Performance and handoff evaluation of heterogeneous wireless networks 2
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  • 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME477PERFORMANCE AND HANDOFF EVALUATION OFHETEROGENEOUS WIRELESS NETWORKS (HWNS) USING OPNETSIMULATORDheyaa Jasim KadhimElectrical Engineering Department, University of BaghdadSanaa Shaker AbedElectrical Engineering Department, University of BaghdadABSTRACTThe need for coupling Heterogeneous Wireless Networks (HWNs) such as WLAN,WiMAX or UMTS, play a great role in developing towards fourth generation of wirelessnetworks. Hence, the algorithms for these networks must be developed especially handoffalgorithms to present a better performance in such heterogeneous networks. In this paper,several projects have different types of networks were implemented and simulated indifferent case studies offered by OPNET simulation to make Intra-technology handoff(horizontal handoff) switching in each network and Inter-technology handoff (verticalhandoff) by interworking between two HWNs. OPNET simulation results show that thesuperiors of WiMAX performance through this research on the WLAN and UMTS networks.The performance of WiMAX throughput beats the other networks in much than 30%. Also,the simulation results show the successful implementation and simulation of the deploymentof WLAN into WiMAX and UMTS network by using multiple network interfaces. In thiswork, it found that it is very difficult to successfully complete the vertical handoff betweenWLAN-WiMAX and WLAN-UMTS without carefully and accurately engineering theWLAN network due to highlighting the fundamental different in HWNs.General Terms: Wireless Networks, OPNET Simulator, Mobility Management and HandoffProcess.Keywords: Heterogeneous Wireless Network (HWN), WLAN, WiMAX, UMTS, HandoffManagement and OPNET Simulation.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 477-496© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijecet.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4781. INTRODUCTIONMobile users increased demand for access to mobile communication services isaccelerating the technological development towards the integration into the various modes ofwireless access communications with respect to coverage, QoS assurance, implementation,operational costs supported features, etc. The integration should take into account the usermobility from one access point to another. In wireless networks, mobility managementprovide mobile users with continuously get the connection when they move among differentsubnets based on their service needs. With this heterogeneity, users will be able to chooseradio access technology that offers higher quality, data speed and mobility which is bestsuited to the required multimedia applications with the best performance and minimum cost.It is necessary to ensure that the internet application efficient state is maintained while usedHWNs. This is one of motivation for conducting this work.In this context, vertical handoff and interworking between heterogeneous wirelessaccess networks constitute important issues to the networking community. The mobile userswould like to seamlessly and dynamically roam among the different access networks tomaintain the most optimal network connectivity. In this case, choosing the correct time toinitiate a vertical handoff request and select the best network to connect becomes important.Handoff management is one of the most important features of mobility management and theMobile user must be able to seamlessly handoff to the approximately best connection amongall available candidates based on some metrics that ensure no interruption will happen to anyongoing connection. Hence, satisfying these requirements under the varied networks andservices refers to why handoff has gained importance and will probably continue to be amajor interest area of interest as newer technologies and services continue to proliferate thewireless networking market [1][2]. Another work motivation behind the mobility and handoffmanagement is the need for a way to integrate and couple these heterogeneous networks,such as coupling WLAN and any cellular networks.Many researchers wrote on the scope of heterogeneous networks, seamless mobilityand vertical handoff some of them wrote on the role of it to improve the network performanceand others wrote on the field of optimizing its works. Mark Stemm in [3] has exploredmethods which enable seamless mobility in wireless LAN networks with using 802.11networks configured to work like a single umbrella network. Zahran [4][5] studied theperformance of vertical handoff using the integration of heterogeneous networks in 3Gcellular and wireless local area networks with MIP supported using loosely-coupledarchitectures. The dissertation in [6] proposed virtual wireless services to evaluate the HWN;the architecture of this solution based on client/server design. OPNET modular 14.5 was usedto build a test of HWN.In this paper, three types of HWNs; WLAN, WiMAX and UMTS were implementedand tested with different selected applications executed on the mobile node. So that threedifferent projects have different types of networks will implement and simulate using OPNET14.5 modeler simulation. Then we will evaluate the performance of these heterogeneousnetworks with many applications such as FTP, VoIP and video conference applications. Thework of this paper will discuss also the handoff implementation and evaluation for HWN inaddition to the integration, interworking and deployment in HWN between WLAN-WiMAXand WLAN-UMTS. It is necessary to ensure that the internet application efficient state ismaintained while used HWNs. This is one of motivation for conducting this work.
