A battery charging system & appended zcs (pwm) resonant converter dc dc buck technique for battery charger to yield efficient performance in charging shaping
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A battery charging system & appended zcs (pwm) resonant converter dc dc buck technique for battery charger to yield efficient performance in charging shaping

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This paper presents technique for battery charger to achieve efficient performance in charging shaping, ...

This paper presents technique for battery charger to achieve efficient performance in charging shaping,
minimum low switching losses and reduction in circuit volume .The operation of circuit charger is switched
with the technique of zero-current-switching, resonant components and append the topology of dc-dc buck.
The proposed novel dc-dc battery charger has advantages with the simplicity, low cost, high efficiency and
with the behaviour of easy control under the ZCS condition accordingly reducing the switching losses. The
detailed study of operating principle and design consideration is performed. A short survey of battery
charging system, capacity demand & its topologies is also presented. In order to compute LC resonant pair
values in conventional converter, the method of characteristic curve is used and electric function equations
are derived from the prototype configuration. The efficient performance of charging shaping is confirmed
through the practical examines and verification of the results is revealed by the MATLAB simulation. The
efficiency is ensured about 89% which is substantially considered being satisfactory performance as
achieved in this paper.

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A battery charging system & appended zcs (pwm) resonant converter dc dc buck technique for battery charger to yield efficient performance in charging shaping Document Transcript

  • 1. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 15 A BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & APPENDED ZCS (PWM) RESONANT CONVERTER DC-DC BUCK: TECHNIQUE FOR BATTERY CHARGER TO YIELD EFFICIENT PERFORMANCE IN CHARGING SHAPING IrfanJamil*1 , Zhao Jinquan2 , Rehan Jamil3 , Rizwan Jamil4 and Abdus Samee5 1 ,2 Department of Energy & Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing, China 1 irfan.edu.cn@gmail.com 3 School of Physics & Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, China 3 ch.rehan.jamil@gmail.com 4 Heavy Mechanical Complex (HMC-3) Taxila, Rawalpindi, Pakistan 4 rizy951@gmail.com 5 Chashma Centre of Nuclear Training, PAEC, Pakistan 5 drabdussameepk@yahoo.com ABSTRACT This paper presents technique for battery charger to achieve efficient performance in charging shaping, minimum low switching losses and reduction in circuit volume .The operation of circuit charger is switched with the technique of zero-current-switching, resonant components and append the topology of dc-dc buck. The proposed novel dc-dc battery charger has advantages with the simplicity, low cost, high efficiency and with the behaviour of easy control under the ZCS condition accordingly reducing the switching losses. The detailed study of operating principle and design consideration is performed. A short survey of battery charging system, capacity demand & its topologies is also presented. In order to compute LC resonant pair values in conventional converter, the method of characteristic curve is used and electric function equations are derived from the prototype configuration. The efficient performance of charging shaping is confirmed through the practical examines and verification of the results is revealed by the MATLAB simulation. The efficiency is ensured about 89% which is substantially considered being satisfactory performance as achieved in this paper. KEYWORDS ZCS, PWM Resonant Converter, dc-dc Buck, Battery Charger 1. INTRODUCTION In recent years, with the enhancement of power electronics technology and control strategies in power electronics devices coupled with the increasing demand of high efficiency in battery charger system has invoked enormous attention from the research scholars around the world. Battery charger system technology is currently being incorporated in urban industrial areas to maintain with these demands lot of work is on towards. Therefore, many battery chargers with different ratings and functionalities are being developed for high output efficiency since few
  • 2. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 16 years. The battery charger usually works to globalize the energy saving and to serve in fast transportation systems. The use of battery charger brings convince life solution during the traveling from urban to rural areas. Many techniques were fetched out by the scientists since battery charger device was developed for renewable energy generation, electronic communication power supplies, electric vehicles, UPS or an uninterruptible power supplies, PV systems and portable electronics products. Many charging methods have been developed to improve the battery charger efficiency in the last few decades. In order to achieving high efficiency in battery charger, append the traditional battery charger with the technique of ZCS ( Zero-Current- Switching) resonant buck topology which delivered the efficient performance in charging shaping[11-12-13-14]. This work looks at the issues which associates ZCS PWM (Zero-Current-Switching Pulse width Modulation) converter, buck topology with the battery