International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print),
ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Vo...
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20320140506008

  1. 1. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 73 AN EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON STRENGTH PROPERTIES OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHT WEIGHT AGGREGATE CONCRETE MADE FROM AGRICULTURAL BY PRODUCT SUCH AS WOOD ASH 1 Dr. V.BHASKAR DESAI, 2 K.MALLIKARJUNAPPA, 3 A.SATHYAM, 4 G.RAJKUMAR 1 Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu – 515002, A.P. 2 Dy. Executive Engineer, Dharmavaram Municipality, Dharmavaram – 515671, & Research Scholar, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu – 515002, A.P. 3 Conservation Assistant Gr-I, Archaeological Survey of India, Anantapuramu Sub Circle, Anantapuramu & Research Scholar, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu – 515002, A.P. 4 M.Tech Student, JNTUA College of Engineering, Anantapuramu – 515002, A.P. ABSTRACT Structural lightweight aggregate concrete is an important and versatile material, which offers a range of technical, economic and environmental-enhancing and preserving advantages and is designed to become a dominant material in the new millennium. By the development of economy and increasing production of consumer goods the amount of waste materials is increasing. There exists a serious need for recovery and reuse of industrial and agricultural wastes. Annually different types of wastes are being generated in large quantities from the industries. One of them is wood ash. In this investigation an attempt to convert wood ash into aggregates which can be used as replacements for natural aggregates has been done. The reason for this approach is due to the demand for artificial light weight aggregates while the natural aggregate resource is depleting. Pelletization process is used to manufacture artificial lightweight aggregate using wood ash. A review indicates that studies have not been much reported on the pelletization of wood ash aggregates. In this study, the engineering performance of water cured wood ash pellets including the effect of lime and cement additions for concrete production purposes are investigated and the results obtained are quite satisfactory for the related design requirements. In this present experimental investigation an attempt is made to study the strength properties of light weight aggregate concrete, such as wood ash aggregate concrete. By varying the percentage of wood ash aggregate in concrete replacing the conventional granite aggregate in percentages of 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 by volume/weight of concrete, the properties such as compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity etc., are thought to be studied by casting and testing around 120 samples consisting of 30 plain cube specimens of size (150mm*150mm*150mm), INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIVIL ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJCIET) ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online) Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijciet.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.9290 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJCIET ©IAEME
  2. 2. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 74 60 cylinders of size (150mm*300mm) and 30 beams of size (100mm*100mm*500mm). Present investigation is expected to throw some light on better understanding of various engineering properties of wood ash light weight aggregate concrete. INTRODUCTION The construction industry, one of the largest industries in the world, is notorious for having a major role in depletion of natural raw materials that are used in the production of concrete. Concrete is the major construction material and plays a vital role in the development of current civilization. It is the most used man-made material in the world since its invention. The massive use of concrete as a construction is due to its versatile properties. Properties such as strength, durability, affordability and abundance of raw materials make concrete the first choice material for most of the construction purposes. Increasing amount of industrial by products and Wastes has become a major environmental problem. These by products and wastes are not only difficult to dispose but also they also cause serious health hazards. The main aim of the environmental agencies and governments is to minimize the problems of disposal and health hazards of these wastes and by- products. The productive use of these materials is one of the best ways to alleviate some of the problems of the solid waste management. One of the key solutions is to utilize these wastes in the concrete. Because of the environmental and economical reasons, there has been a growing trend for the use of industrial wastes or by-products as a supplementary material in the production of the concrete. There are several types of industrial wastes or by-products which can be utilized in the concrete either as a replacement of cement or sand or coarse aggregate or as an additive material. Some of these wastes are Wood-ash, Fly Ash, Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag, Metakaolin, Rice husk ash, Groundnut ash, Waste Glass, Plastics etc. Utilization of these wastes enhance the properties of the concrete also. Significant researches have been going on in various parts of the world related to these subjects. Some waste products have established their credential in their usage in concrete while others are in progress for finding the potential applications in concrete and construction industries. This has lead towards the effort of integrating this waste wood-ash as main ingredient in