  • 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4792. HANDOFF MANAGEMENT IN HWNSGeneral vision of 4G wireless networks are essentially the future of HWN. A HWN ismade up of multiple wireless access technologies. Each of these technologies has its owncharacteristics with respect to coverage, QoS assurance, implementation, operational costs,supported, features, etc. [7]. Presently, heterogeneous environments are expanding andmobile devices often have built in support for multiple network interfaces. Seamless roamingor mobility is crucial to ubiquitous computing and requires network management operationsto avoid service degradation. Both location management and handoff management constitutemobility management. Location management involves two processes. The first process iscalled location registration, or location update, in which the mobile terminal periodicallyinforms the network of its current location, which leads the network mobility and mobilitysupport procedures for wireless networks. Handoff management includes wireless terminalhandoff management considerations within one network called horizontal handoff andhandoff management across different wireless networks which could be based on differentwireless access technologies termed vertical handoff [8].The handoff process is divided into three phases [9]: Network Discovery, HandoffDecision and Handoff Implementation as shown in Figure 1. Periodically the systemmonitors for a better network which the mobile terminal can be handed off. The handoffconsiderations include several different criteria depending on the algorithms and the goals setfor handoff.Figure 1: Handoff PhasesDuring the system discovery phase, the mobile terminal determines which networkscan be used. These networks may also advertise the supported data rates and Quality ofService (QoS) parameters [10]. The handoff decision uses an algorithm that optimizes basedon a selected set of criteria to decide when to handoff. The decision is very crucial andseveral different interesting solutions were proposed to address the problem [11]. In decisionphase, the mobile terminal determines whether the connections should continue using thecurrent network or be switched to another network. The decision may depend on variousparameters or metrics including the type of the application (e.g., conversational, streaming),minimum bandwidth and delay required by the application, access cost, transmit power andthe user’s preferences. During the execution phase, the connections in the mobile terminal arere-routed from the existing network to the new network in a seamless manner. This phasealso includes the authentication, authorization, and transfer of a user’s context information[12]. Thus vertical handoffs are implemented across heterogeneous cells of access systems,which are differ in several aspects such as bandwidth, data rate, frequency of operation, andbetter QoS etc [13].3. IMPLEMENTATION AND SIMULATION OF HWNThree types of heterogeneous wireless technology WLAN, WiMAX and UMTS wereimplemented and simulated with different selected applications executed on the mobile nodeHeavy FTP, Heavy Video Conference and VoIP with PCM quality. The mobility used for thisproject simulation speed is 10km/h with different location nodes at specified vector trajectoryNetworkDiscoveryHandoffDecisionExecution
  • 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME480and simulation time was about 15 minutes. Selected performance of applications such asVoIP, Video Conference and FTP and also the metrics such as average delay, throughput, andreceived traffic were calculated and discussed.3.1 WLAN Performance EvaluationIn this case study, the performance of WLAN network evaluation with using differenttypes of application. WLAN model based on IEEE802.11x standards is described in OPNETmodulator. This model includes various node models: wireless workstation, wireless server,and wireless router or access point AP.The objective of this case is to test the application performance and analyze the workof Wi-Fi networks. Figure 2 displays the network topology of this case. In this case we usedthree different applications; FTP, Video Conferencing and Voice over IP. We proposed thata network model consists of one Access Point with six clients; each two clients have the sameapplication with the coverage of approximately 100 meters in a 1000 by 1000 meters of area.IP cloud is used in this project, so the packets arriving on this cloud interface will be routedto the output interface based on the destination IP address. The Routing Information Protocol(RIP) or the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocol may be used to automatically anddynamically create the clouds routing tables and select routes in an adaptive