charger. This paper develops a novel high- efficiency battery charger with ZCS PWM buck topology which has simple circuit structure, low switching losses, easy control and high charging efficiencies [1-3]. Zero Current Switching resonant buck converter is analyzed and mode of operation is also studied. Various waveforms & charging curve period were noted down during the piratical examine using MATLAB software. The curve of charging efficiency during the charging period shows 89% charging output efficiency of novel proposed prototype. Fig.1 Block Diagram for the Proposed Novel Battery Charger 2. BATTERY CHARGERING SYSTEM & CAPACITY DEMAND Today’s most modern electrical appliances receive their power directly right away the utility grid. Many devices are being developed everyday which requires electrical power from the batteries in order to achieve large mobility and greater convenience. The battery charger system utilizes the battery by working to recharge the battery when its energy has been drained. The uses rechargeable batteries include everything from low-power cell phones to high-power industrial fork lifts, and other construction equipment. Many of these products are used everyday around-the-clock commonly in offices, schools, and universities, urban and
  • 3. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 17 civilian areas [8-9]. In fig. 2 shows that the Battery Capacities of Various Battery-Powered Devices which are used in different rate of watt per hours level in cell phones, laptops, power tools, forklifts and golf crafts etc.[10]. Fig.2 Battery Capacities of Various Battery-Powered Devices A battery charger system is a system which uses energy drawn from the grid, stores it in an electric battery, and releases it to power device. While engineers are used modern techniques to usually design the battery charger systems, which maximize the energy efficiency of their devices to make certain long functioning & operation time between charging; however they often neglect how much energy is used in the conversion process of ac electrical power into dc electrical power stored in the battery from the utility grid. Apparently, energy savings can be possible if the conversion losses are reduced which associated with the charging batteries in battery-powered products & output voltage can be controlled via switching frequency. We can achieve these savings using different techniques including battery charger topology that is readily available today and is being employed in existing products. The same technique and topology is discussed in this paper which increases the efficient performance in charging shaping of novel battery charger.
  • 4. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 18 Fig.3Structure of a multi- piece battery charger system. The efficiency calculation is made over a 24 hour charge and maintenance period and a 0.2C discharge for the battery. (Prepared for California Energy Commission Contract by EPRI Solution Ltd.,) [10]. 3. METHODS OF BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM & ITS TOPOLOGIES Methods of efficiency improvements in battery charger systems in use today have substantially lower possibilities due to a lack of cognitive skills in the charger and battery which commonly consume more electricity than the product they power. The energy savings are achieved in millions of battery charger systems that are presently in operation worldwide by reducing inefficiencies in charger and battery. Battery charger systems work in three modes of operation. In charge mode of operation, the battery is accumulating the charge while the maintenance mode of operation occurs when battery is fully charged and charger is only started to supply energy to undermine the natural discharge. No-battery mode of operation shows that the battery has been physically disconnected from the charger [8-9]. Fig.4SwitchModeBatteryChargerPowerVisibility
  • 5. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 19 There are lots of methods which are recognized to achieve the higher efficiency in battery charger systems, including: • Higher voltage systems • Switch mode power supplies • Synchronous rectification • Improved semiconductor switches • Lithium-ion batteries • Charge and discharge at lower current rate • Off-grid charger when no battery is present. Topologies Normal Efficiency Range(%) Estimated Improved Efficiency Range (%) Switch Mode 40%- 60% 50%- 70% SCR 30%- 55% 45%- 60% Ferro resonant 25%-50% 45%-55% Linear 2%- 30% 20%- 40% TABLE: 1 Efficiency improvements in charger topologies Table.1 show that the efficiencies of normal and improved range are measured less than 15%, comparable systems with overall efficiencies of 65% or greater are technically feasible in charger topologies for battery charger system. The linear and switch mode chargers are analogous to linear and switch mode power supplies with the exception that the charger topologies also incorporate charge control circuitry on their outputs. Most multi- or single-piece chargers are either linear or switch mode chargers. These two categories are found commonly in consumer applications, particularly in the residential public sector. Ferro-resonant and SCR(silicon controlled rectifier) battery chargers form a large percentage of the chargers utilized in developed industrial applications [10]. This paper provides basic idea about the method of use of switch mode power supplies such as dc-dc converters are considered as they can achieve higher efficiency in battery charger scheme.
