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Reptiles, Birds And Mammals

Reptiles, Birds And Mammals






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    Reptiles, Birds And Mammals Reptiles, Birds And Mammals Presentation Transcript

    • Reptiles, Birds and Mammals Our scaly, feathered and hairy friends!
    • 3 Key Adaptations for Life on Land
      • 1. Amniotic Egg
      • 2. Internal Fertilization
      • 3. Water-tight skin
      • An amniotic egg is a waterproof egg with a shell.
      • It is named for a particular membrane called the amnion.
      • The amnion protects the embryo from drying out and surround a fluid filled cavity that cushions it.
    • Key Adaptations
      • The other membranes formed during development of the embryo function in gas exchange, waste removal and supplying nutrients.
      • The amniotic egg makes it possible to lay an egg on land without needing to return to the water like an amphibian.
    • Key Adaptations
      • In internal fertilization, the male deposits sperm within the female’s body.
      • The sperm then swims inside the reproductive tube towards the egg.
      • This allows for reproduction to take place outside of water.
      • Amniotes have a water-tight skin enriched with a waterproofing protein called keratin.
      • The keratinized skin prevents dehydration.
    • Key Adaptations
      • Reptile skin has scales which are hard, overlapping structures made of keratin.
      • Birds have feathers made of keratin.
      • Mammals have hair, nails and horns made of keratin.
    • Vocabulary
      • Ectotherms-main source of body heat is the environment-cold-blooded
      • Endotherms-body heat generated internally by cell metabolism, warm-blooded
    • History of Reptiles
      • The oldest reptile fossils have been found in rocks dating from the Carboniferous period about 300 mya.
      • Reptiles diversified in the Mesozoic era.
      • At that time, dinosaurs occupied every habitat and ecological role.
      • Some were very quick and agile indicating that they might have been endotherms.
      • Some fossils of dinosaurs have been found with feathers.
      • Dinosaurs became extinct 65 mya from a massive collision with a comet or asteroid.
    • Diversity of Living Reptiles
      • 6,500 known species
    • Turtles and Tortoises
      • Shell of bony plates called scutes
      • Some aquatic turtles’ shells are soft and leathery
      • Jaw with horny ridges
      • Terrestrial turtles are called tortoises
    • Turtles and Tortoises
    • Lizards and Snakes
      • Lizards usually have 4 limbs with the exception of legless lizards
      • All snakes are predators
      • Snakes evolved from lizards and some still have pelvises
      • 25% of snakes are venomous and 2 lizards are.
    • Snakes
    • Lizards
    • Crocodilians
      • Largest living reptiles
      • Closely related to dinosaurs
      • Highly developed brain
      • Only reptiles with 4 chambered hearts, the others have 3
      • Alligators have rounded snouts, crocodiles have pointed snouts
    • Crocodilians Alligator Crocodile
    • Crocodilians Gavial Caiman
    • Tuaturas
      • Rare, old species
      • Different structures than lizards, vestigial third eye and slowest metabolism in reptile class
      • Endangered
      • Live only on islands near Australia and New Zealand
    • Tuatara-living fossil
    • Birds
      • Molecular and fossil evidence indicated birds and crocodilians are more closely related to dinosaurs than any other reptiles.
      • Feathers-modified scales made of keratin used for flight and insulation
    • Birdies
      • Birds have a system of branching air sacs that function with their lungs in respiration.
      • The air sac system helps supply the high levels of oxygen that support a high rate of metabolism.
      • Air sacs also reduce the overall body weight of the bird.
      • Bird bones are honeycombed and mostly hollow but are still structurally strong.
    • Bird’s Adaptations to Decrease Body Weight
      • 1. Air sac system
      • 2. Honeycombed bones
      • 3. Absence of many internal organs
      • 4. Absence of teeth
    • Birdies
      • Gizzard- muscular organ often containing small stones that grind seeds and other food
      • Crop- sac like organ used for temporarily storing food
      • 4 chambered heart is efficient by keeping oxygen rich blood completely separate from the oxygen poor blood.
    • Origin of Birds
      • Many paleontologists agree the ancestor of birds was a small, feathered dinosaur.
      • A famous bird fossil, Archaeopteryx lived 150 mya.
