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Education Policy In The Philippines
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Education Policy In The Philippines



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  • Source: UNESCO
  • Source: DAP, 1997 (Cited in Maglen, Leo and Rosario G. Manasan. Education Cost and Financing [The 1998 Philippine Education Sector Study - Technical Background Paper No. 2]. Asian Development Bank. Manila, Philippines, 1999.


  • 1. Education Policy in the Philippines:
    • Philippines: Cash Transfer
  • 2. Structure of education system:
    • Primary*
      • Length of program in years: 4
      • Age level from: 6 to: 10
    • Intermediate*
      • Length of program in years: 2
      • Age level from: 10 to: 12
    • Secondary
      • Length of program in years: 4
      • Age level from: 12 to: 16
      • Certificate/diploma awarded: High School Diploma
    • *Compulsory
  • 3. Current state:
    • Children of primary school-age who are out-of-school  (%)   9
    • Pre-primary enrollment: 47%
    • Primary enrollment: 91% of girls and 89% of boys
    • Secondary enrollment: 66% of girls and 55% of boys
    • Literacy rate: 93.4% of adults and 94.4% of youth
  • 4. Resources for education:
    • Pupil / teacher ratio (primary): 34
    • Public expenditure on education :
      • as % of GDP: 2.5
      • as % of total government expenditure: 15.2
    Distribution of public expenditure by level
  • 5. Class activity:
    • Let’s separate into a few groups:
      • Educators*
      • Parents and students*
      • Industries*
      • Foreign donors*
      • Policy makers
    • * These groups must develop and present 3 main needs for educational investment
    • Policy makers need to decide what to invest, considering what is the best for the country’s future; ultimately choosing just 5 projects to invest in.  
  • 6. Class activity:
    • After the policy maker group makes the decisions, the other groups must vote to show if they agree with the policy makers or not
    • Any remaining time will be used for group
  • 7. General goals for education:
    • Provide a well-rounded education that will assist each individual in society to attain his or her potential as a human being, and enhance the range and quality of the individuals within the group.
    • Help the individual to participate in the basic functions of society and acquire the essential educational foundation for his or her development into a productive and versatile citizen
    • Train the nation's manpower in the middle-level skills required for national development
    • Develop high-level professions that will provide leadership for the nation, advance knowledge through research, and apply new knowledge for improving the quality of life
    • Respond effectively to changing needs and conditions through system of educational planning and evaluation
  • 8. Teacher education:
    • Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
      • Bachelor's Degree in Elementary Education which lasts for four years
      • Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers in Elementary Education to qualify for a permanent or regular appointment
    • Training of secondary school teachers
      • Bachelor's Degree in Secondary Education
        • Major in a specific subject area
        • Specialization in high school subjects
      • Pass the Licensure Examination for Teachers in Secondary Education
    • Training of higher education teachers
      • At least a Master's Degree earned at a recognized college or university
      • May only teach in the field of their specialization
      • Must hold an appropriate Doctoral Degree for higher ranks in tertiary level institutions
  • 9. For educators and parents:
  • 10. For foreign donors and industrials:
  • 11.  
  • 12. Policy makers main national body:
    • Department of Education (DepEd)
      • Responsible for education at elementary and secondary levels
      • Determines curricula