  • 6. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 4. CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERY CHARGER The circuit analysis describes the study of ZCS converter and the circuit is proposed as Novel Modulationconverter dc-dc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of the said circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalized voltage gain are also obtained. 4.1. ZCS Resonant Buck Converter Buck ZCSresonant converters are used for resolving the high reducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control the output voltage via switching frequency. converters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductor resonant capacitor C୰that the resonance flows across the switch. switch S, resonant components inductor The resonant converters are usually which and capacitors to enable the switch to achieve Voltage Switching)went under resonance conditions effective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problems 6-7-8]. The advantages of ZCS converters are that they have l the EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) over the switching elements MOSFETs. Fig.5 Traditional ZCS Resonant Buck Converter This paper develops a novel battery charger append with ZCS PWM converter dc novel circuit contains auxiliary switch capacitor rC and forward diode Ds [1-3-5]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is not available. Without energy source battery ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERY The circuit analysis describes the study of ZCS (Zero Current Switching) Resonant buck converter and the circuit is proposed as Novel Zero Current Switching Pulse width dc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of the said circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalized ZCS Resonant Buck Converter Buck ZCSresonant converters are used for resolving the high-switching frequency losses, reducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control the g frequency. The switches of Zero-Current Switching resonant converters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductor that the resonance flows across the switch. The resonant circuit holds a S, resonant components inductor L୰ and capacitorC୰. The resonant converters are usually which contains the serial or parallel connections of inductors to enable the switch to achieve the ZCS (Zero Current Switching)& Voltage Switching)went under resonance conditions. The produces the occurring result of effective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problems converters are that they have low switching losses, can eliminate (Electromagnetic Interference) problems, easy control of the switches and low stress over the switching elements MOSFETs. Traditional ZCS Resonant Buck Converter This paper develops a novel battery charger append with ZCS PWM converter dc- novel circuit contains auxiliary switch 1S which is connected in the serious with the resonant Ds is placed as parallel to the auxiliary switch 1S as shown in fig. 6 5]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is not available. Without energy source battery can’t recharge and charging method is replenished the ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 20 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS DESCRIPTION FOR NOVEL BATTERY Resonant buck Zero Current Switching Pulse width dc buck for battery charger [5]. The various Modes of operations of the said circuit are analyzed. As well as output voltage of the battery charger and the normalized switching frequency losses, reducing the circuit volume and controlling the switches with ease. Therefore, they control the Current Switching resonant converters turn ON &OFF at zero current due to the current produced by resonant inductorL୰ and The resonant circuit holds a contains the serial or parallel connections of inductors the ZCS (Zero Current Switching)& ZVS (Zero The produces the occurring result of effective switching losses, switching stress and EMI (Electromagnetic Interference) problems[4- ow switching losses, can eliminate problems, easy control of the switches and low stress -dc buck. The which is connected in the serious with the resonant as shown in fig. 6 5]. In general way, battery is disabled to work for recharging if the energy source is not can’t recharge and charging method is replenished the