      • It had a mixture of bird and reptilian features.
    • Archaeopteryx
    • The hoatzin-resembles early birds
    • Diversity of Birds
      • 9,000 species
    • Flying Styles
      • Rapid altitude changes-finches, cardinals
      • Soar and glide on air currents-falcons and albatrosses
      • Flap or buzz quickly and can hover or go backwards-hummingbirds
      • Flightless swimming/diving birds-penguins
      • Flightless running birds-ostriches, emus
    • Beak Adaptations
      • Made of keratin
      • Modified to the food source
      • Toothless and cannot chew
    • Foot Structure
      • Perching-songbirds
      • Grasping-woodpeckers, nuthatches
      • Raptors-eagles, hawks
      • Swimming-ducks, geese
    • Perching Birds
    • Swimming Birds
    • Raptors
    • Awww preeeety birdie
    • Behavioral Adaptations
      • Complex courtship behaviors
      • Complex song communications
      • Caring for offspring
      • Nest building
    • Origin of Mammals
      • The oldest fossils of mammals date back about 200 mya to early Mesozoic era.
      • Fossil evidence indicates mammals evolved from reptiles called therapsids.
      • Early mammals coexisted with dinosaurs but were mouse-sized and ate insects.
      • These early mammals were nocturnal and endothermic.
      • Mammals took over all habitats and diversified once the dinosaurs went extinct.
      • Mammal-endothermic vertebrate that possesses mammary glands and hair
    • Therapsids-ancestors to mammals
    • Early mammals
    • All Mammals have:
      • 1. Mammary glands (got milk?)
      • 2. Hair
      • 3. Lungs
      • 4. Muscular diaphragm that separates lungs and heart from the rest of the body
      • 5. 4 chambered heart
      • 6. Reproduce sexually with internal fertilization (a few exceptions)
      • 7. Most give live birth with few exceptions
    • Diversity of Mammals
      • 4,500 known species
    • Mammals Placentals Monotremes Marsupials Embryo develops In a uterus Lay eggs Have a pouch Placenta provides Nutrients to embryo Only live in Australia and Neighboring islands Young born before Fully developed Contains amnion like bird and reptile eggs Mixture of reptilian And mammalian characteristics Most live in Australia and Neighboring Islands, except opossum 4,200 species Platypus and echidna Kangaroos Koalas Opossums Etc..
    • Monotremes
    • Marsupials
    • Marsupial babies
    • Placental Mammals
    • Primates
      • Order Primata
      • Lemurs, monkeys, apes and humans
      • Evolved from tree-welling, insect-eating ancestors about 65 mya.
      • Flexible shoulder joints
      • Opposable thumbs
      • Fingernails
      • 2 eyes with binocular vision
      • Care for young and nurture offspring for extended period of time
    • 2 Groups of Primates
      • Lorises, Galagos and lemurs
      • Madagascar and Comoro islands
      • Lorises in Africa and Southern Asia
      • Many have claws not nails
    • 2 Groups of Primates
      • Tarsiers, New World Monkeys, Old World Monkeys, apes and humans
      • Tarsiers from Southeast Asia
      • NW monkeys in Americas have prehensile tails that grasp and are tree-dwelling
      • OW monkeys are usually ground dwelling like baboons, mandrills or macaques, no external tail
      • Apes are gorillas, siamangs, orangutans, gibbons, chimps, bonobos and humans
      • Closest relatives to humans
    • Prosimians or early primates
    • Tarsiers are cute!!!!
    • Peek-A-Boo!
    • Aye-Aye
    • Bushbabies
    • Primates Asian and African Monkeys
    • Primates
    • Ape Family Gibbons
    • Apes
    • Bonobos-Our closest relatives
    • Human or not?
    • Bonobos are endangered!
    • Early Hominids
      • Oldest evidence for bipedalism or upright walking was Australopithecus about 4 mya.
      • Famous fossil called Lucy.
    • Other Hominid relatives
      • Ardipithecus
      • Australopithecus
      • Homo habilis
      • Homo erectus
      • Homo ergaster
      • Homo neanderthalensis
      • Homo sapiens
    • How did Humans Arise? Why are we the only ones?
      • Homo sapiens the most intelligent?
      • 1. Modern humans killed neanderthals?
      • 2. Modern human interbred with neanderthals?
    • Reptiles Turtles and Tortoises Lizards and snakes Crocodilians Tuataras Hard shell Made of scutes Can be legless or Have limbs Alligators Crocs caimans Rare endangered Longest lived reptiles Snakes evolved From lizards Related to dinosaurs Different physical Characteristics Than lizards
    • Birds Perching grasping raptors swimming Cardinals songbirds woodpeckers Eagles hawks Duck geese