1 Intro To Micro P


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  • A computer is an electronic system that performs arithmetic operation, manipulates data, and makes decision based on given instruction. A computer is made up of hardware and software.
  • Computer hardware consists of 4 main components: Processor: also called as central processing unit (CPU) Memory Input device Output device
  • A computer system may have one or multiple processors. The processor operates all computations in the system. The processor can be divided into 2 major parts: Control Unit & Datapath. Control Unit contains the hardware instruction logic that controls the flow of information of the CPU. The system clock synchronizes the activities of the CPU. The activities are measured by clock cycles. PC controls the memory address of the next instruction to be executed. A status register stores overflow, an addition carry, subtraction borrow, etc. ALU receives data from main memory and/or register, performs a computation, and, if necessary writes the result back to registers/main memory.
  • Memory is the place where the software programs and data are stored.
  • Input devices allow the computer user to enter data & programs into the computer so that computation can be performed. Examples: switches,keypads, keyboards, mice, microphones, thumb wheels
  • Output devices display the results of computation so that the user can read them and equipment can be controlled. Examples: CRT displays, LEDs, seven-segment displays, LCD displays, printers.
  • 1 Intro To Micro P

    1. 1. Introduces the basic computer concepts Chapter 1: Introduction to Microprocessor
    2. 2. Computer??? Hardware Electronics circuit boards that provide functionality of the system Software Program consists of sets of instructions that control the system
    3. 3. Computer Classification <ul><li>Microcomputer: microprocessor based computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Workstation: microcomputer used for research, more sophisticated. </li></ul><ul><li>Mainframe: large computer normally used for business </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputer: high speed for high precision calculation with combination of thousand of processors. </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontroller: small size processor with internal memory and I/O port. </li></ul><ul><li>PDA: pocket sized computer for personal info. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Computer Architecture Memory Program Storage Data Storage Output Units Input Units Control Unit Datapath Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Registers Common Bus (address, data & control) Processor (CPU) Figure 1: Computer Hardware Organization
    5. 5. Processor (CPU) <ul><li>The brain of a computer system </li></ul>Control Unit Datapath Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Registers <ul><li>Decodes and monitors the execution of instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls flow of information in CPU, memory, I/O devices: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System clock (Intel® Core™ I7-720QM Processor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 1.6GHz, turbo up to 2.8GHz , 6MB L3 Cache)) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains a register called program counter(PC) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALU: performs all arithmetic computations & logic evaluations. </li></ul><ul><li>Registers: storage location in CPU, used to hold data or a memory address during the execution of an instruction.. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Common Bus <ul><li>A group of conducting wires that allow signals to travel from one point to another: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address bus: the location of data in memory or I/O devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data bus: carry data in & out from CPU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control bus: control the operation of the CPU </li></ul></ul>Common Bus (address, data & control)
    7. 7. Memory Memory Program Storage Data Storage
    8. 8. Memory
    9. 9. Memory data address Figure 2: Components of memory
    10. 10. Discussion 1 <ul><li>A memory in microP stores data in binary format. To retrieve an information, the microP assigns addresses to the location. Each location stores 1 byte of data. </li></ul><ul><li>If a value of hex D7 is stored in the location of $2000, show the content of the memory on $2000. </li></ul>
    11. 11. I/O Devices <ul><li>Input device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow computer user to enter data & programs into the computer </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. I/O Devices <ul><li>Output device </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Displaying the results of computation </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Microprocessor vs. Microcontroller
    14. 14. Computer’s Software Programming Language
    15. 15. Machine Instructions <ul><li>A program is stored in the computer memory in the form of binary numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to understand, debug, and maintain the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0100 0011 :decrement the contents of accumulator A by 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1000 0110 0000 0110 :places the value 6 in accumulator A </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Assembly Language <ul><li>Defined by assembly instructions: mnemonic representation of a machine instruction. </li></ul><ul><li>Must be translated by an assembler before it can be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Programmers need to work on the program logic at a very low level & cannot achieve high productivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABA :add the contents of accumulator B to accumulator A. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DECA :decrement the contents of accumulator A by 1. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. High Level Language <ul><li>The syntax is similar to English. </li></ul><ul><li>A compiler is required to translate the program. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows user to work on the program logic at higher level. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PASCAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OMNET++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>JAVA </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Terminologies <ul><li>Source Code: A program written in assembly or high-level language. </li></ul><ul><li>Object Code: The output of an assemble or compiler. </li></ul>