  • 7. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supply to load. This study keeps the idea to dev Fig.6 Proposed a Novel ZCS PWM Converter dc 4.2. Mode of Operation The operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. The equivalent circuit of novel charger is respectively as shown in fig. 8 [2]. Fig.7 Equivalent Circuit of ZCS PWM Converter dc Mode 1 ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supply to load. This study keeps the idea to develop a ZCS PWM battery charger [15-16]. Proposed a Novel ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buck for Battery Charger The operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. The equivalent circuit of novel charger is shown in fig. 7 and modes are fatherly divided into 5 modes respectively as shown in fig. 8 [2]. Equivalent Circuit of ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buck de 1 Mode 2 ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 21 energy, to ensure that battery operates continuously; enabling it provides a normal power supply dc Buck for Battery Charger The operation of novel battery charger circuit is divided into various modes of operations. The shown in fig. 7 and modes are fatherly divided into 5 modes Mode 2
  • 8. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Mode 4 Mode 5 Fig.8 Modes of operation of ZCS PWM Converter dc Mode 1: 0 1 1 r t dc L I t E ∆ = = Mode 2: 2 2 1 1( ) tt t t∆ = − = ∆ Mode3: 3 3 2 0 1 ( ) sint t t ω   ∆ = − = +    Mode4: ( ) {4 4 3 3 2 0 1 cosr rC V t t t t t I ∆ = − = − − Mode5: 5 1 2 3 4St T t t t t∆ = − ∆ −∆ − ∆ − ∆ The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltage throughout the freewheeling diode as is given by ( ) (0 1 2 1 3 2 4 3 1 2dc s E t t t t t t t E T   = + − + − + −    ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Mode 3 Mode 4 Mode 5 Modes of operation of ZCS PWM Converter dc-dc Buck 1 0 0 ( ) sin dc I Z E −    ∆ = − = +      D ( ) }4 4 3 3 21 cos ot t t t tω∆ = − = − −   5 1 2 3 4t T t t t t∆ = − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ − ∆ The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltage throughout the freewheeling diode as is given by ) ( )2 1 3 2 4 3t t t t t t   = + − + − + −    ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 22 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) The output Voltage gain of novel charger can be determined from the voltage Dmv (6)
  • 9. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 23 4.3. Normalized Voltage Gain The normalized voltage gain is derived by the substituting the operating modes of proposed novel Zero Current Switching resonant buck converter battery charger into output voltage of novel charger. The normalized voltage equation is gained by substituting number the equations (1), (2), (3) and (4) into (6) 1 10 0 0 0 3 1 sin 1 cos sin 2 2 rr S dc E C RL M M M f E R f Q M Q − −            = + + + − +                    D D D (7) [ ]0 0 0 3 1 1 cos 2 2 rr S C QZL M M f QZ f M α α   = + + −   D (8) [ ] 3 2 1 cos 2 ns M Q M f Q M α α   = + + −    D (9) The efficiency of novel battery charger is given by ( ) ( ) 0 0 0 1 . sT s s r t E I V T iL t dt η =        ∫ (10) 5. DESIGN CONSIDERATION A lead-acid battery rated @ 12 V, 48 A h with an internal resistance of 0.1 ohm is used as a load under investigates of practical examine. The battery first discharges to 13 V, and then charge to 16 V. The circuit charger components values are fixed as follows: input voltage 21VSV = , output voltage 0 16VV = , output current 0 7AI = , switching frequency 84Sf kHz= , 0.7nsf = chosen from the fig. 9 based on the normalized voltage gain 0 16 21 0.76dcM E E= = = . Normalized load characteristic curve of novel ZCS resonant buck converter for battery charger is obtained by using MATLAB. The values of 0f and rC can be calculated fatherly by determining the resonant frequency 0f and obtaining for fixed switching frequency choosing the power quality factor Q from the fig.9 as well.