light weight aggregate production thus opening a new horizon in agro concrete research and at the same time offering alternatives to preserve natural coarse aggregate for the use of future generation. Success in incorporating this material as partial coarse aggregate replacement in concrete making would contribute towards reduction in the quantities of wood- ash ending up as waste. PELLETIZING PROCESS The Pelletization process is used to manufacture light weight Coarse aggregate. Some of the parameters that need to be considered for the efficiency of the production of pellets are speed of revolution of pelletizer disc, moisture content, angle of pelletizer disc and duration of Pelletization (HariKrishnan and RamaMurthy, 2006)1 . Usually the different types of pelletizer machines are used in practice to make the pellets such as disc or pan type, drum type, cone type and mixer type. With mixer type pelletizer small grains are formed initially and are subsequently increased. In the cold bonded method, increase of strength of pellets depends on the increase of the lime and cement ratio by weight. Moisture content and angle of drum parameter influence the size growth of pellets. The dosage of binding agent is more important for making the Wood Ash (WA) aggregate balls. Initially some percentage of water is added in the binder and remaining water is sprayed during the rotation period because while rotating without water in the drum, there is a tendency (for Lime & Cement) to form lumps and does not increase the even distribution of particle size. After number of trial mixes
  3. 3. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 75 finally, the mix proportion in percentage of 47:47:6 i.e. pozzolanic material: lime: cement is adopted for further work. The pellets are formed approximately in duration of 6 to 7 minutes. The cold bonded pellets are hardened by normal water curing method for 28 days. Plate 1 shows a view of drum pelletizer used for pelletization. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Etiegni and Campbell (1991) (2) studied the effect of combustion temperature on yield and chemical properties of wood ash. For this investigation, lodge-pole pine saw dust collected from a saw-mill was combusted in an electric furnace at different temperatures for 6–9 hours or until the ash weight became constant. The results showed that wood ash yield decreased by 45% when combustion temperature were increased from about 550–1100◦ C. The average particle size of the wood ash was found to be 230µm. The concentration of potassium, sodium, zinc, and carbonate decreased while concentrations of other metal ions remained constant or increased with increasing temperature. The pH of wood ash was found to vary between 9 and 13.5. Naik TR (1999) (3) determined the physical and chemical properties of wood ashes derived from different mills. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine shape of wood ash particles. The SEM micrographs showed wood ashes as a heterogeneous mixture of particles of varying sizes, which were generally angular in shape. The wood ash consisted of cellular particles, which were unburned, or partially burned wood or bark particles. The average moisture content values for the wood ash studied were about 13% for wood ash and 22% for bottom ash. The average amount of wood ash passing through sieve No.200 (75µm) was 50%. The average amount of wood ash retained on sieve No. 325 (45µm) was about 31% for wood ash. Test results for unit weight or bulk density (ASTM C 29) exhibited average density values of 490 kg/m3 for wood ash and 827 kg/m3 for bottom ash. Wood ash had an average specific gravity value of 2.48. Specific gravity for bottom ash showed an average of 1.65. The average saturated surface dry (SSD) moisture content values were 10.3% for wood ash and 7.5% for bottom ash. The average cement activity index at the age of 28 days for wood ash was about 66% of the control. The average water requirement for wood ash exhibited a value of 116%. Autoclave expansion tests for wood ash exhibited a low average expansion value of 0.2%. Naik TR, Kraus RN (2003) (4) evaluated the wood ashes from five different sources for possible use in making controlled low-strength materials (CLSM). They used wood ashes from five different sources in Wisconsin (USA) and were designated as W1, W2, W3, W4, and W5. ASTM standards do not exist for wood ash. Each source of wood ash exhibited different physical properties. Fineness of the wood ash (% retained on 45µm sieve) varied from 23 to 90%. SourceW1 andW5 met the ASTM requirement for fineness (34% maximum), while sourcesW2, W3 andW4 exceeded the ASTM limit. The strength activity index of the wood ash is a comparison of the compressive strength development of 50mm mortar cubes that have 20% (by mass) replacement of cement with wood ash, with compressive strength of standard cement mortar. Wood ashes W1 and W3 met the strength activity index requirement of ASTM (75% minimum at either 7 or 28 days), while wood ashes W2, W4 and W5 did not meet the requirement. However, sources W1 and W3 satisfied the requirement for natural Pozzolana. The higher water requirement indicated that for concrete and CLSM containing wood ash, more water would be required to produce same slump or flow as compared with the control mixture. Unit weight values of the wood ashes W1, W2, W4, and W5 were 545, 412, 509, and 162 kg/m3 , respectively. These unit weights were significantly less than the unit weight of a typical ASTM Class C or Class F wood ash (approximately 100 to 1300 kg/m3 ). SourceW3 had a unit weight of 1376 kg/m3 . Specific gravity of wood ash sources ranged from 2.26 to 2.60. Specific gravity of wood ash source W1 and W5 was lower than that of a typical coal wood ash (approximately 2.40–2.60).
