TUNNEL VENTILATION AND
FIRE SAFETY

A case study of Pir Panjal Tunnel
T-80 of USBRL Project

-Hitesh Khanna
Ircon Internat...
PIR PANJAL TUNNEL- AN OVERVIEW
• IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED is the principle
execution agency for DHARAM-QAZIGUNDBARAMULL...
T 80 ON USBRL PROJECT

3
T80 SECTION AND PLAN

4
• Max Over burden 1100
mts.
• B. G. Rly. S/L Track
• 3 mts. Road
• 48.5 m2 X-Sec Area
• Water Proof
5
UIC Codex 779-9 R
Safety In Railway
Tunnels
• To the Extent That
Safety is regulated at
National level, it shall
be define...
UIC Codex 779-9 (contd…)
• Tunnels:
– Minimal Avalanche, Landslides, L-Xing accidents.
– Accidents/Train Km is lower, but ...
UIC Codex 779-9 (contd…)
• Applies to Electrified / Non-electrified Tunnels,
and High Rock Cover
• For New Planned Tunnels...
Ventilation Requirement
• Normal Operation:
(Depends on Traction Mode and local conditions):
– Maintain Sustainable Air Qu...
VENTILATION SYSTEMS

• Longitudinal
– Air Set in Motion along Tunnel Axis
•
•
•
•

Portal to Portal, Same speed though out...
VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)

• Transverse
– Two Independent Ducts (Fresh Air Inflow and Exhaust
air exit)
• Can create Ae...
VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)

• Semi-Transverse
– Combination of Longitudinal and Transversal System:
• Separation of Fres...
VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.)
• Considering the merits and demerits of each
ventilation system and since there is no
statio...
Normal Case: Calculation Of Fresh Air Flow
• Para 3.6.2
–
–
–
–

Fresh Air Demand due to Gaseous Emissions
Fresh Air Deman...
LOCO MOTIVE EXHAUST DATA

emission

g/kWh
CO
NOX
Particle

Standards

ORE
3
12
0.5

UN
6.7
12.7
0.8

measured emission dat...
STANDARD THRESHOLD POLLUTION LEVEL
(1)
50

75

400

NO

25

37.5

35

NO2

2)
3)

(3)

CO

1)

(2)

5

5

5

American Conf...
ADOPTED THRESHOLD ENVIRONMENT
PARAMETERS
Element

8 Hours
Exposure

15 Min. Exposure

CO

50 ppm

200 ppm

Design
Limit
Pi...
Ventilation Requirement with Electric
Traction
►

No ventilation required for regular operation

►

Fire load for electric...
Thermo Dynamic Data
ITEM

REFERENCE

Geothermal Heat Input
Para 3.2.2
Depending on Parent Rock
Temperature and Temp. Gradi...
Aero Dynamic Data
ITEM
Tunnel Characteristics:
Portal Losses, Tunnel Wall Friction,
Wind Velocity at Portals
Air Pressure ...
THERMODYNAMICS
...buoyancy…
a thermodynamic effect
warm mass of rock

temperature rise leads to lower density of air

heat...
...wind pressure and
meteorological effects...
wind pressure effect depends on:

Tunnel
- meteorological situation

wind p...
Ventilation Design Approach
Natural velocity achieved inside tunnel :

23
AERODYNAMICS
...piston effect …
depends on:
for the Pir Panjal tunnel
the piston effect leads to:

Tunnel

- speed of trai...
Boundary Condns. (Geometry)

Description

Details

Tunnel length

11.215 m

Length from Banihal Station to South

1450 m

...
Boundary Conditions (Geometric Data)

26
longitudinal velocity
5,00
4,00
3,00
2,00
1,00

[m/s]

longitudinal velocity

TRAIN SIMULATION TO ASSESS
VENTILATION NEED
...
Ventilation For Fire and Smoke
Management
What happens if a tunnel fire occurs ?

the tunnel roof fills with smoke
even in...
Ventilation For Fire and Smoke
Management
BACKLAYERING

"

• Avoid
Backlayring
– Critical Velocity
of Airflow to be
Mainta...
Stratification Of Smoke
• Smoke Rises to Top
– Permits Escape
Underneath in cooler
air
– Flashover Control

• Typically St...
VENTILATION DESIGN INPUTS SMOKE
CONTROL
• Input Parameters
– What is the maximum size of any fire, which may
reasonably be...
Emergency Ventilation Design Fire
• Select Design Fire Load:
Investigations were
performed by Deutsche
Bahn AG
– Diesel Lo...
Emergency Ventilation Design Approach:
TEMPERATURE /
SMOKE PROGRESSION
ALONG THE LENGTH
HEIGHT
Computation fluid
dynamics ...
Emergency Ventilation Design Approach:
TEMPERATURE / SMOKE
PROGRESSION ALONG THE
LENGTH HEIGHT BY NEAR FIRE
CONDITIONS BY ...
FINAL VENTILATION DESIGN

Jet Fan (Main Tunnel)
Jet Fan (Access Tunnel)

35
Ventilation Actuation:





Visibility detection
Airflow measurement
Automatic operation
Basic ventilation
Visibility...
Ventilation System -Installations
Sr.No.