  • 10. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Fig.9 Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery charger The output impedance can be calculated from the output voltage given as 0 0 0 16 / 7 2.285 E R I = = = The characteristic impedance is computed 0 2.285R = Ω , 1Q = 0 0 2.285 1 2.285Z R Q= = = Ω The resonant frequency is calculated from switching frequency and and set is based on normalized voltage gain. 0 /s nsf f f= 84 / 0.7 120kHz kHz= = (14) The LC-resonant pair will be der design parameters. The resonant inductor rL is given by 0 0 r Z L ω = ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery charger calculated from the output voltage 0E and the output current The characteristic impedance is computed as given 2.285 1 2.285= = = Ω The resonant frequency is calculated from switching frequency and nsf chosen from the Fig. 9 and set is based on normalized voltage gain. 84 / 0.7 120kHz kHz resonant pair will be derived for which fatherly computing the LC-filter pairs of novel is given by ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 24 Normalized Load Characteristics curve (Versus M and fns) for novel battery charger and the output current 0I is (11) (12) (13) chosen from the Fig. 9 filter pairs of novel
  • 11. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 25 0 3 0 2.285 3.00 2 *120*10 r Z L Hµ ω λ = = = (15) The resonant capacitance rC is given by 3 0 0 1 1 0.58 2.285*2 *120*10 rC F Z µ ω λ = = = (16) LC- filter pairs of ZCS battery charger are set as follows 0 100 300rL L Hµ= = (17) 0 100 58rC C Fµ= = (18) Table.2 presents the experimental circuit parameters& values for the developed novel high- efficiency battery charger with a buck ZCS PWM converter. A deign circuit parameters are considered & listed below in Table. 2 for practical examine [3]. Table.2 ZCS buck novel charger The duty cycle is determined by using the parameters from above Table. 2 PARAMETER VALUES Input Voltage dcE 21V Output Charging Voltage 0E 16V Resonant Inductor rL 3.0µH Resonant Capacitor rC 0.58µF Switching Frequency sf 84kHz Resonant Frequency 0f 120kHz Filter Inductor 0L 300 µH Filter Capacitor 0C 58 µF Output Charging Current 0I 7A
  • 12. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 26 1 6 0 1 2.285*10 *7 0.760 21 r t dc L I t s E µ − ∆ = = = = (19) 2 1 0.760t t sµ∆ = ∆ = (20) 22 1 1.52tt t sµ= ∆ + = (21) 1 3 3 2 3 1 7*2.285 ( ) sin 5.497 2 *120*10 21 t t t sµ−   ∆ = − = + =      D D (22) 3 3 2 5.497 1.52 7.017tt t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (Disruption time for switches S and S1) (23) Total time period is computed as given ( )3 1 1 84*10 11.904s sT f sµ= = = (24) Duty Cycle 5.497 11.904 0.461ON SD t f s sµ µ= = = (25) The discharging time interval of capacitor is calculated as ( ) { } 6 3 6 4 4 3 0.58*10 *21 1 cos 2 *120*10 *7.017*10 0.819 7 t t t sµ − −  ∆ = − = − = D (26) 44 3 0.819 7.017 7.84tt t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (27) The design has reasonable range since 4 st T< 5.1. Practical Calculations of Novel Charger As for the practical examine to calculate the ideal values of novel design, resonant inductor is 3.0uH and resonant capacitor 0.58uF were chosen.
  • 13. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Fig.10 Practical Circuit Prototype of Novel Battery Charger The resonant frequency 0f is computed as given by (( 6 6 0 0 1 3.0*10 *0.58*10 2 2 f kHz ω − − = = = D D Output Impedance 0Z of actual practical value is given by 6 0 6 3.0*10 2.274 0.58*10 r r L Z C − − = = = Ω 5.2. Duty Cycle of Novel Charger 0 1 1 1.01r dc L I t t s E µ∆ = = = 2 2 1 1( ) 1.01t t t t sµ∆ = − = ∆ = 2 2 1 2.02t t t sµ= ∆ + = (32) ( )3 3 2 3 1 7*2.274 2 *120*10 21 t t t s   ∆ = − = + =   D 3 3 2 5.315 2.02 7.335t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = Total time period of novel design is ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Practical Circuit Prototype of Novel Battery Charger is computed as given by ))6 6 1 3.0*10 *0.58*10 120.1f kHz − − = = = of actual practical value is given by 2.274= = = Ω Duty Cycle of Novel Charger 11 7*2.274 sin 5.315 2 *120*10 21 t t t sµ−   ∆ = − = + =      D 5.315 2.02 7.335t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = Total time period of novel design is ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 27 (28) (29) (30) (31) (33) (34)
  • 14. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 28 ( )3 1 1 84*10 11.904S ST f sµ= = = (35) The duty cycle D of switch S is determined as 3 7.335 0.616 11.904 ON S S t t s D T T s µ µ = = = = (36) The duty cycle sD of switch S1 is calculated as 3 2 7.335 2.02 0.446 11.904 s S t t s s D T s µ µ µ − − = = = (37) The discharging time of the capacitor is determined as ( ) { } 6 3 6 4 4 3 0.58*10 *21 1 cos 2 *120*10 *5.315*10 1.65 7 t t t sµ − −  ∆ = + = − = D (38) 4 4 3 2.87 7.335 10.205t t t s s sµ µ µ= ∆ + = + = (39) After practical application, the design still can work within a reasonable range since 410.205 11.904 ss s t Tµ µ< = < 6. SIMULATION & EXPERIMENT RESULTS A prototype ZCS PWM converter dc-dc buck for battery charger is established [14]. The experiment results were confirmed through MATLAB software as simulation tool is used in this paper. Fig. 11 shows