manner.Figure 2: Wi-Fi Network Scheme ImplementationThere are two versions of the wireless workstation node model, the simple and theadvanced models. The simple has only physical and multiple access control MAC layer butthe advanced model provides all the higher layers protocols.The proposed model is measured for its performance by running data, voice and video traffic;hence the average delay, throughput, load, and received traffic are the performance metricsused in this work.Table 1 displays the system parameters at the simulation setup used in the first casestudy. A vector-based trajectory consists of a direction and a velocity that can be changed atrun time. We can specify that a site will use a vector-based trajectory by setting the sitestrajectory attribute to VECTOR. However, in OPNET Modeler the path of a site can changeduring simulation if the bearing of the site is changed. In this case, the currentlatitude/longitude coordinates of the site become the new origin and a new "great circle"route is recomputed based on the new bearing and origin. The simulation time in all cases ofthis project is taken to be 15 minutes.
  • 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME481Table 1: WLAN Simulation Environment ParametersSystem ParametersSimulation time 15minutesData rate 54MbpsCommunication Range 100mPhysical characteristic Extended rate 802.11gMAC Type 802.11 DCFTransmit power (w) 0.005Reception power threshold -95dBmAP Bacon interval 0.02secPropagation model Free spaceTrajectory Vector Based3.2 WiMAX Performance EvaluationThe WiMAX model suite includes a discrete event simulation model that let usanalyze a network performance in wireless metropolitan area networks. The WiMAX modelsuite includes the features of the IEEE 802.16e standard with two types: simple and advancenode model. WiMAX-capable nodes are included in the WiMAX object palette whichincludes routers, base stations, workstations, etc.To understand the fundamental work and the performance analysis of WiMAX networktechnology, we proposed a scheme of the network topology of this case study as shown inFigure 3. WiMAX configuration and profile Configuration provide to define and attribute allthe applications that are used by the MN in this network case study. Three differentapplications are used: FTP, Video Conferencing and Voice over IP. The proposed WiMAXnetwork model consists of seven Base Stations and seven cells; each cell has four mobilenodes to serve all applications types. A vector-based trajectory is also used in this scenario.The coverage of one cell is approximately 4km by 4km of area.Figure 3: WiMAX Network Scheme ImplementationFirst we will use the same metrics used in the WLAN case study. Table 4.2 displays thesystem parameters at the simulation setup in the second case study.
  • 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME482Table 2: WiMAX Simulation Environment ParametersSystem ParametersSimulation time 15minutesData rate 11MbpsBasic rate 1MbpsAntenna Gain 15 dBiPHY profile Wireless OFDMA 20MHzPHY profile type OFDMMax. Transmit power (w) 0.5Path loss VehicularBS MAC address Distance basedTrajectory Vector Based3.3 UMTS Performance EvaluationThe objective of this scenario studies the performance of UMTS network using thesame set of application and the same performance metrics used in previous cases. Many nodemodels as part of the UMTS specialized model library are grouped in the UMTS andUMTS_advanced object palettes in OPNET modulator such as routers, repeaters, stations,RNC, etc,. In our simulation, the UMTS advanced node models were used.One of the specialized models used in OPNET simulation is the UMTS model based on the3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) specifications. The architecture of this model canbe found in simple and advance nodes. The MN model offers functionality related to terminalequipment and mobile termination, responsible for terminating the radio link. The UTRANpart consists of models for Node B and RNC.During this case study, a simulation scenario was built and run in order to obtain thedesired results to achieve the objective. Figure 4 displays the network topology of this case;the same sets of applications are used, so we used the same metrics used in the previous case(throughput, delay, and traffic received). The proposed topology of UMTS network modelconsists of Node_B, RNC, MN, and SGSN/GGSN nodes. The coverage of one cell isapproximately 5km by 5km of area.Figure 4: UMTS Network Scheme ImplementationThe following simulation parameters were used to obtain the results as shown inTable 3. The path loss can be calculate by taking the difference between the transmittedsignal strength in the uplink direction at the mobile station and the received signalstrength at Node B.