Location

Fixing height

Spacing

25

MVS

3.5 Mtrs.

150Mtrs.

3
21
21

Adit
Ea...
E&M System
Consists of the following
433/250V – 50 Hz Power Supply
Emergency Power Supply
Earthing & Potential Equalisa...
System Compliance

World
Standard

Pir Panjal

UIC

Redundant Power Supply





~

I-67, I-65

CCTV System







I-6...
T-80 TUNNEL CONTROL MONITORING
CENTRE

40
MULTI SCRN TUNNEL VIDEO MNTRING
- WITH MOTION SENSOR TRIGGERS

41
CCTV MONITORING
42
VENTILATION FUNCTION

43
ESS FUNCTIONING SCRN

44
LIGHT & EROS MONITORING

45
EVENT LOG
46
VENTILATION CONTROL STRATEGY
REQUIREMENTS TO THE STAFF (NORMAL
OPERATION)
Train staff
►Report about type and direction of ...
Ventilation Control Strategy
Requirements to the staff (emergency operation)
Train staff
►Guide passengers in the right di...
• Detailed Design
Consultants
– M/s GeoconsultRITES JV
– Overall Tunnel Design
and Top level
Supervision,
observations bas...
• HBI Haerter
– Ventilation
Design
Proof
Check

50
51
52
53
MAIN TUNNEL
CROSS-PASSAGES
ESCAPE TUNNEL

RAILWAY TUNNEL (T-74R) LAYOUT
(AS PER UIC 779)
54
55
56
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TUNNEL VENTILATION AND SAFETY - PAPAR PRESENTED AT IPWE SEMINAR 2014

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The presentation covers the basics of Railway tunnel Ventilation and Safety in the context of Pir Panjal Tunnel T-80.
The basic reference document has been UIC Codex 779-9.

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TUNNEL VENTILATION AND SAFETY - PAPAR PRESENTED AT IPWE SEMINAR 2014