that the waveforms of switch signal GV &iLr . The current iLr is declined to zero when the switch is cut off. As a consequence, the switch can be cut off and turned on without retaining current meanwhile achieving zero current switching with low switching losses. Fig. 12 shows that the trigger signal on the switchesS&S1, GV denotes the trigger signal on switch S whereas Gs1 V denotes the trigger signal on switch S1 as well. To increase the charging current, trigger signal will be delayed by 0.088µs. In Fig.13 shows that the signal on the switch S1, Gs1 V denotes the trigger signal on switch S1 and resonant capacitor voltage VCr on the switch S1. The resonant capacitor voltageVCr can be charged once the switch is triggered. Fig. 14 shows that the waveforms of iLr , VCr , iCr .The inductor current iLr is increased from 0A to 8A during 0-0.9995µs, and maintained a constant value during 0.0995µs-0.999 µs. The resonance then began when the auxiliary switch is turned on after
  • 15. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 0.999µs. The current iLr is declined to zero when the switch current-switching. Fig. 15 shows that the waveform of diode current waveform of idm went down from 15A to zero during the 0 is being charged. The diode Dm was cut off when current remained at zero after 0.0995 current idm goes from 0A to 7A until 0.0997 Voltage Curve during the Charging Period showing that charging the battery from simulation results Charging Current during the charging period maximum charging current appro Fig.11 Waveforms of G V & Fig.13 Waveforms of Gs V ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 declined to zero when the switch is cut off, thus it has achieving zero . Fig. 15 shows that the waveform of diode current idm & diode voltage went down from 15A to zero during the 0-0.0995µs when the inductor current . The diode Dm was cut off wheniLr = 0 I due to the reverse bias voltage, and the current remained at zero after 0.0995µs. The diode Dm was then turned on again, and the diode goes from 0A to 7A until 0.0997µs when VCr is finished the discharging. Fig. 16 Voltage Curve during the Charging Period. The variation curve of terminal voltage of the battery showing that charging the battery from 15V to 16.5V takes about 0.1 hour. Fig. 17 shows the ing Current during the charging period of proposed novel charger. The pproximately 7.5A and mean about 7.6A is founded. &i Lr Fig.12 Waveforms of Trigger Signal on G V & 1Gs V 1Gs V & CrV Fig.14 Waveform ofi Lr ,V ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 29 achieving zero- & diode voltageVdm . The when the inductor currentiLr due to the reverse bias voltage, and the s. The diode Dm was then turned on again, and the diode Fig. 16 shows The variation curve of terminal voltage of the battery 0.1 hour. Fig. 17 shows the of proposed novel charger. The Waveforms of Trigger Signal on CrV and i Cr
  • 16. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Fig.15 Waveforms of i dm &V Fig.17 Charging Current during the charging period Fig. 18shows the practical ch 89.5%.Thechargingtimeintervalis36 ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 V dm Fig.16 Voltage Curve during the Charging Charging Current during the charging period harging efficiency variationcurve ofthenovelchargerappro 360minutesandthemeanefficiencyis calculatedabout89%. ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 30 Fig.16 Voltage Curve during the Charging Period pproximatelyis
  • 17. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Fig.15 Charging Efficiency during the charging period 7. CONCULSION This paper addresses the technique of ZCS PWM Modulation) resonant Converter dc demonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCS PWM converter for novel battery charger relate volume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The brief discussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short study of circuit descriptions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is also summarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during charging period of proposed novel prototype. The practical examine is accord high repetiti gives gratification fulfillment with the theoretical predictions in this paper. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors would like to acknowledge financial support & Electrical Engineering and College of International Education, Hohai University REFERENCES [1] Y.C. Chuang, Y.