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  2. 2. Definition: • Robinson (1949) - a context of social work which a person is equip with the SKILL and KNOWLEDGE in training the less equip. • Kadushin (1976) - two set task EXPRESSIVE and SUPPORTIVE leadership fuction
  3. 3. • Shulman (1993) - context of a POSITIVE RELATIONSHIP between worker and client. • Kasier (1992) - PHENOMENON of ISOMORPHISM.
  4. 4. Models of Supervison • Dynamic Model - it is a system of conceptualization in which the worker is constantly interacting in his aligned work. • Supervisor-Supervisee Relationship - [ Munson (1981) ] the structural models did not produce significantly different outcomes regarding interaction and satisfaction, but AUTHORITY models did. The competence of a MODEL IS MOST PRODUCTIVE IN ALL RESPECT. 1. STURCTURE 2. AUTHORITY 3. TEACHING
  6. 6. Types of Educational Supervision • Primary & Secondary – A principal and assistant principals supervise elementary, middle and high schools. Some larger high schools have directors for each department or extra-curricular division. • School Districts – Public school systems vary in size and typically comprise several facilities for students in kindergarten through 12th grade. A superintendent provides leadership to the district, with input from an elected school board. • Post-Secondary – Higher education institutions include community colleges, and public and private universities offering undergraduate, graduate and doctoral degrees. These institutions operate within a hierarchical leadership framework from the department level, to the university-wide administrative level and—in a public or state university system—up to the system level.
  7. 7. • Departments – A department chair or program director supervises and leads academic and administrative departments at colleges and universities. • Campus Administration – Associate deans, deans, vice presidents or vice chancellors, associate provosts, the provost and the chancellor or president provide senior-level supervision and leadership of a college or university campus. • University Systems – Presidents helm large public and state university systems, providing supervision and leadership to the entire system of campuses. Chancellors of each campus typically report directly to the system president.
  8. 8. Problems Encountered in Supervision • Conflict between Staff and Administration • Mediating Role (3rd force)
  9. 9. Duties and Responsibilities • Evaluate on an ongoing basis, the Special Ed. Curriculum, procedures, and individual students needs and achievements. • Supervise and coordinate special education classroom programs. • Responsible for compiling and maintaining all reports, records, etc. legally required and useful. • Interpret the objectives and programs of the Spec. Ed. services to the board of staff and the public.
  10. 10. • Arrange Special Ed. Transportation. • Implement procedures for purchasing special education equipment and supplies. • Supervise preparation of attendance reports and similar data necessary for reimbursement of funds, collecting of tuition for out-of-district students, and similar fiscal matters. • Maintain and control the various local funds generated by student activity. • Keep informed of all legal requirements governing Special Education.
  11. 11. • Attend special events held to recognize student achievements, and school sponsored activities. • Schedule staff assignments. • Establish and maintain standards of students conduct and enforces discipline as necessary.
  12. 12. CONCLUSION: • It is apparent that supervision and consultation in the social work profession have a number of core dynamics and processes that have persisted over the years. At the same time, both supervision and consultation are adapting to meet the new challenges facing helping professionals as client problems become more complex and organizational and social issues become more oppressive. One rarely hears a call these days for the abandonment of supervision as a process that diminishes the professional nature of practitioners. Rather, the opposite seems to be true. There is an increasing recognition of the crucial importance of providing support and accountability through the supervision process.
  13. 13. Thank you for listening   