  1. 1. TUNNEL VENTILATION AND FIRE SAFETY A case study of Pir Panjal Tunnel T-80 of USBRL Project -Hitesh Khanna Ircon International Limited
  2. 2. PIR PANJAL TUNNEL- AN OVERVIEW • IRCON INTERNATIONAL LIMITED is the principle execution agency for DHARAM-QAZIGUNDBARAMULLAH section of USBRL project of Northern Railway. • Pir Panjal Tunnel, between Qazigund and Banihal, is the landmark tunnel of the project, connecting Kashmir Valley to Jammu Region. • At 11.215 Kms., it is the LONGEST transportation tunnel in India. 2
  3. 3. T 80 ON USBRL PROJECT 3
  4. 4. T80 SECTION AND PLAN 4
  5. 5. • Max Over burden 1100 mts. • B. G. Rly. S/L Track • 3 mts. Road • 48.5 m2 X-Sec Area • Water Proof 5
  6. 6. UIC Codex 779-9 R Safety In Railway Tunnels • To the Extent That Safety is regulated at National level, it shall be defined by National Authorities. • General Principles: 1. Prevent Accidents 2. Mitigate the Impact of accidents 3. Facilitate ESCAPE 4. Facilitate Rescue 6
  7. 7. UIC Codex 779-9 (contd…) • Tunnels: – Minimal Avalanche, Landslides, L-Xing accidents. – Accidents/Train Km is lower, but critical (Fire) • For General Public, psychologically, Risk perception is higher for Tunnel Accidents – (LOW FREQUENCY- HIGH IMPACT compared to Level Xing accidents- HIGH FREQUENCY- LOW IMPACT) • As FIRE in Passenger Trains is a Major and Specific Risk, the Main Focus is on this type of Accidents. 7
  8. 8. UIC Codex 779-9 (contd…) • Applies to Electrified / Non-electrified Tunnels, and High Rock Cover • For New Planned Tunnels, longer than 1 Km. but upto 15 Kms. – General Strategy is to get the train out of Tunnel (with in 15 min. of fire). – Disable Emergency Brakes (operating measures) • If despite measures, train on Fire comes to stand still inside the tunnel: – Facilitate self ESCAPE to SAFE PLACE – Distance between two safe places not more than 1 Km – Cross passage at not more than 500 mts. 8
  9. 9. Ventilation Requirement • Normal Operation: (Depends on Traction Mode and local conditions): – Maintain Sustainable Air Quality in side the Tunnel • Pollutant Levels • Oxygen Levels • Temperature • Emergency Rescue Management: (for both Diesel and Electric Traction- Fire Load may vary) – Fire and Smoke Management to Assist Emergency Evacuation Strategy – Fire Effect Mitigation 9
  10. 10. VENTILATION SYSTEMS • Longitudinal – Air Set in Motion along Tunnel Axis • • • • Portal to Portal, Same speed though out the Tunnel Length No Division into Aerodynamic Segments Low Cost, Does not need Transverse air Egress Points Time to Purge Foul Air depends on Air Flow Velocity, Tunnel 10 Length
  11. 11. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.) • Transverse – Two Independent Ducts (Fresh Air Inflow and Exhaust air exit) • Can create Aero dynamic Sections (In case of Fire) • May Need Transverse Exit Routes (Low Overburden Ventilation Shafts, Stations in Metros • Costlier to Install, and operate (More Aerodynamic Losses) 11
  12. 12. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.) • Semi-Transverse – Combination of Longitudinal and Transversal System: • Separation of Fresh and Exhaust air • Reversible• Fire Case Fresh Air through Portal, Exhaust through Ventilation Stack, Permitting Aerodynamic Separation • Normally, Fresh air Through Ventilation Stacks • Larger Tunnel X-Section 12
  13. 13. VENTILATION SYSTEMS (contd.) • Considering the merits and demerits of each ventilation system and since there is no station and stop in pir-panjal tunnel; – longitudinal ventilation system has been considered fit to apply in this tunnel – worldwide also, only longitudinal ventilation is applied to rail/road tunnel or underground projects. • Only in underground stations and stops, transversal and semi transversal might be applied. 13
  14. 14. Normal Case: Calculation Of Fresh Air Flow • Para 3.6.2 – – – – Fresh Air Demand due to Gaseous Emissions Fresh Air Demand due to Particulate Emissions Fresh Air Demand oxygen Depletion (Diesel Engine) Normalization Of Temperature (Below 40 deg. C) after passage of 5000T train Uphill • Ventilation Design (Normal Case- Para 4.0) – Time to restore Safe Conditions Inside the Tunnel – Waiting Time for Next Train to enter (after exit of Uphill Loaded Train) 14
  15. 15. LOCO MOTIVE EXHAUST DATA emission g/kWh CO NOX Particle Standards ORE 3 12 0.5 UN 6.7 12.7 0.8 measured emission data UIC 3 10 0.25 US EPA (line haul locomotive, WDM2/ALCO WDM3A/AL WDM4/ALCO Tier 0) 2530HP CO 3073HP 4000HP 6.71 0.52 0.72 0.56 10.73 13.56 12.42 7.62 0.30 ??? ??? 0.39 15