  • 7. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME483Table 3: UMTS Simulation Environment ParametersSystem ParametersCoverage area 5km *5kmSimulation time 15minutesUMTS MN cell state Cell_DCHUMTS RLC process time 0.015CPICH transmission Power 1WShadow fading Standarddeviation10Processing time 0.02secPath loss Outdoor to indoor andpedestrian environmentUMTS GMM Timer 15/30/103.4 Performance Analysis of Different HWN TechnologiesThree types of heterogeneous wireless technology WLAN, WiMAX and UMTS wereimplemented and tested with different selected applications executed on the mobile nodeHeavy FTP, Heavy Video Conference and VoIP with PCM quality.Table 4: The General Statistic Information of Video Conference. Traffic SentWiMAX Statistic Inf. kb/s Wi-Fi Statistic Inf. kb/s UMTS Statistic Inf. kb/shorizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 91,4initial value : 0.0final value : 91,3expected value : 79,988sample mean : 79,988variance : 886,482standard deviation : 29,77horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 15,206initial value : 0.0final value : 15,2expected value : 13,345sample mean : 13,345variance :24,529standard deviation : 4,952horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 15,262initial value : 0.0final value : 15,26expected value : 13,254sample mean : 13,254variance :standard deviation : 5,089Figure 5: Video Conference Sent and Received Traffics
  • 8. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME484The mobility used for this project simulation speed is 10km/h with different locationnodes at specified vector trajectory defined in chapter four and simulation time was about 15minutes. Selected performance of applications such as VoIP, Video Conference and FTP andalso the metrics such as average delay, throughput, and received traffic were calculated anddiscussed.Figure 5 shows the video conference traffic sent and received for all HWN (Wi-Fi,WiMAX and UMTS). Table 4 describes some of the general statistic information for thisperformance. As a result, we can show WiMAX traffic sending was the best in about 60%,but all were equal in response at received traffics.On the other hand, Figure 6 and Table 5 show and describe the send traffics of VoIPin this project; they show that the performance of WiMAX throughput beats the othernetworks in sent and received traffics in about (30-100)%.The response of the third application is FTP throughput as shown in Figure 7. Table 6describes the statistic information for FTP traffic sent. We can conclude from them that thesuperiors of WiMAX performance through this project are in the Wi-Fi and UMTS networks.Figures (8-10) show the global delays and throughput in each network. The maximum delayand minimum throughput are shown in UMTS network. On the other hand, the minimumdelay and the maximum throughput are shown in WiMAX networks.Table 5: The General Statistic Information of VoIP. Traffic SentWiMAX Statistic Inf. kb/s Wi-Fi Statistic Inf. kb/s UMTS Statistic Inf. kb/shorizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 31,564initial value : 0.0final value : 25,226expected value : 23,015sample mean : 23,015variance : 78,521standard deviation : 8,861horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max :initial value : 0.0final value : 10,728expected value : 10,201sample mean : 10,201variance :standard deviation : 4,231horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 11,57initial value : 0.0final value : 7,928expected value : 7,591sample mean : 7,591variance :standard deviation : 3,204Figure 6: VoIP Sent and Received Traffics
  • 9. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME485Figure 8: Throughput and Delay in WiMAX and Wi-FiTable 6: The General Statistic Information of FTP. Traffic SentWiMAX Statistic Inf. kb/s Wi-Fi Statistic Inf. kb/s UMTS Statistic Inf. kb/shorizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 556,124initial value : 0.0final value : 139,173expected value : 261,375sample mean : 261,375variance : 21,939.000standard deviation : 148,120horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max :initial value : 0.0final value : 16,837expected value : 22,225sample mean : 22,225variance :standard deviation : 8,619horizontal, min : 0max : 900vertical, min : 0.0max : 5,612initial value : 0.0final value :expected value : 224.49 b/ssample mean : 224.49 b/svariance :standard deviation : 1,009Figure 7: FTP Sent and Received Traffics