-L. Ke, “High Efficiency battery charger with a buck zero pulse-width-modulated converter” [2] M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed., McGraw-Hill, 2008, pp.775 [3] Ying-Chun Chuang, “High Transactions on Industrial Electron ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 Charging Efficiency during the charging period This paper addresses the technique of ZCS PWM (Zero Current Switching Pulse width resonant Converter dc-dc buck append with battery charger circuit which demonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCS PWM converter for novel battery charger relates the idea to gain high efficiency, low circuit volume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The brief discussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short study ions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is also summarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during charging period of proposed novel prototype. The practical examine is accord high repetitious work which gives gratification fulfillment with the theoretical predictions in this paper. The authors would like to acknowledge financial support of this project from College of Engineering and College of International Education, Hohai University, China L. Ke, “High Efficiency battery charger with a buck zero-current modulated converter” IET Power Electron., 2008, Vol. 1, No.4, pp. 433 M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed., , 2008, pp.775-778. Chun Chuang, “High-Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries” Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 57, NO. 7, July 2010. ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 31 . (Zero Current Switching Pulse width dc buck append with battery charger circuit which demonstrates the effectiveness of developed methodology. The research methodology of ZCS s the idea to gain high efficiency, low circuit volume, minimum switching losses and satisfactory performance in charging shaping. The brief discussion is done in battery charger system and on useable functional methods. The short study ions, operating modes, output voltage gain and normalized voltage gain is also summarized. The simulation results are cited for its 89% efficiency that occurs during charging ous work which from College of Energy , China. current-switching pp. 433-444. M.D Singh, K B Khanchandani, Electrical & Electronics Engineering series, 2rd ed., TATA Efficiency ZCS Buck Converter for Rechargeable Batteries” IEEE
  • 18. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 32 [4] IrfanJamil, Zhao Jinquan, RehanJamil“Analysis, Design and Implementation of Zero-Current- Switching Resonant Converter DC-DC Buck Converter” International Journal of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (IJEEE) IASET Vol. 2, Issue. 2, pp. 1-12 May 2013. [5] Yu-Lung Ke, Ying-Chun Chuang, Shao-Wei Huang “Application of Buck Zero-Current- Switching Pulse-Width-Modulated Converter in Battery Chargers” Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Technical Conference 2007. [6] G. Hua and fred C. Lee, “Soft-Switching Techniques in PWM Converters” IEEE Trans. Industrial Electronics, Vol.42, no. 6. PP. 595-60, Dec 1995. [7] NaseemZaidi, Aziz Ahmad “Analysis, Design and Control of Zero Current Switching DC To DC Buck Converter” International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Vol. 2, Issue 7, July 2012. [8] HelioLeaes Hey, Lourenco Matias and Joao Batista Viera Junior “A Buck ZC-ZVS PWM Converter” Power Electronics Specialists Conference PESC '94 Record. 25th Annual IEEE June 1994. [9] Suzanne Foster Porter, HareshKamath,Tom Geist, “Draft 2 Energy Efficiency Battery Charger System Test Procedure: A Technical Primer.” February 28, 2006. Published by the California Energy Commission through the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, available at http://www.efficientpowersupplies.org [10] Tom Geist, HareshKamath, Suzanne Foster Porter, Peter May-Ostendorp “Designing Battery Charger Systems for Improved Energy Efficiency: A Technical Primer.” September 28, 2006.Published by the California Energy Commission through the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) Program, available at http://www.efficientpowersupplies.org [11] A. Nasiri, Z. Nie, S. B. Bekiarov, and A. Emadi, “An on-line UPS system with power factor correction and electric isolation using BIFRED con- verter,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 722–730, Feb. 2008. [12] L. R. Chen, J. J. Chen, N. Y. Chu, and G. Y. Han, “Current-pumped batterycharger,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2482–2488, Jun. 2008. [13] L. R. Chen, C. S. Liu, and J.-J. Chen, “Improving phase-locked battery charger speed by using resistance-compensated technique,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1205–1211, Apr. 2009. [14] S. Abinaya, A. Sivaranjani and S. Suja “Methods of Battery Charging with buck Converter using soft-Switching Techniques” Bongfing International Journal of Power Systems and Integrated Circuits, Vol. 1, Special Issue, December 2011. [15] FOSTER M.P., SEWELL H.I., BINGHAM C.M., STONE D.A., HOWE D. “Methodologies for the design of LCC voltage-output resonant converters’” IEE Proc., Electr. Power Appl., 2006,153, (4), pp. 559 – 567 [16] ABE H., SAKAMOTO H., HARADA K. “A noncontact charger using a resonant converter with parallel capacitor of the secondary coil”IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., 2000, 36, (2), pp. 444 – 451 AUTHORS IrfanJamil was born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25, 1987. He received his bachelor degree in Electrical Engineering and its Automation from Harbin Engineering University, Harbin, China in 2011. Currently he is pursuing his Master degree at Hohai University, Nanjing, China. During these days he is doing master research as a Visiting Research Scholar at Tsinghua University, Beijing China. His research interest involves in Power electronics and Power system Automation.