  4. 4. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 76 Udoeyo FF, Inyang H, Young DT, Oparadu, EE (2006) (5) reported the physical properties of waste wood ash (WWA), used as an additive in concrete. They used wood waste collected from a dump site at the timber market in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The waste was subjected to a temperature of 1000◦ C in an oven to incinerate it into ash before it was used as an additive in concrete. The WWA had a specific gravity of 2.43, a moisture content of 1.81%, and a pH value of 10.48. The average loss on ignition of the ash was found to be 10.46. Abdullahi (2006) (6) determined the properties of wood ash to be used as partial replacement of cement. The wood ash used was powdery, amorphous solid, sourced locally, from a bakery. The wood ash was passed through BS sieve 0.075mm size. The specific gravity of wood ash was found to be 2.13. The bulk density of wood ash was found to be 760 kg/m3 . From the brief literature available on the usage of artificial light weight aggregate in concrete, very limited work is reported. Hence the research in this direction is attempted. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION An experimental study has been conducted on concrete with partial replacement of conventional coarse aggregate i.e., granite by pre soaked light wood ash aggregate i.e., WA aggregate. The test program consists of carrying out compressive tests on cubes, split tensile tests on cylinders, modulus of elasticity tests on cylinders, flexural strength on beam elements. Analysis of the results has been done to investigate effect of WA aggregate on the compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural strength and modulus of elasticity properties. Variations of various combinations have been studied. MIX DESIGN OF CONCRETE The concrete mix has been designed for M20 grade concrete using ISI method. The mix proportion obtained is 1:1.55:3.04 with constant water cement ratio 0.50. DESCRIPTION OF CONSTITUENT MATERIALS AND PROPERTIES USED IN THE INVESTIGATION Table 1. Properties of Materials Sl.No Name of the material Properties of material Result 1 OPC – 53 Grade Specific Gravity 3.07 Initial setting time 60 min Final Setting time 489 min Fineness 4 % Normal consistency 33.50 % 2 Fine Aggregate passing 4.75mm sieve Specific Gravity 2.60 Fineness modulus 3.24 3 WA Aggregate passing 20 – 10 mm Specific Gravity 1.68 Fineness modulus 4.50 Bulk density in Loose 890 kg/m3 Bulk density compacted 1030 kg/m3 4 Natural Aggregate passing 20 – 10 mm Specific Gravity 2.68 Fineness modulus 4.63 Bulk density compacted 1620 kg/m3 Bulk density loose 1480 kg/m3 5 Water Locally available potable water which is free from concentration of acids and organic substances has been used in this work. A view of the constituent materials used is presented in plate 2.