  • 10. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME486Figure 9: Throughputs and Delays in UMTS NetworkFigure 10: Overall Delay in the Three Networks4. HANDOFF IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF HWNThis section includes three different case studies to implement and evaluate Handoff(HO) through WLAN, WiMAX and UMTS networks.4.1 Handoff in WLANIn this case study, we used three access point and forty-two Mobile Nodes (MNs)with Wi-Fi connection were distributed over seven cells with the help of internet protocol.The mobile nodes moves randomly by trajectory vector known previously between sevenwireless APs. These APs offer the service of WLAN_802.11g with data rate 54Mbpsincluding roaming features between these APs. The objective of this scenario is to providethe performance of achieving HO during the moving of MN among cells when the speed ofMN is about 10km/h at simulation time is one hour.The same set of metrics was used in this project too to set all nodes in the simulation. Figure11 shows the details of the proposed HO_ WLAN topology.
  • 11. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME487Figure 11: HO_WLAN Network Scheme Implementation4.2 Handoff in WiMAXThis case studied the performance evolution of WiMAX technology when MN movesbetween BSs coverage area and HO occurred. The objective of this study is to explore howthe performance is affected during handoff occurrence with multiple BSs which supportWiMAX IEEE802.16e. So the same predefined set of metrics was used. The simulation timein this case study is taken to be 15 minutes.The Figure 12 shows the proposed WiMAX topology architecture. WiMAX setup includedseven BSs. The MN or MS moves in a selected trajectory so that it roams near the coverageareas by these BSs alternately. The BSs were symmetrical and they were different only inMAC address. The efficiency mode on WiMAX configuration attributed in mobility andranging ability, so MS was also set to support the WiMAX BSs services. IP cloud was usedin this case to support the mobility of MN among BSs. Figure 12 shows the proposed reallocation applied in a selected region for BSs and for the MS trajectory moving around theseBSs.Figure 12: HO_WiMAX Network Scheme Implementation
  • 12. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4884.3 Handoff in UMTSFigure 13 shows the UMTS platform setup which includes six BSs or node_Bconnected directly to RNC node to be UTRAN based. Three MN A, B and C, A nodefollowed specified trajectoryto roam through the coverage areas by six BSs alternately. TheBSs were symmetrical and they were only different in MAC address. The MS also attributedto support the UMTS BSs services. RNC conected directly to Corresponding node whichrepresented SGSN node. The conversation and interactive traffic class were attributed in allmobile nodes. Ordinary to the achieved handoff in this case the UMTS UE cell (such as Anode) state must set in cell_DCH. Figure 13 shows the proposed real location applied inselected region for BSs and the trajectory moving around these BSs. The simulation time inthis case was about 10minutes.Figure 13: HO_UMTS Network Scheme Implementation4.4 Performance analysis of Handoff Implementation in HWNThe results and discussions included three cases studies: the evaluation of HO inWLAN, HO in WiMAX and HO in UMTS.According to the simulation and implementation in section 4.1, the throughput anddelay for case study one is shown in Figure 14 with specified vector trajectory and simulationtime 60 minutes. It is clear that the maximum value of throughput is about 30,484kb/s atabout 1800 second and the minimum value is 2.1kb/s at about 1950sec.Figure 14: Throughput and Delay of Case Study 1-WLANFigure 15 illustrates the WLAN AP connectivity for several selected mobile nodesduring different locations and HO occurs in about one hour.
