3-2Training may be incorrectly used as asolution to a performance problem.Training programs may have the wrongcontent, objectives, or methods.Trainees may be sent to trainingprograms for which they do not have thebasic skills, prerequisite skills, orconfidence needed to learn.Why is Needs AssessmentNecessary?
3-3Training will not deliver the expectedlearning, behavior change, or financialresults that the company expects.Money will be spent on training programsthat are unnecessary because they areunrelated to the company’s businessstrategy.Why is Needs AssessmentNecessary? (cont.)
3-4Figure 3.1 – Causes andOutcomes of Needs Assessment
3-5Table 3.1 – Key Concerns of Upper-Level andMid-Level Managers and Trainers in NeedsAssessment
3-6Who Should Participate in NeedsAssessment (cont.)It is important to get a sample of jobincumbents involved in the needsassessment because:they tend to be most knowledgeable aboutthe job.they can be a great hindrance to the trainingprocess if they do not feel they have hadinput in the process.Job incumbents – employees who arecurrently performing the job.
3-7Table 3.2 – Advantages and Disadvantagesof Needs Assessment Techniques
3-8Table 3.2 – Advantages and Disadvantagesof Needs Assessment Techniques
3-9Methods Used in NeedsAssessmentBecause no one technique of conductingneeds assessment is superior to theothers, multiple methods are used.Many companies are followingbenchmarking – using informationabout other companies’ training practicesto help determine the appropriate type,level, and frequency of training.
3-10Figure 3.2 - The NeedsAssessment Process
3-11Table 3.3 - Questions to Ask in anOrganizational Analysis
3-12Table 3.4 – Questions to AskVendors and Consultants
3-13The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Person analysis involves:determining whether performance deficienciesresult from a lack of knowledge, skill, orability (a training issue) or from amotivational or work-design problem.identifying who needs training.determining employees’ readiness for training.
3-14The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Readiness for training – refers towhether:employees have the personal characteristicsnecessary to learn program content and applyit on the job.the work environment will facilitate learningand not interfere with performance.This process includes evaluating personcharacteristics, input, output,consequences, and feedback.
3-15The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)A major pressure point for training issubstandard or poor performance.Another potential indicator of the need fortraining is if the job changes such thatcurrent levels of performance need to beimproved or employees must be able tocomplete new tasks.
3-16Figure 3.3 – Process for Analyzing the Factors ThatInfluence Employee Performance and Learning
3-17The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Cognitive ability includes threedimensions: verbal comprehension,quantitative ability, and reasoning ability.Readability refers to the difficulty levelof written materials; readabilityassessment usually involves analysis ofsentence length and word difficulty.
3-18The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Employees’ self-efficacy level can beincreased by:Letting employees know the purpose oftraining.Providing as much information as possibleabout the training program and the purposeof training prior to the actual training.
3-19The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Employees’ self-efficacy level can beincreased by:Showing employees the training success oftheir peers who are now in similar jobs.Providing employees with feedback thatlearning is under their control and they havethe ability and the responsibility to overcomeany learning difficulties they experience in theprogram.
3-20The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To ensure that the work environmentenhances trainees’ motivation to learn:Provide materials, time, job-relatedinformation, and other work aids necessaryfor employees to use new skills or behaviorbefore participating in training programs.Speak positively about the company’s trainingprograms to employees.
3-21The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To ensure that the work environmentenhances trainees’ motivation to learn:Encourage work-group members to involveeach other in trying to use new skills on thejob.Provide employees with time andopportunities to practice and apply new skillsor behaviors to their work.
3-22The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Is the performance problem important? Doesit have the potential to cost the company asignificant amount of money from lostproductivity or customers?Do the employees know how to performeffectively?Can the employees demonstrate the correctknowledge or behavior?
3-23The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Were performance expectations clear (input)?Were there any obstacles to performancesuch as faulty tools or equipment?Were positive consequences offered for goodperformance? Was good performance notrewarded?
3-24The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)To determine whether training is neededto solve a performance problem,managers should assess the following:Did employees receive timely, relevant,accurate, constructive, and specific feedbackabout their performance?Were other solutions such as job redesign ortransferring employees to other jobs tooexpensive or unrealistic?
3-25The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Task analysis – identifies the importanttasks and knowledge, skills, andbehaviors that need to be emphasized intraining for employees to complete theirtasks.Job – specific position requiring thecompletion of certain tasks.Task – employee’s work activity in aspecific job.
3-26The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Knowledge – includes facts orprocedures.Skill – indicates competency inperforming a task.Ability – includes the physical andmental capacities to perform a task.
3-27Table 3.6 - Example of the Relationships among aCritical Job Issue, a Critical Process Issue, and aCritical Business Issue
3-28The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Steps involved in a task analysisSelect the job or jobs to be analyzed.Develop a preliminary list of tasks performedon the job by:interviewing and observing expert employees andtheir managers.talking with others who have performed a taskanalysis.
3-29The Needs Assessment Process(cont.)Steps involved in a task analysisValidate or confirm the preliminary list oftasks.Once the tasks have been identified, it isimportant to identify the knowledge, skills, orabilities necessary to successfully performeach task.
3-30Table 3.9 – Key Points to RememberWhen Conducting a Task Analysis
3-31Competency – areas of personalcapability that enable employees tosuccessfully perform their jobs byachieving outcomes or successfullyperforming tasks.A competency can be knowledge, skills,attitudes, values, personal characteristics.Competency model –identifies thecompetencies necessary for each job.Competency Models
3-32Table 3.10 - Example of Competenciesand a Competency Model
3-33Figure 3.4 - Process Used inDeveloping a Competency Model
3-34Scope of Needs AssessmentTime constraints can limit the length anddetail obtained from a needs assessment.A rapid needs assessment refers to aneeds assessment that is done quicklyand accurately, but without sacrificing thequality of the process or the outcomes.There are seven ways to conduct a rapidneeds assessment.