upper class the future looked promising and the country was ready to become a world power.
  7. 7. English Society Pyramid • Make a pyramid with the following 3 slides:
  8. 8. Upper Class • • • • • Kings Owners of factories & workhouses King’s advisors Nobility Church officials
  9. 9. Middle Class • • • • • • • Soldiers Merchants Landowners Manufacturers Military officers Professionals Teachers
  10. 10. Lower CLass • • • • Cottagers Workers Peasants Unemployed
  11. 11. Guilds • Guilds: organizations to protect skilled workers such as carpenters, blacksmiths, stone masons, dress makers, etc. – Agriculture & ordinary workers worked long hours with little pay (10 pennies/day) and lived in terrible conditions
  12. 12. Diet • Food: – Poor: mostly bread & beer, occasionally meat & cheese – Wealthy: mostly meat (strongly flavoured to hide un-freshness) – Fruits & vegetables unpopular – Forks just coming into fashion – New imported foods: pineapples, maize, potatoes, coffee, tea, chocolate – Coffee houses became popular
  13. 13. Crime and Punishment • Crimes of treason and offenses against the state were treated with the same severity that murder and rape are today. • Offenses such as manslaughter, robbery, rape, piracy, and capital crimes entitled one to hanging, usually in the town square. • A woman found guilty of poisoning her husband was burned alive. • A cook who poisoned his customers was boiled to death in a cauldron of water or lead. • Public ridicule to criminals!
  14. 14. Family • Boys can marry at 14, girls at 12. Usually didn’t happen until age at 21. • Wives are the property of their husbands and depend on their husband for life. • A little boy is dressed in skirts, pretty much like his sisters, until the age of six or seven, when he gets his first pair of breeches or breech hose. • Breeching is a rite of passage for a boy, and a big deal for a boy. A father would now take on a bigger role to raise his boy.
  15. 15. Breeching
  16. 16. Health • Average age was 35 in the early 1600’s. • New medicine finally emerging. Some still believe the body consisted of blood, black bile, phlegm, yellow bile. • Often left to superstition and myth.
  17. 17. Fun • Tennis and shuttlecock. Board games like chess, backgammon. • Theatre was very popular. • In the early 17th century the stage jutted out into the audience. Boys played women's parts! • ‘Sports' like cock fighting and bull and bear baiting were popular. (A bear or bull was chained to a post and dogs were trained to attack it). • The first English newspaper was printed in 1621.
  18. 18. English Monarchy Activity