  • 13. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME489Figure 15: AP Connectivity for Selected NodesThroughput and delay for all AP from one to seven are described in Figure 16. It canbe noted that max value is 20,647Kb/s and max mean value is 5,632Kb/s at AP1 because thelocation of AP1 is in the center of coverage area. Also it can be noted that the max delay atAP2 is about 4.12ms between 200-400 s; that occurs because the nodes mobility is out of theAP2 coverage at these times as shown in Figure 17.Figure 16: Access Points Throughput and DelayFigure 17: Two Dimension Animation Viewer of WLAN Subnet
  • 14. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME490According to the simulation and implementation of WiMAX in section 4.2, thethroughput, delay, HO delay, advertisement received and the mobility serving ID for this casestudy are shown in Figure 18. The same selected vector trajectory in the previous case studywas used with a simulation time of about 15 minutes. From the Figure 18, we can note themax throughput is 397p/s at about 520s and the min throughput is 35p/s at 490s due to MNmoving far of the coverage area of BS5 and BS6.Figure 18: Throughputs, Delay, HO delay, Advertisement Received and MobilityServing IDFrom Figure 19, we can see the throughput of all used BSs in the topology. The MNwas connected to BS0 at the start and moved through BSs, and then at the end of thespecified trajectory, it was back to BS0.Figure 19: The BSs Throughput in WiMAX SubnetIn the third case study, UMTS HO implemented and simulated results can be shownin Figure 20. Three active sets were used in simulation due to using three mobile nodes; thestatistic reports the number of the cells in the active set of the surrounding MN, which variesduring handoffs. Initially each MN is attached only to a single Node-B. Therefore, thestatistic starts with an initial value of 1. Then, throughout the simulation, whenever an
  • 15. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME491addition or removal takes place to/from the Active Set, the new count of the cells after thisoperation is recorded.Figure 20: UMTS HO ResultsThe total traffic received throughput, end to end delay per QoS and the uplinkthroughput of each BSs in UMTS subnet are shown in Figure 21. It can be noted thatthroughput decreases after 355 second with max throughput value of 5.6Kb/s at BS0 due tothe MN stopping near the coverage area of BS5.Figure 21: Throughput, End to End Delay and Uplink Throughput in BSs5. INTEGRATION, INTERWORKING AND DEPLOYMENT IN HWNThe approach of this will consist from of two directions. The first direction includeshow to integration the Wi-Fi network into WiMAX network in order to work as a onenetwork. The second direction includes the interworking Wi-Fi network into UMTS networkto work as a one network.
  • 16. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME4925.1 Integration of Wi-Fi / WiMAX NetworkThe objective of this case study is to implement and evaluate the Wi-Fi/WiMAXintegration networks. This case study contains two different wireless service in coverage, bitrate, operating frequency…etc.; hence, each network has to modify its protocols, interfacesand services in order to support the interworking requirements [14][15]. To achieve this,the BS of WiMAX and AP of Wi-Fi were enhanced and new interface were added in thesenodes. The application configuration, application profile and WiMAX configuration weresets to support the one selected application HTTP as shown in Figure 22.Figure 22: Implementation of Wi-Fi/WiMax Integration5.2 Integration WLAN into UMTS NetworkThe purpose of this case study is to implement, simulate and test a network systemenvironment to allow investigators to study and verify the trade-offs for interworking theinfrastructure-based wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies into cellular systems, specificallyUMTS. In this case study, we focused on the interworking of WLAN to provide dataservices; therefore, the circuit switched domain was not required. The tight couplingapproach was used in this case. Hence, The WLAN-UMTS system was tightly coupled at theRNC using the WLAN technology as an alternate radio access technology for “hot spots”.This case was achieved in a simulation containing the Enhanced WLAN Access Point(termed WLAN_UMTS_AP), the Enhanced User Equipment (termed UW_1), and Enhancedthe Core Node (SGSN/GGSN). The enhanced node models in [16] was used andimplemented and then evaluated in our proposed system.The application traffic models used in this case generating traffic based on standardapplications such as HTTP and E-mail applications with a simulation time of 15minutes.Figure 23 shows the proposed WLAN_UMTS interworking topology implementation inOPNET simulator.
