INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY

Chapter 8:
Bacterial Genetics
Leader in continuing dental education
www.indiandentalacademy.com

ww...
Important Point:

www.indiandentalacademy.com
Bacterial Genetics

 “Acquiring genes through gene transfer provides
new genetic information to microorganisms,
which may...
Bacterial Genetics Overview

 Most bacteria are haploid which means that there is
no such thing as dominance-recessive re...
Mutation: Terms & Concepts

 Wild Type refers to the microorganism as isolated
from the wild.
 A mutated microorganism t...
Types of Mutations

 Base Substitution
 Point mutation = single base is substituted.
 Missense mutation = base change c...
Rates of Mutation

 The mutation rate of different genes usually varies
between 10-4 and 10-12 mutations per cell divisio...
Direct Selection for Mutants

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Indirect Selection: Replica
Plating
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Indirect Selection:
Penicillin
Enrichment
Indirect Selection:
Isolation of ts
Mutants
This is one example of isolation of mutants carrying
conditionally lethal muta...
Ames Salmonella Test

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DNA-Mediated Transformation

Note that DNA
is taken up
naked from
the
environment.

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DNA-Mediated Transformation

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F. Griffith (1928) using pneumococci

Original Transformation Exp.
Artificial Competence
by Electroporation

Competence
denotes the
ability to take
up DNA naked
from the
environment.

Most ...
Generalized Transduction

Bacteriophages
are viruses that
only infect (and
can kill)
bacteria.

www.indiandentalacademy.co...
Generalized Transduction

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Conjugation: Sex or F Pilus

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Conjugation: F Plasmid Transfer

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F and Other Plasmids

 F plasmids encode genes that allow both their
replication and transfer.
 They are thus known as S...
Self-Transmissible R Plasmid

Note
multiple
resistance
genes.

Resistance Transfer Factor
(conjugation genes)
www.indiande...
Transfer of non-R Virulence Factors

 Genes that can make bacteria more virulent
(able to cause disease) are called Virul...
Transfer Protection: R-M
Systems

 Not all incoming DNA is necessarily good for the
receiving bacterium (i.e., DNA can be...
www.indiandentalacademy.com

Restriction Endonuclease
Action
Restriction Endonuclease
Action

Note in
particular that
DNA is cut at
palindromic
regions.

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DNA Modification: RE Protection

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Link to Next Presentation

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Thank you
For more details please visit
www.indiandentalacademy.com

www.indiandentalacademy.com
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Bacterial genetics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

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The Indian Dental Academy is the Leader in continuing dental education , training dentists in all aspects of dentistry and offering a wide range of dental certified courses in different formats.

Indian dental academy provides dental crown & Bridge,rotary endodontics,fixed orthodontics,
Dental implants courses.for details pls visit www.indiandentalacademy.com ,or call
0091-9248678078

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Bacterial genetics /certified fixed orthodontic courses by Indian dental academy

