Nanotechnology is the creation of functional materials, devices, and systems through control of matter on the nanomete r length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale.
Though this idea seems to a very new one but it as old as 1959, when famous physicist Richard Feynman gave this idea in his lecture given at California Institute of Technology called " There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom “,
.......... a field, in which little has been done, but in which an enormous amount can be done in principle. This field is not quite the same as the others in that it will not tell us much of fundamental physics (in the sense of, `` What are the strange particles ?'')............. .......talk about is the problem of manipulating and controlling things on a small scale. ...................As soon as I mention this, people tell me about miniaturization , and how far it has progressed today. They tell me about electric motors that are the size of the nail on your small finger . And there is a device on the market, they tell me, by which you can write the Lord's Prayer on the head of a pin. But that's nothing; that's the most primitive, halting step in the direction I intend to discuss . It is a staggeringly small world that is below . .............”
Norio Taniguchi of Tokyo science University first defined nanotechnology in 1974. His definition still stands as the basic statement today : "'Nano-technology' mainly consists of the processing of separation, consolidation, and deformation of materials by one atom or one molecule."
K. Eric Drexler is the one who is most recognized by most with driving the nanotechnology revolution to where it is today. By increasing recognition of the research to the public, educating those who would in the future research and develop nanotechnology, and just simply light up the field, he was presented the first PhD in nanotechnology.
Some drugs are highly toxic and can cause harsh side effects and reduced therapeutic effect if they decompose during their delivery . But in case nanomedicine the drug is delivered to the site it is required thereby reducing the side effects
Nanorobots are nanodevices that will be used for the purpose of maintaining and protecting the human body against pathogens.
The main element used will be carbon in the form of diamond / fullerene nanocomposites because of the strength and chemical inertness of these forms.
To avoid being attacked by the host’s immune system, the best choice for exterior coating is passive diamond coating.
Carbon is indeed outstandingly biocompatible with living cells.
Nanomotors..... POTENT ENGINE. The ATPase motor is built on the membranes of cellular mitochondria. The force it generates in moving energy in cells places it among the most powerful of any known molecular motors. Researchers at Berkeley at the University of California created the world's smallest electrical device earlier this year - one hundred million of which could fit on the end of a pin.