  • 17. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME493Figure 23: Implementation of WLAN/UMTS IntegrationThe GMM protocol must be implemented in this case. The GMM protocol, whichlogically operates between the MN and the SGSN, provides the authentication and the basicsignaling mechanisms for controlling mobility management into the UMTS domain[17]. Theauthentication center (AuC) and visitor location register (VLR) operations were impededSGSN/GGSN enhanced node.5.3 Performance Analysis of the Integrated NetworksTwo case studies are evaluated in this section. The first section includes results anddiscussion of WiFi/WiMAX integrated networks and the second section includes the resultsand discussion of interworking WiFi network into UMTS network.Figure 24 illustrates the throughput and delay in WLAN/WiMAX deployment for asimulation time of 24 minutes. The max value is 1.75Mb/s at 17minutes and the min value isabout 106.6Mb/s at 3minutes. We can note that the delay in WiMAX network is10 timesgreater than the delay in Wi-Fi. This figure represented the trade-offs for interworking of theinfrastructure-based Wireless LAN (WLAN) technologies into WiMAX technology.Figure 24: WiMAX/WiFi Throughput and DelayIt can be shown in Figure 25, the HTTP traffic received and sent throughput, according to thestatic information concluded, the maximum and minimum values of throughput are (15.6,4.8)Kb/s at (9, 21) minutes respectively.
  • 18. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME494Figure 25: The HTTP Traffic Received and Sent ThroughputIt is clearly shown that the BSS0 and BSS1 was equal load. The load mean value according tothe static information is about 630b/s due to the same numbers and the same types of MN asshown in Figure 26.Figure 26: WLAN Network LoadIn the second part of case study two analyses, Figure 27 illustrates the delay and throughputof WLAN, it can be note that the max value of throughput is 12801b/s and the max delayvalue is at 65ms.Figure 27: WLAN Delay and ThroughputFigure 28 represents the response of the selected applications HTTP and E-mail overthe integration between the two networks. It can be shown the HTTP traffic sent and receivedthroughput is 10 times greater than the E-mail application due to servings.
  • 19. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME495Figure 28: HTTP and Email ApplicationFigure 29 shows the UMTS GMM delay in several cases. It is very clear that thedelay in WLAN is less than that in UMTS.Figure 29: UMTS GMM Delay6. CONCLUSIONSIn this study, we present a performance analysis of various types of wireless networkswith many applications and many types of handoff using OPNET simulator. The OPNETsimulation results show that the superiors of WiMAX performance compared with WLANand UMTS, WiMAX ranked first in maximum throughput followed by WLAN, but inminimum delay WLAN ranked the first and then followed by WiMAX. Also, the simulationresults show the successful implementation and simulation of the deployment of WLAN intoWiMAX and UMTS network by using multiple network interfaces. It found that it is verydifficult to successfully complete the vertical handoff between WLAN-WiMAX and WLAN-UMTS without carefully and accurately engineering the WLAN network due to highlightingthe fundamental different in HWNs.REFERENCES[1] M. Z. A. Syuhadal, Mahamod, Firuz, "Performance Evaluation of Vertical Handoff inFourth Generation (4G) Networks Model", IEEE. pp. 392-398. August 2008.[2] Kim, S.-E.; Copeland, J.A, "TCP for Seamless Vertical Handoff", IEEE GlobalTelecommunications Conference, Vol. 2 pp. 661 – 665, 2003.[3] Mark stemm "Vertical Handoff in Wireless Overlay Networks", international symposiumon mobility managements and wireless access, Vol.7 , No.12, 2006