  • 19. Electrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 RehanJamil was also born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25, 1987. He received his bachelor in B.Sc. Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad Pakistan in 2009. Currently he is pursuing his Master degre China. His research interest involves in Electronics, Renewable energy power generation. Engr. RizwanJamil was born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on August 21, 1976. He received his bache from University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan in 2000 and received his Master degree in Power Engineering from NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan in 2003. Currently, he is work Heavy Mechanical Complex-3 (HMC involved in research & development of different equipment’s as per ASME, API, AWS code/standards for power sector. Dr.Abdus Sameegraduated as Ph Institute of Technology in 2009. Currently he is working as Associate Professor at Chashma Centre of Nuclear Training, Pakistan. He is also a visiting faculty member of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applie include modeling and simulation of electrical systems, non insulation aging and degradation, space charge behavior in solid insulation, pulsed power plasma application in biology, environment and Prof. JinquanZhao was born in Yangquan, Shanxi province, China, on June 26 1972. He received his B.S. and Ph.D. degrees, all in electrical engineering, from Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1993 and 2000, respectively. From 1993 to 1995, he was an engineer in Guangzhou Power Company, Guangzhou, China. From Dec 2000 to Sept Cornell University, Ithaca, New Tsinghua University, Beijing, China. Currently he isPh.D. Energy &Electrical Engineering, Hohai University, and Nanjing, Chi been published more than 28 papers in many international conferences. His research interests in the area of voltage stability analysis and control, OPF and its applications. ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 n Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on Feb 25, 1987. He received his bachelor in B.Sc. Electrical (Electronic) Engineering from Federal Urdu University of Arts, Science & Technology Islamabad Pakistan in 2009. Currently he is pursuing his Master degree at Yunnan Normal University, Kunming China. His research interest involves in Electronics, Renewable energy power was born in Punjab province, City Multan, Pakistan on August 21, 1976. He received his bachelor degree in Mechanical Engineering from University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan in 2000 and received his Master degree in Power Engineering from NED University of Engineering & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan in 2003. Currently, he is working in (HMC-3) as a Senior Engineer since 2003. He is involved in research & development of different equipment’s as per ASME, API, AWS code/standards for power sector. graduated as Ph.D. in electrical power engineering at Harbin Institute of Technology in 2009. Currently he is working as Associate Professor at Chashma Centre of Nuclear Training, Pakistan. He is also a visiting faculty member of Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences. His research interests include modeling and simulation of electrical systems, non-linear dielectrics, cable insulation aging and degradation, space charge behavior in solid insulation, pulsed power plasma application in biology, environment and water waste. was born in Yangquan, Shanxi province, China, on June 26 B.S. and Ph.D. degrees, all in electrical engineering, from Shanghai Jiao tong University, Shanghai, China, in 1993 and 2000, respectively. From 1993 to 1995, he was an engineer in Guangzhou Power Company, Guangzhou, China. From Dec 2000 to Sept 2003, he was a postdoctoral associate in ew York. He was also postdoctoral associate in eijing, China. Currently he isPh.D.-professor in College of , Hohai University, and Nanjing, China. He has papers in many international conferences. His research interests in the area of voltage stability analysis and control, OPF and its ctrical and Electronics Engineering: An International Journal (ELELIJ) Vol 2, No 2, May 2013 33