  5. 5. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 77 MIXING, CASTING AND CURING In this present investigation it is aimed to study the different strength variations by modifying the conventional concrete with WA aggregate. It is added to concrete in percentages of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% & 100% by volume of concrete and designated as mixes WA-0, WA-25, WA-50, WA-75 & WA-100 respectively. Hence cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, i.e., Granite and WA aggregate in required percentages are calculated and then mixed. Required quantity of water is added to this and mixed thoroughly by hand mixing. WA aggregate is added to concrete in 5 different volumetric fractions to prepare five different mixes which are designated as follows: Super plasticizer was not used due to use of pre wetted WA aggregate. To proceed with the experimental program initially all the moulds of size 150x150x150 mm and cylinders of size 150mm diameter, 300mm height and beams of size 100x100x500mm were taken and these moulds were cleaned and were brushed with machine oil on all inner faces to facilitate easy removal of specimens afterwards. To start with, all the materials were weighed in the ratio of 1:1.55:3.04. First fine aggregate and cement were added and mixed thoroughly and then granite coarse aggregate and partially replaced pre wetted WA aggregate was mixed in required volume and proportion. All of these were mixed thoroughly by hand mixing. Table 2. Details of Specimens Name of the Mix Percentage by volume of natural coarse aggregate and wood ash aggregate No of specimens cast WA -0 100 0 24 WA -25 75 25 24 WA -50 50 50 24 WA -75 25 75 24 WA -100 0 100 24 Total specimens 120 Each time 3 plain cubes of size 150 x 150 x 150mm, 3 flexure beams of size 500 x 100 x 100mm and 6 cylinders of size 150mm diameter & 300mm height were cast. The cast specimens are shown in plate 3. For all test specimens, moulds were kept on the vibrating table and the concrete was poured into the moulds in three layers each layer being compacted thoroughly with tamping rod to avoid honey combing. Finally all specimens were vibrated on the table vibrator after filling up the moulds up to the brim. The vibration was effected for 7 seconds and it was maintained constant for all specimens and all other castings. However the specimens were demolded after 24 hours of casting and were kept immersed in a clean water tank for curing. After 28 and 90 days of curing the specimens were taken out of water and were allowed to dry under shade for few hours. For each age of curing at least 3-specimens were cast for each variable. Here specimens were cured and tested after 90 days of curing to observe the strength behavior after 3 months. TESTING OF SPECIMENS A) Plain Cube Specimens The compression test on the plain cubes was conducted on 3000 KN digital compression testing machine. The plain cube specimens were placed in the compression testing machine such that load was applied centrally. The top plate of the testing machine
  6. 6. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 78 was brought into contact with the surface of the plain cube specimen to enable loading. The cube test results are presented in table 3. B) Split Tensile Strength Test on Cylinders The cylindrical specimen was kept horizontally between the compressive plates of the testing machine. The load was applied uniformly until the cylinder fails, the loads related to ultimate load are recorded. This test was conducted for cylinders with different WA aggregate additions. The split tensile strength was calculated by the standard formula. Split tensile strength ( ft) = ଶ௉ గ஽௅ Where P = Maximum load in Newton D = Diameter of the cylinder in mm L = Length of the cylinder in mm The results are presented in table 4. C) Testing Of Beams for Flexural Strength The loading arrangement to test the specimens for flexure is as follows. The element was simply supported over the span of 500mm. The specimen was checked for its alignment longitudinally and adjusted if necessary. Required packing was given using rubber packing. Care is taken to ensure that two loading points at the same level. The loading was applied on the specimen using 15 ton pre-calibrated proving ring at regular intervals. The load was transmitted to the element through the I- section and two 16mm diameter rods were placed at 166.67mm from each support. For each increment of loading the deflection at the centre and at 1/3rd points of beam were recorded using dial gauge. Continuous observations were made. Before the ultimate stage the deflection meters were removed and the process of load application was continued. As the load was increased the cracks got widened and extended to top and finally the specimen collapsed in flexure. At this stage the load was recorded as the ultimate load. Making use of the above data flexural strength was calculated using the following formula. Flexural strength (f) = ࡹ ࢆ in N/mm2 Where M = Bending moment in N.mm Z = ࡵ ࢟ = Section modulus in mm3 The results have been tabulated in table 9 and graphical variations have been studied. DISCUSSION OF TEST RESULTS 1) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Cube Compressive Strength In the present study, WA aggregate has been added in the volumetric percentages of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% replacing the natural conventional granite aggregate. The corresponding cube compressive strengths at 28 days and 90 days are presented in table 3. The variation of compressive strengths and percentage of increase or decrease verses percentage of WA aggregate addition are shown in fig 1 for 28 days and 90 days. From the above figs, it may be observed that with the addition of WA aggregate the cube compressive strength decreases continuously up to 100% replacement of Granite by WA aggregate, but more than the target mean strength of M20 concrete has been achieved even when the natural granite aggregate is replaced with 25% of WA aggregate as tabulated in table 3 for 90 days curing period and the design strength of M20 concrete is achieved when replaced with 25% of WA aggregate as tabulated in table 3 for 28 days.
