1.introduction to research methodology

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1.introduction to research methodology

  1. 1. Introduction to Research Methodology D.A. Asir John Samuel, BSc (Psy), MPT (Neuro Paed), MAc, DYScEd, C/BLS, FAGE
  2. 2. Meaning of ResearchThe systematic method consisting ofenunciating the problem, formulating ahypothesis, collecting the facts or data,analysing the facts and reaching certainconclusion either in the form of solutionstowards the concerned problem or incertain generalisations for sometheoretical formulation. Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 2
  3. 3. Objectives of research• Find out truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered yet• Gain familiarity with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it• Portray accurately the characteristics of a particular individual, situation or a group Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 3
  4. 4. Objectives of research• Determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which it is associated with something else• Test a hypothesis of a casual relationship between variables Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 4
  5. 5. Motivation in research• Research degree along with its consequential benefits• Face the challenge in solving the unsolved problem• Get intellectual joy of doing some creative work• Service to society• Get respectability Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 5
  6. 6. Research approaches• Quantitative approach- Inferential- Experimental- Simulation• Qualitative approach Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 6
  7. 7. Inferential approach• To form a data base from which to infer characteristics or relationships of population• Usually means survey research where a sample of population is studied to determine its characteristics Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 7
  8. 8. Experimental research• Some variables are manipulated to observe their effect on other variables• Much greater control over the research environment Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 8
  9. 9. Simulation approach• Involves construction of an artificial environment within which relevant information and data can be generated Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 9
  10. 10. Qualitative approach• Subjective assessment of,- Attitudes- Opinions- Behaviour• Not subjected to rigorous quantitative analysis Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 10
  11. 11. Criteria of good research• Purpose should be clearly defined• Common concepts to be used• Explain procedure clearly - for continuity• Results should be as objective as possible• Report with frankness- Acknowledge, procedural flaws- Limitations of the study Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 11
  12. 12. Criteria of good research• Appropriate statistical test of significance• Reliable outcome measures• Justify conclusions with data• Limitation of data• Experienced researcher• Systematic• Logical Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 12
  13. 13. Problem encountered by researches in India• Lack of scientific training in methodology of research• Insufficient interaction• Need for generating the confidence that the information/data obtained from a patient will not be misused Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 13
  14. 14. Problem encountered by researches in India• Research studies overlapping one another are undertaken quite often for want of adequate information• Timely and adequate secretarial assistance, including computerial assistance• Library management & functioning is not satisfactory at many places Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 14
  15. 15. Problem encountered by researches in India• Difficulty of timely availability of published data• Problem of conceptualization Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 15
  16. 16. Types of research• Descriptive• Analytical• Applied• Fundamental• Quantitative• Qualitative• Conceptual Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 16
  17. 17. Types of research• Empirical• One-time research / longitudinal• Field-setting research/laboratory/simulation• Clinical / laboratory• Historical• Conclusion oriented• Decision oriented Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 17
  18. 18. Descriptive research• Surveys & fact-finding enquiries• Description of state of affairs as it exists at present• Ex post facto research – social science & business research• Has no control over variables• Can only report what has happened or what is happening Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 18
  19. 19. Analytical research• Has to use facts / information already available• Analyse these to make critical evaluation of material Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 19
  20. 20. Fundamental research• Generalisation• Formulation of a theory• Gaining knowledge for knowledge’s sake is ‘pure’ or ‘basic research• Finding information• E.g. with view to make generalisation about human behaviour Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 20
  21. 21. Applied research• Finding a solution for an immediate problem / for pressing practical problem• Society / industrial / business organisation• Aimed at certain conclusions• Marketing research / evaluation research Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 21
  22. 22. Quantitative research• Based on measurement of quantity or amount• Expressed in terms of quantity Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 22
  23. 23. Qualitative research• Concerned with qualitative phenomenon• Motivation research – an important type• E.g. how people feel or what they think about a particular subject or institution• To discover underlying motives• Seek guidance Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 23
  24. 24. Conceptual research• Related to abstract ideas / theory• To develop new concepts / reinterpret existing ones• That is verified by empirical research Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 24
  25. 25. Empirical research• Data-based research• Relies on experience / observation alone• Verified by observation / experiment• Works to get enough facts to prove / disprove hypothesis• Evidence gathered by this is most powerful support possible for a given hypothesis Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 25
  26. 26. Some other types of research• Cross-sectional research/1 time- Research is confined to a single time-period• Longitudinal research- Carried over several-time periods• Field-setting/laboratory/simulation- Depends upon the environment Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 26
  27. 27. Some other types of research• Clinical research- case-study method• Diagnostic research- In depth approaches to reach basic casual relations• Historical research- Utilizes historical sources like documents, remains, etc Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 27
  28. 28. Research methods• All those methods/techniques that are used for conduction of research• Refer to the methods the researchers use in performing research operations• Method used by the researcher Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 28
  29. 29. Research methods• Put into 3 groups,1. Methods which are concerned with data collection2. Statistical techniques for establishment of relationship b/w data & unknown3. Evaluating the accuracy of results obtained Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 29
  30. 30. Research methodology• A systematic way to solve the research problem• Science of understanding how research is done• Study varies steps adopted by a researcher• Researchers should know the relevant method and which are not Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 30
  31. 31. Research methodologyWhen we talk of RM we not only talk ofthe research methods but also considerthe logic behind the methods we use in thecontext of our research study and explainwhy we are using a particular method andwhy we are not using others, so thatresearch results are capable of beingevaluated by the researcher himself or byothers Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 31
  32. 32. ReferenceResearch Methodology Methods andTechniques (Second Revised Edition), C.R. Kothari(Chapter – 1) Dr. Asir John Samuel (PT), Lecturer, ACP 32

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