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Bionanotechnology Presentation Syed Rehman


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Bionanotechnology Presentation Syed Rehman

  1. 1. University of Wales Swansea Multidisciplinary Nanotechnology Centre Communication Skills for Engineers Bionanotechnology Turning Bioscience into a Technology By S. S. Rehman (180049) 27/01/06
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction: What is Bionanotechnology ? </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding Living Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary/Interdisciplinary. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits and Challenges of Bioscience. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications. </li></ul><ul><li>Future Research. </li></ul><ul><li>Summary. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Bionanotechnology? <ul><li>Subset of nanotechnology – engineering and manufacturing carried out at an atomic scale via biological precedents . </li></ul><ul><li>Close relation to biotechnology – adding ability to design and manipulate intricacies at an atomic scale. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ True nanomachines’ – characterised by 10,000 working within living system each built to nanoscale spec. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Understanding Living Systems <ul><li>7 major characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Order. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth & Development. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy utilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Response to environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution & adaptation. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Multidisciplinary (MD) & Interdisciplinary (ID) conceptual ideas <ul><li>MD = Collective research involving specialists. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialists contribute expertise from just one discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>ID = Research where individuals possess and use their expertise from more than one discipline. </li></ul><ul><li>ID less common but researchers still in demand in academia and industry. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Bioscience Benefits and Challenges <ul><li>ID research issues – Depts. in UK guard standards and training with particular research area. </li></ul><ul><li>In reality – balance required btw discipline specific and cross disciplinary research. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology will benefit in coming decades from interdisciplinarity. </li></ul>Fig.1 Mixture of disciplines that contribute to quantitative bioscience
  7. 7. Applications Nanomedicine <ul><li>combines gears, levers, plates, sensors, power + communication cables with powerful microscopic comps  </li></ul><ul><li>‘ smart materials’. </li></ul><ul><li>Medical nanites patrolling – possess patients DNA and foreign invaders dispatched. </li></ul><ul><li>Cell sentinals could form artificial immunity to not just colds but AIDS too. </li></ul><ul><li>Life – molecular machines controlled by programmed DNA => possible age reversal=> ethical implications. </li></ul>Fig.2 Nanomachine to repair brain cells
  8. 8. Technology Downside <ul><li>More dangerous world – molecular nano technology (MNT) weapons on v small scale, invisible, smaller compared to biological/chemical counterparts, v precise as programmable. </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuilding capabilities further enhanced with use of MNT – making war more likely between states. </li></ul>Fig.3 MNT promises to be a destabilizing effect on world system as we know it
  9. 9. Utility Fog (UF) <ul><li>Dr. Hall – system contains smart materials made up of nanorobots/foglets. </li></ul><ul><li>Each foglet – telescoping arm and nanocomputer (6 – 10 millionths metre in size). Some of arms grip ends of other foglet arms for communication and power connections. </li></ul><ul><li>Trillions of foglets – enormous computing power. </li></ul>Fig.4 Foglet: sensing forces along each arm
  10. 10. Smart Bionanotubes for Drug Delivery Systems <ul><li>Smart => encapsulate, open up => deliver drug/gene to particular location in body. </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulation of electrical charge of lipid bilayer membrane and cellular microtubules. </li></ul>Fig.6 Smart bionanotubes
  11. 11. Future Research Material development for innovative nano drug delivery systems (DDS) <ul><li>National Institute for Materials (NIM) + University of Tokyo developing base materials for DDS via material nanotech. </li></ul><ul><li>Research aims to establish innovative material technology => contribute medical engineering realizing effective therapeutic techniques to treat cancers and other viral diseases. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Future Research Bio Dots <ul><li>Researchers can chemically link antibody to dot  only binds to specific protein in cell/tissue sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Injection of dots into cell / allow cells to engulf particles => tracking of cell through organism development. </li></ul><ul><li>Dot surfaces require versatile link with various antibodies + other molecules  target specific cell structures. </li></ul>Fig.7 Fluorescing QD highlights cell nucleus and microtubule fibres.
  13. 13. QDs to act as breast cancer labelling tools on cell external surface <ul><li>Wu et al (Quantum Dot and Genentech, San Fransisco, USA) </li></ul><ul><li>Streptavidin / Immunoglobulin G + QD => molecules sought antibodies clinging to protein on cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Intracellular investigation – streptavidin linked QDs fed to cytoplasm of specially prepared dead cells. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Nanotherapeutics The future of medicine <ul><li>Dr. T Desai (Associate Prof. Biomedical Engineering, Boston University) research combines methods + materials initially used for MEMS  implantable biohybrid devices. </li></ul><ul><li>Devices  cell encapsulation, templates for cell and tissue regeneration and novel protocols for surface alteration of biomolecules. </li></ul><ul><li>Multidisciplinary approach  better comprehension of biological systems to develop therapeutic modalities for variety of pathologies. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>Bionanotechnology involves the use of biological processes to manipulation/mimic these processes at the nanoscale to create structures performing particular task. </li></ul><ul><li>Various applications – predominantly in nanomedicine as vast research being carried out worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding living systems is fundamental before we can fully appreciate the true potential of this technology. </li></ul>