  7. 7. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 79 2) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Split Tensile Strength With the increase in percentage of replacement of granite by WA aggregate, the percentage of decrease of split tensile strength is found to increase continuously up to 100% as shown in fig 2 for 28 days and for 90 days. These are presented in table 4 for 28 days and for 90 days. 3) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Density The variation of density and percentage of increase or decrease in density verses percentage of WA aggregate added are presented in fig 3 for 28 days and for 90 days. The results are tabulated in table 5. From the above figs and tables, it may be observed that with the addition of WA Aggregate the density of the specimens decreases continuously up to 100% replacement of Granite by WA Aggregate. Also the density increases with the increase of the age. 4) Influence of Wa Aggregate On Modulus of Elasticity In this investigation E value has been calculated using two approaches. In the first approach for calculating young’s modulus I.S.Code formula7 , has been used because of the absence of specific formula for light weight concrete. Ec = 5000√fck N/mm2 Where fck = 28 days characteristic compressive strength in N/mm2 Secondly an another formula suggested by Takafumi Naguchi et.al8 is used, which is given below. Ec = k1 x k2 (1.486 x 10-3 ) x σb ⅓ x γ2 N/mm². where k1 = correction factor for coarse aggregate i.e. 0.95 k2 = correction factor for mineral admixture i.e. 1.026 σb = compressive strength of concrete in MPa. γ = Density of concrete in kg/m The modulus of elasticity results with various percentage replacements of natural aggregate by WA Aggregate are presented in table 6 for 28 days and 90 days respectively. From the results it is observed that modulus of elasticity has been decreasing with an increase in replacement of natural granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. It is also observed that the modulus of elasticity values are in satisfactory agreement with those calculated using both the empirical formula. Fig 4 shows the variation of E value versus percentage of WA for 28 days and 90 days. It also shows that E value increases with the age i.e. from 28 to 90 days. 5) Influence of Wa Aggregate on Flexural Strength Concrete as we know is relatively strong in compression and weak in tension. In reinforced concrete members, little dependence is placed on the tensile strength of concrete since steel reinforcing bars are provided to resist all tensile forces. However; tensile stresses are likely to develop in concrete due to drying shrinkage, rusting of steel reinforcement, temperature gradients and many other reasons. Therefore, the knowledge of tensile strength of concrete is of importance. Flexural strength of beams of size 500x100x100mm with various percentage replacements of natural aggregate by WA aggregate are presented in the table 9 for 28 days and 90 days. From the results it is observed that flexural strength of beams has been decreasing with an increase in replacement of natural granite aggregate with WA aggregate. In addition flexural strength of beams is calculated based on the I.S.code empherical formula 0.70ඥ݂ܿ݇. These values are presented in the table 9 and the graphical representation is shown in fig 5. Both the results are found to be in satisfactory agreement with each other.
  8. 8. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 80 6) Influence of Wood Ash Aggregate Concrete on Ratio of Cube To Cylinder Compressive Strength The ratios of cylinder compressive strength to cube compressive strength for various percentage replacements of granite aggregate by wood ash aggregate are as shown in fig 6 for both 28 and 90 days curing periods. These are presented in table 7 & 8. From these tables of results by and large it may be observed that the ratios of cube to cylinder compressive strength are more than 1.50 times for both the curing periods, and there is much variation is observed for all percentages of WA aggregates for both the curing periods. TABLE 3: Comparision of Cube Compressive Strength Results Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Compressive strength (N/mm2 ) Percentage of increase or decrease in compressive strength w.r.t WA-0 Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate 28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days 1. WA-0 100 0 41.08 47.39 0.00 0.00 2. WA-25 75 25 20.93 35.02 -49.05 -23.21 3. WA-50 50 50 16.93 18.74 -58.79 -60.46 4. WA-75 25 75 