  16. 16. STANDARD THRESHOLD POLLUTION LEVEL (1) 50 75 400 NO 25 37.5 35 NO2 2) 3) (3) CO 1) (2) 5 5 5 American Conference of Governmental and Industrial Hygienists and Continuous Limit for working environment. (Ref. DPR) Long Term Sustainable Threshold Values for Industrial Working Environment (8 hours working) Non-Continuous Exposure, with intermittent Air Exchange Limits up-to 15 minutes exposure 16
  17. 17. ADOPTED THRESHOLD ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS Element 8 Hours Exposure 15 Min. Exposure CO 50 ppm 200 ppm Design Limit Pir Panjal 50 ppm NO 25 ppm 35 ppm 90% of NOx NO2 4 ppm 5 ppm 10% of NOx Sum: NOx 29 ppm 40 ppm 25 ppm CO2 5000 ppm 10000 ppm 5000ppm SO2 5 ppm 5 ppm 5ppm Not defined < 0,012m^-1 (extinction coefficient) 50°C for a train passing, max.65°C - Particulates Not defined (PM) Temperature 40°C 17
  18. 18. Ventilation Requirement with Electric Traction ► No ventilation required for regular operation ► Fire load for electric locomotives < Diesel powered ones ► According to design procedure and UIC → fire load depends on type of train → typical criteria *: * According to Deutsche Bahn AG ● Diesel → Peak 20 MW ● Electric → Peak 12 MW ● Passenger train → Peak 25 MW ● Freight train → Peak 8-52 MW (depending on load) ► Chosen design criteria → 40 MW ► Electric traction does not impact ventilation design Page 18
  19. 19. Thermo Dynamic Data ITEM REFERENCE Geothermal Heat Input Para 3.2.2 Depending on Parent Rock Temperature and Temp. Gradient to Tunnel Rock Surface Temperature, Pressure and Density Gradient of Air Inside the Tunnel Para 3.2.2.1 Portal Meteorological Data Para 3.2.3 Portal Temperature, Wind Pressure, Para 3.2.3.1, 3.2.3.2, 3.2.3.3, 3.2.3.4 Natural Buoyancy Pressure and Pressure Differential between the Portals 19
  20. 20. Aero Dynamic Data ITEM Tunnel Characteristics: Portal Losses, Tunnel Wall Friction, Wind Velocity at Portals Air Pressure and Temperature Air Density REFERENCE Para 3.4 Critical Velocity Critical Froude Number Temperature Near The Fire Scene Critical Velocity to prevent Back Layering Constant Air flow to Blow the Smoke away from Passengers Exiting in Other Direction, Drive HC Vapours Away from Fire Source to avoid Flash Over Jet Fan Installation Factor & Piston Effect Of The Train and Train Data Para 3.5 & 3.6 20
  21. 21. THERMODYNAMICS ...buoyancy… a thermodynamic effect warm mass of rock temperature rise leads to lower density of air heat of train …. and to longitudinal velocity - chimney effect 21
  22. 22. ...wind pressure and meteorological effects... wind pressure effect depends on: Tunnel - meteorological situation wind pressure - tunnel data 22
  23. 23. Ventilation Design Approach Natural velocity achieved inside tunnel : 23
  24. 24. AERODYNAMICS ...piston effect … depends on: for the Pir Panjal tunnel the piston effect leads to: Tunnel - speed of train and aerodynamic drag • longitudinal velocity of about 5.34 m/s • fresh air of about 241 m3/s - ratio between tunnel and train cross section area - tunnel resistance: length of tunnel, wall friction and others 24
  25. 25. Boundary Condns. (Geometry) Description Details Tunnel length 11.215 m Length from Banihal Station to South 1450 m portal Length from North Portal to 4774 m Qazigund Section Finished cross section Average elevation above sea level 48.50 m2 1734.75 m 25
  26. 26. Boundary Conditions (Geometric Data) 26
  27. 27. longitudinal velocity 5,00 4,00 3,00 2,00 1,00 [m/s] longitudinal velocity TRAIN SIMULATION TO ASSESS VENTILATION NEED 0,00 -1,00 0 60 120 180 240 300 -2,00 -3,00 -4,00 -5,00 time [min] For normal operatrion No artificial ventilation is needed Train with 40 km/h needs about 17 min to pass tunnel 27
  28. 28. Ventilation For Fire and Smoke Management What happens if a tunnel fire occurs ? the tunnel roof fills with smoke even in the upstream direction against the longitudinal velocity!! 28
  29. 29. Ventilation For Fire and Smoke Management BACKLAYERING " • Avoid Backlayring – Critical Velocity of Airflow to be Maintained • Smoke To Be Directed, to Permit Escape in other direction 29
  30. 30. Stratification Of Smoke • Smoke Rises to Top – Permits Escape Underneath in cooler air – Flashover Control • Typically Stratification lasts for 500-800mts – 30-40 MW fire – Tunnel Geomtry, Slope – Air Flow Conditions 30