  • 20. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME496[4] Ben Liang, Ahmed H. Zahran, and Aladdin O.M. Saleh, "Application Signal ThresholdAdaptation for Vertical Handoff in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks", IFIP InternationalFederation for Information, pp. 1193-1205, 2005.[5] Ben Liang, Ahmed H. Zahran and Aladdin Saleh, "Signal Threshold Adaptation for VerticalHandoff in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks", Mobile Network Application, Springer, pp.625-640, 2006.[6] Alkhayat, M. Iyad, "Virtual Wireless Network Service Design and Evaluation", Dissertations,Louisville University, Kentucky, 2009.[7] Farhan Siddiqui, " Mobility Management Techniques For Heterogeneous Wireless Networks",Dissertation, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan, 2007.[8] Akyildiz I. F., Xie J., Mohanty S., “A Survey of Mobility Management in Next-Generation,All-IP based Wireless Systems”, IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, vol. 11, no. 4,pp. 16–28, 2004.[9] Meriem Kassar, Amel Achour, A Mobile-controlled Handover Management Scheme in aLoosely-coupled 3G-WLAN Interworking Architecture, pp. 1-5, IEEE2008.[10] P.Marichamy, S. Chakra.barti and S. L.Maskara, "Overview of Handoff Schemes inCellular Mobile Networks and their Comparative Performance Evaluation", IEEE 1999.[11] Ken-Ichi Itoh, Soichi Watanabe, Takuro Sato, "Performance of Handoff Algorithm Basedon Distance and RSSI Measurements", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol. 51,No. 6, November 2002.[12]Xiaohuan Y, Y.Ahmet S, Sathya N. "a survey of vertical handover decision algorithms infourth generation heterogeneous wireless networks". The International Journal of Computerand Telecommunications Networking, 54(11), 2010, 1848-1863.[13]Mandeep Kaur Gondara and Sanjay Kadam, "Requirements Of Vertical Handoff MechanismIn 4G Wireless Networks", International Journal of Wireless & Mobile Networks (IJWMN)Vol. 3, No. 2, April 2011.[14]Mobile WiMAX, Part I: A Technical Overview and Performance Evaluation,http://www. wimaxforum. orgitechnology/downloads/Mobile WiMAX. Overview andPerformance.pdf[15]Escalera Arredondo, Juan Antonio, "Fast roaming and security reinforcement of WLANsprediction of users trajectory", Dissertation, 2005.[16]Tracy L. Mann, “A Network System Level Simulator for Investigating the Interworking ofWireless LAN and 3G Mobile Systems,” Master’s Thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute andState University, Blacksburg, 2003.[17]J. Scot Ransbottom, "Mobile Wireless System Interworking with 3G and Packet Aggregationfor Wireless LAN", Dissertation, Virginia, April 2004.[18]Arindam Banerjee and Prof. Siladitya Sen, “Statistical Performance Analysis of WirelessCommunication in Public Transports & Improving Performance Through IntegratedHeterogeneous Network”, International Journal of Computer Engineering & Technology(IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 290 - 299, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976– 6375.[19]S. B. Patil, S. M. Deshmukh, Dr. Preeti Patil and Bhargava Shuchita, “Information SystemThrough a Heterogeneous Wireless Technologies and Services: Detect Unwanted Attempts atAccessing, Manipulating, and Disabling by Enforcement of Security”, International Journal ofInformation Technology and Management Information Systems (IJITMIS), Volume 3, Issue 1,2012, pp. 8 - 14, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6405, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6413.S. Sri Gowri, K.Venkata Satya Anvesh, K. Sri Pavan Kumar, “Performance Evaluation ofHandoff Parameters in Mobile Systems”, International Journal of Electronics andCommunication Engineering &Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012,pp. 164 - 170, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472.