Education Policy In The Philippines


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  • Source: UNESCO
  • Source: DAP, 1997 (Cited in Maglen, Leo and Rosario G. Manasan. Education Cost and Financing [The 1998 Philippine Education Sector Study - Technical Background Paper No. 2]. Asian Development Bank. Manila, Philippines, 1999.
  • Education Policy In The Philippines

    1. 1. Education Policy in the Philippines: <ul><li>Philippines: Cash Transfer </li></ul>
    2. 2. Structure of education system: <ul><li>Primary* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age level from: 6 to: 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intermediate* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age level from: 10 to: 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Length of program in years: 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age level from: 12 to: 16 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Compulsory </li></ul>
    3. 3. Current state: <ul><li>Children of primary school-age who are out-of-school  (%)   9 </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-primary enrollment: 47% </li></ul><ul><li>Primary enrollment: 91% of girls and 89% of boys </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary enrollment: 66% of girls and 55% of boys </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy rate: 93.4% of adults and 94.4% of youth </li></ul>
    4. 4. Resources for education: <ul><li>Pupil / teacher ratio (primary): 34 </li></ul><ul><li>Public expenditure on education : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as % of GDP: 2.5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as % of total government expenditure: 15.2 </li></ul></ul>Distribution of public expenditure by level
    5. 5. Class activity: <ul><li>Let’s separate into a few groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Educators* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents and students* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foreign donors* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy makers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* These groups must develop and present 3 main needs for educational investment </li></ul><ul><li>Policy makers need to decide what to invest, considering what is the best for the country’s future; ultimately choosing just 5 projects to invest in.   </li></ul>
    6. 6. Class activity: <ul><li>After the policy maker group makes the decisions, the other groups must vote to show if they agree with the policy makers or not </li></ul><ul><li>Any remaining time will be used for group </li></ul>
    7. 7. General goals for education: <ul><li>Provide a well-rounded education that will assist each individual in society to attain his or her potential as a human being, and enhance the range and quality of the individuals within the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Help the individual to participate in the basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his or her development into a productive and versatile citizen </li></ul><ul><li>Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development </li></ul><ul><li>Develop high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of life </li></ul><ul><li>Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through system of educational planning and evaluation </li></ul>
    8. 8. Teacher education: <ul><li>Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education which lasts for four years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers in Elementary Education to qualify for a permanent or regular appointment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training of secondary school teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bachelor's Degree in Secondary Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Major in a specific subject area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specialization in high school subjects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers in Secondary Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training of higher education teachers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At least a Master's Degree earned at a recognized college or university </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May only teach in the field of their specialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must hold an appropriate Doctoral Degree for higher ranks in tertiary level institutions </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. For educators and parents: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    10. 10. For foreign donors and industrials: <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
    11. 12. Policy makers main national body: <ul><li>Department of Education (DepEd) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for education at elementary and secondary levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines curricula </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>