  31. 31. VENTILATION DESIGN INPUTS SMOKE CONTROL • Input Parameters – What is the maximum size of any fire, which may reasonably be expected to occur, given the use of tunnel • (Design Fire Curve- Fire/Smoke Vs. Time) – What Corresponding Ventilation is required to prevent smoke Backflow • Critical Velocity to be attained 31
  32. 32. Emergency Ventilation Design Fire • Select Design Fire Load: Investigations were performed by Deutsche Bahn AG – Diesel Loco → Peak 20 MW – Electric Loco → Peak 12 MW – Passenger train → Peak 25 MW – Freight train → Peak 852 MW (depending on load) • Design Fire Adopted 40 MW (Two Dsl. Loco in Tandem) 32
  33. 33. Emergency Ventilation Design Approach: TEMPERATURE / SMOKE PROGRESSION ALONG THE LENGTH HEIGHT Computation fluid dynamics (camatt) – Design Fire – Tunnel Geometry – Fan design & Configuration – Thermo Dynamics – Fluid Dynamics 33
  34. 34. Emergency Ventilation Design Approach: TEMPERATURE / SMOKE PROGRESSION ALONG THE LENGTH HEIGHT BY NEAR FIRE CONDITIONS BY 3DCFD Objective:– To clarify condition d/s of fire – Influence of longitudinal flow velocity on the tenability d/s from fire – Design Fire load 25 MW – Smoke plum should remain 2.5m above rail level during self evacuation time – Use of Deutsche Bahn Fire curve for smoke release rate and critical velocity 34
  35. 35. FINAL VENTILATION DESIGN Jet Fan (Main Tunnel) Jet Fan (Access Tunnel) 35
  36. 36. Ventilation Actuation:     Visibility detection Airflow measurement Automatic operation Basic ventilation Visibility data Airflow direction Wind speed  Fire Ventilation Fire Alarm Visibility data Airflow direction Wind Speed 36
  37. 37. Ventilation System -Installations Sr.No. Location Fixing height Spacing 25 MVS 3.5 Mtrs. 150Mtrs. 3 21 21 Adit Each next MN Each next MN 4.0 Mtrs. 4.0 Mtrs. 4.0 Mtrs. 150 Mtrs 500 Mtrs. 500 Mtrs. 25 3 Each Jet fan Each Jet fan 150 Mtrs 150 Mtrs a) Main tunnel 75 Each Jet fan (3) 150 Mtrs b) Adit Tunnel 9 Each Jet fan (3) 150 Mtrs Vibration Sensor a) Main tunnel 25 Each Jet fan 150 Mtrs b) Adit Tunnel 1 Description of Items Qty. 3 Each Jet fan 150 Mtrs 2 Adit tunnel Jet Fan a) Main tunnel ( Five Groups) b) Adit Tunnel 2 Air Velocity Measuremnt. 3 CO/Dust Particle 4 Proximity Sensor a) Main tunnel b) Adit Tunnel 5 PT 100 Unit (Temp Sensor) 6 7 ADIT Axail Fan 3.0 Mtrs. 37 4.0 Mtrs.
  38. 38. E&M System Consists of the following 433/250V – 50 Hz Power Supply Emergency Power Supply Earthing & Potential Equalisation System Tunnel Lighting Tunnel Fittings Fire Detection System Building Power & Lighting Installations Room Ventilation & Air Conditioning 38
  39. 39. System Compliance World Standard Pir Panjal UIC Redundant Power Supply   ~ I-67, I-65 CCTV System    I-68 Emergency and Service Phone System    I-42 Tunnel Radio System    I-66, I-2 Public Address System (Speaker System)   ~ Fire Detection System    Fire Fighting System (Water Line, Extinguishers)    I-24, I-64 Ventilation System    I-25 Emergency Lighting    I-41 Control Centre   ~ Escape Distance to be not more than 1000 mts.  ~  Comments I-43 Page 39
  40. 40. T-80 TUNNEL CONTROL MONITORING CENTRE 40
  41. 41. MULTI SCRN TUNNEL VIDEO MNTRING - WITH MOTION SENSOR TRIGGERS 41
  42. 42. CCTV MONITORING 42
  43. 43. VENTILATION FUNCTION 43
  44. 44. ESS FUNCTIONING SCRN 44
  45. 45. LIGHT & EROS MONITORING 45
  46. 46. EVENT LOG 46
  47. 47. VENTILATION CONTROL STRATEGY REQUIREMENTS TO THE STAFF (NORMAL OPERATION) Train staff ►Report about type and direction of train entering the tunnel ►Break down: Report the location of the break down Control center staff ►Know about train type and direction ►Monitor emission levels in the tunnel ►Monitor appropriate operation of ventilation ►Instruct the train driver to shut down engines (if necessary) 47
  48. 48. Ventilation Control Strategy Requirements to the staff (emergency operation) Train staff ►Guide passengers in the right direction ►Communicate and Local Guidance for Passenger Rescue Control center staff ►Select and confirm the appropriate mode of operation ►Monitor the appropriate mode of ventilation ►Support rescue operation (e.g. coordinate the rescue train) 48
  49. 49. • Detailed Design Consultants – M/s GeoconsultRITES JV – Overall Tunnel Design and Top level Supervision, observations based On-site design with NATM approach – Ventilation, Rescue, E&M Design 49
  50. 50. • HBI Haerter – Ventilation Design Proof Check 50
  51. 51. 51
  52. 52. 52
  53. 53. 53
  54. 54. MAIN TUNNEL CROSS-PASSAGES ESCAPE TUNNEL RAILWAY TUNNEL (T-74R) LAYOUT (AS PER UIC 779) 54
  55. 55. 55
  56. 56. 56
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