13.32 14.93 -67.58 -68.50 5. WA-100 0 100 9.11 13.53 -77.82 -71.45 Table 4: Comparision of Split Tensile Strength Results Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Split tensile strength (N/mm2 ) Percentage of increase or decrease in Split tensile strength w.r.t WA-0 Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate 28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days 1. WA-0 100 0 3.58 4.00 0.00 0.00 2. WA-25 75 25 3.55 3.90 -0.84 -2.50 3. WA-50 50 50 2.69 2.79 -24.86 -30.25 4. WA-75 25 75 1.89 2.37 -47.21 -48.50 5. WA-100 0 100 1.50 1.94 -58.10 -62.00 Table 5: Comparision of Density Results Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Density (Kg/m3 ) Percentage of increase or decrease in density w.r.t WA-0 Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate 28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days 1. WA-0 100 0 2279.01 2452.35 0.00 0.00 2. WA-25 75 25 2226.91 2324.44 -2.29 -5.22 3. WA-50 50 50 2202.96 2205.43 -3.34 -10.07 4. WA-75 25 75 1988.15 2125.93 -12.76 -13.31 5. WA-100 0 100 1896.30 1981.33 -17.10 -22.67
  9. 9. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 81 Table 6: Comparision of Young’s Modulus Results Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Young’s modulus E=k1*k2*1.486*10-3 *σb ⅓ *γ2 (N/mm²) x 104 k1=0.95, k2=1.026 Young’s modulus (*104 N/mm2 ) Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate 28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days 1. WA-0 100 0 2.60 3.15 3.20 3.20 2. WA-25 75 25 2.14 2.51 2.29 2.29 3. WA-50 50 50 1.70 1.85 2.06 2.06 4. WA-75 25 75 1.60 1.74 1.82 1.82 5. WA-100 0 100 1.34 1.66 1.51 1.51 Table 7: Ratio of Cube Compressive Strength To Cylinder Compressive Strength (28 Days) Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Compressive strength (N/mm2 ) Ratio of cube to cylinder compressive strength Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate Cylinder Cube 1. WA-0 100 0 28.01 41.08 1.47 2. WA-25 75 25 12.60 25.53 2.02 3. WA-50 50 50 12.34 24.80 2.00 4. WA-75 25 75 11.45 21.62 1.89 5. WA-100 0 100 9.53 18.43 1.93 Table 8: Ratio of Cube Compressive Strength To Cylinder Compressive Strength (90 Days) Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Compressive strength (N/mm2 ) Ratio of cube to cylinder compressive strength Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate Cylinder Cube 1. WA-0 100 0 27.11 47.39 1.74 2. WA-25 75 25 18.73 35.02 1.86 3. WA-50 50 50 17.07 26.93 1.58 4. WA-75 25 75 16.81 23.85 1.42 5. WA-100 0 100 12.77 20.76 1.62 Table 9: Comparision of Flexural Strength Results Sl. No Name of the mix Percentage replacement of coarse aggregate Flexural strength as per I.S.code (fth) (N/mm2 ) Flexural Strength (fex) in N/mm2 Natural aggregate Pelletized WA aggregate 28 Days 90 Days 28 Days 90 Days 1. WA-0 100 0 4.49 4.82 6.83 7.35 2. WA-25 75 25 3.20 4.03 3.68 4.22 3. WA-50 50 50 2.80 2.88 3.03 3.50 4. WA-75 25 75 2.45 2.55 2.70 2.98 5. WA-100 0 100 2.10 2.28 2.13 2.57
  10. 10. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 82 Plate 1. Drum Pelletizer Plate 2. Constituent Materials Plate 3. Specimens after Moulding in Green State Plate 4. Spcimens Curing Pond Plate 5. Test Set Up of Cube Compressive Strength (Before Testing) Plate 6. Test Set Up Of Cube Compressive Strength (After Testing)
  11. 11. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 83 Plate 7. Test Set Up of Split Tensile Strength (Before Testing) Plate 8. Test Set Up of Split Tensile Strength (After Testing) Plate 9. Test Set Up of Flexural Strength (Before Testing) Plate 10. Test Set Up of Flexural Strength (After Testing) Plate 11. Test Set Up of Cylinder Compressive Strength (Before Testing) Plate 12. Test Set Up of Cylinder Compressive Strength (After Testing)
  12. 12. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 84 Fig 1. Superimposed Variation between Cube Compressive Strength and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate 0 25 50 75 100 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 SplitTensilestrength % age of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate 28 days 90 days Scale X-axis 1 unit = 25% Y-axis 1 unit = 0.5 N/Sqmm Fig 2. Superimposed Variation between Split Tensile Strength and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate 0 25 50 75 100 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 2200 2250 2300 2350 2400 2450 2500 Density % of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate 28 Days 90 Days Scale X-axis 1 unit = 25% Y-axis 1 unit = 100 Kg/m 3 Fig 3. Superimposed Variation between Density and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate
  13. 13. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 85 0 25 50 75 100 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 Young'sModulusN/mm2) % of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate IS Code Formula Emperical Formula 90 days Scale X-axis 1 unit = 25% Y-axis 1 unit = 5000N/mm 2 Fig 4. Superimposed Variation between Young’s Modulus and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate 0 25 50 75 100 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 FlexuralStrength % age of Wood Ash aggregate replacing Natural aggregate 28 days 90 days Scale X-axis 1 unit = 25% Y-axis 1 unit = 0.5 N/Sqmm Fig 5. Superimposed Variation Between Flexural and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate Fig 6. Superimposed Variation between Ratio of Cylinder Strength to Cube Strength and Percentage of Pelletized Wa Aggregate Replacing Natural Aggregate 0 25 50 75 100 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 RatioofCylinderstrengthtoCubestrength Percentage of pelletized GSA aggregate replacing natural aggregate 28 Days 90 Days Scale x-axis 1 Unit = 25% y-axis 1 Unit = 0.05
  14. 14. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET), ISSN 0976 – 6308 (Print), ISSN 0976 – 6316(Online), Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 73-86 © IAEME 86 CONCLUSIONS From the limited experimental study carried out in this investigation the following conclusions are seem to be valid. 1) From the study it may be concluded that the cube compressive strength has been observed to decrease continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. 2) From the study it may be concluded that the split strength has been observed to decrease continuously with the increase in percent age of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. 3) From the study it may be concluded that the young’s modulus has been observed to decrease continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. 4) From the study it may be concluded that the density has been observed to decrease continuously with the increase in percentage of WA Aggregate i.e., from 0 to 100% replacement of Granite aggregate by WA Aggregate. 5) The modulus of elasticity values calculated from experimentation and theoretical formulae are found to be more or less in satisfactory agreement. 6) The flexural strength is found to decrease continuously with the percentage increase in WA aggregate content. The flexural strength values calculated through experimentation are found to be slightly more than those calculated through empherical formula. 7) From the study it is concluded that the density has been increased with increase in curing period 8) From the study it is concluded that the compressive strength, split tensile strength, young’s modulus, flexural strength are all increasing with increase in curing period. REFERENCE 1) Harikrishnan KI, Ramamurthy (2006). Influence of Pelletization Process on the Properties of Fly Ash Aggregates. Waste Manag., 26: 846-852.. 2) Etiegni L, Campbell AG (1991), “Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Wood Ash”, Bio-resource Technology, Elsevier Science Publishers Ltd., Vol.37, No.2, Pp.173–178. 3) Naik TR (1999), “Tests of Wood Ash as a Potential Source for Construction Materials”, UWM Centre for By-Products Utilization, Report No.CBU-1999-09, Pp.61. 4) Naik, T R Kraus, R N (2003), “A New Source of Pozzolanic Material”, American Concrete Institute, ISSN: 0162-4075, OCLC: 4163061, Vol.25, No.12, Pp.55-62. 5) Udoeyo FF, Inyang H, Young DT, Oparadu, EE (2006), “Potential of Wood Waste Ash as an Additive on Infrastructural Development and the Environment”, University of Philippines, Building Materials, Vol. 23, Pp 2641-2646. 6) M.Abdullahi (2006), “Characteristics of Wood ash/Opc concrete”, Leenardo Electronics Journal of Practices and Technology, ISSN 1583-1078, Issue No.8, Pp. 9-16. 7) I.S.Code 456-2000 “Code of practice for plain and reinforced concrete” Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. 8) Takafumi Noguchi, et.al (2009) “ A Practical Equation for Elastic Modulus of Concrete”. ACI structural journal/Sept-Oct 2009, technical paper title no. 106-SXX. 9) Dr. V. Bhaskar Desai, A. Sathyam and S. Rameshreddy, “Some Studies on Mode-Ii Fracture of Artificial Light Weight Silica Fume Pelletized Aggregate Concrete” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 5, Issue 2, 2014, pp. 33 - 51, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6316.

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