  1. 1. INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Chapter 8: Bacterial Genetics Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. Important Point: www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. Bacterial Genetics  “Acquiring genes through gene transfer provides new genetic information to microorganisms, which may allow them to survive changing environments.”  “The major source of variation within a bacterial species is mutation.”  “In mutations, usually only a single gene changes at any one time.”  “In contrast, gene transfer results in many genes being transferred simultaneously, giving the recipient cell much more additional genetic information.” www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. Bacterial Genetics Overview  Most bacteria are haploid which means that there is no such thing as dominance-recessive relationships among bacterial alleles.  Bacteria don’t have sex in the animal/plant sense of sex (i.e., mating followed by recombination of whole genomes).  Instead, bacteria acquire DNA from other bacteria through three distinct mechanisms:  Transformation  Transduction  Conjugation  This DNA may or may not then recombine into the recipient’s genome.  We use phrases like “Lateral” or “Horizontal” Gene Transfer to describe these sexual interactions.  Bacterial DNA is also subject to mutation, damage (not the same thing as mutation), and natural selection. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. Mutation: Terms & Concepts  Wild Type refers to the microorganism as isolated from the wild.  A mutated microorganism that has lost a metabolic function, particularly an ability to synthesize a specific growth factor, is called an Auxotroph.  The wild-type parent to an auxotroph is called a Prototroph.  A Mutation is found in a gene; a mutant is an organism harboring a Mutation.  We designate mutant phenotypes using three-letter abbreviations; the phenotype of a tryptophan-requiring auxotroph would be described as Trp-.  A bacterium that has mutated to resistance to an antibiotic (or other substance) is given the superscript “R”; thus, the phenotype ampicillin resistance is indicated as AmpR.  Mutants can be spontaneous or induced by a www.indiandentalacademy.com Mutagen; an agent that causes DNA to mutate.
  6. 6. Types of Mutations  Base Substitution  Point mutation = single base is substituted.  Missense mutation = base change changes single amino acid to different amino acid.  Nonsense mutation = base change changes single amino acid to stop codon.  Null or Knockout mutation = mutation that totally inactivates a gene.  Deletion or insertion mutation = change in number of bases making up a gene.  Frameshift mutation = insertion or deletion of something other than multiples of three bases.  Frameshifts typically radically change downstream codons, generating stop codons, and typically knocking out gene function.  Reversion mutation = mutated change back to that of wild type. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7. Rates of Mutation  The mutation rate of different genes usually varies between 10-4 and 10-12 mutations per cell division (essentially equivalent to per cell).  10-4 = one in 10,000; 10-12 = one in one trillion.  To calculate the probability of two independent mutations we multiple the two mutation rates.  Thus, if streptomycin resistance occurs at a rate of 10-6 mutations per cell division and the rate of mutation to resistance to penicillin is 10-8 then the rate of mutation to both antibiotics is 10-6 * 10-8 = 10-14 (note that the exponents are added).  That is, we would have to have a population of onehundred trillion cells to have one double mutant, which even for bacteria is a lot of cells.  This is the basis for Combination Therapy, e.g., the use of more than one chemotherapeutic against tuberculosis, HIV, cancer, etc.  The odds of sufficiently multiply resistant mutants drops www.indiandentalacademy.com with each new chemotherapeutic added to the mix.
  8. 8. Direct Selection for Mutants www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. www.indiandentalacademy.com Indirect Selection: Replica Plating
  10. 10. www.indiandentalacademy.com Indirect Selection: Penicillin Enrichment
  11. 11. Indirect Selection: Isolation of ts Mutants This is one example of isolation of mutants carrying conditionally lethal mutations found in essential genes. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. Ames Salmonella Test www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. DNA-Mediated Transformation Note that DNA is taken up naked from the environment. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. DNA-Mediated Transformation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. www.indiandentalacademy.com F. Griffith (1928) using pneumococci Original Transformation Exp.
  16. 16. Artificial Competence by Electroporation Competence denotes the ability to take up DNA naked from the environment. Most bacteria are not naturally competent but many can be made artificially so. www.indiandentalacademy.com Artificially induced competence is very important to gene cloning.
  17. 17. Generalized Transduction Bacteriophages are viruses that only infect (and can kill) bacteria. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Generalized Transduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19. Conjugation: Sex or F Pilus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20. Conjugation: F Plasmid Transfer www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21. F and Other Plasmids  F plasmids encode genes that allow both their replication and transfer.  They are thus known as Self-Transmissible Plasmids.  There are other plasmids that can take advantage of conjugation but don’t encode the the necessary genes. These are non-self transmissible plasmids.  Transduction is also capable of transferring smaller plasmids.  R plasmids are named not for their mode of transmission but instead for the resistance genes that they encode such as to antibiotics.  Some plasmids are present in bacteria in low copy numbers (1 or 2/bacterium) whereas other plasmids are present in high copy numbers (such 100s/bact.).  Plasmids, R and otherwise, can have very wide host ranges allowing easy transfer of already evolved genes between bacterial species. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Self-Transmissible R Plasmid Note multiple resistance genes. Resistance Transfer Factor (conjugation genes) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23. Transfer of non-R Virulence Factors  Genes that can make bacteria more virulent (able to cause disease) are called Virulence Factor genes.  Virulence factors include fimbriae that allow attachment to host tissues, exotoxins, etc.  Virulence factor genes may be transferred by transformation, transduction, or conjugation.  Virulence factor genes tend to congregate on bacterial chromosomes in regions known as Pathogenicity Islands.  New bacterial pathogens can emerge via the uptake of entire pathogenicity islands transferred intact from unrelated bacteria. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. Transfer Protection: R-M Systems  Not all incoming DNA is necessarily good for the receiving bacterium (i.e., DNA can be parasitic).  Bacteria employ Restriction Enzymes to protect themselves from the foreign DNA.  Restriction enzymes recognize specific, palindromic (same spelling backward and forward) DNA sequences of 4 to 8 base pairs in length that are known as Recognition Sequences.  Bacteria also employ Modification Enzymes that modify DNA to protect it from Restriction Enzymes.  Together these are called RestrictionModification Systems.  Restriction enzymes are crucial components of www.indiandentalacademy.com genetic engineering.
  25. 25. www.indiandentalacademy.com Restriction Endonuclease Action
  26. 26. Restriction Endonuclease Action Note in particular that DNA is cut at palindromic regions. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. DNA Modification: RE Protection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Link to Next Presentation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. Thank you For more details please visit www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com

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