Nano Biotechnology


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Nano Biotechnology

  2. 2. NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY The next revolution
  3. 3. NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY To understand the very large, we must understand the very small.Nanobiotechnology will be the future with nanoscience developing nanomaterials and devices. This will lead to further convergence of technology with wide applications… - President Dr A.P.J. Abdul kalam
  5. 5. NANOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>In most simpler terms, nanotechnology is simply the rearranging and processing of atoms and molecules to fabricate materials of nanospecifications, like NANOMETRE. </li></ul><ul><li>Nano, the Greek word for ‘dwarf’, indicates one billionth of something. So, a nanometre is simply a billionth of a metre. </li></ul><ul><li>The nanotechnology talks between 1 and 100nm. Some examples are, the dia of one hydrogen atom is 0.1nm,width of DNA molecule is 2.5nm and glucose is just below 1nm in size. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Indian is initiative <ul><li>The basic principal on which nanotechnology is based was given by an ancient Indian philosopher, kanada. He said “ all the things present in the world are just the different combinations of atoms, their forms changes due to different atomic arrangements but the base, atom remains indestructible”. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been observed that the normal particles when switched to nano sizes the start behaving in dramatic different way, due to rearrangements of their lattices. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chemistry changes with size! <ul><li>CO CO </li></ul><ul><li>CO CO 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Oxide surface </li></ul>Au Au
  8. 8. PROBLEM <ul><li>This fact of changing nature is very useful to us, because we can create new nanoparticeles having great advantages in field of diagnosis and therapeutics, robotics, space programs and many more. </li></ul><ul><li>But the problem is that we need to see an atom clearly for its rearrangement in the molecule, which is very tuff even with high capacity microscopes.. But happy coincidence is that today technology of microscopy is very advanced. </li></ul><ul><li>Today we have techniques of TEM, Scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope. </li></ul>
  9. 9. ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE <ul><li>In conventional advanced microscopic techniques like STM, an electron beam is used to see and study the samples. But as these electron beams can be controlled only under vacuum, so we can use them only to study non living samples not the biological processes like breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>Answer to the problem is ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE , launched first time in 1986. it basically measures the forces between the atoms. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It includes an externally visible ultra sharp tip, with a radius of 20nm, which touches the sample with a force of one-tenth of a millionth of a gram. </li></ul><ul><li>As the tip is either attracted or repelled, the cantilever to which the probing needle is attached, bends. The deflection of sensitive cantilever is measured using a laser beam. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer records the path of the tip and slowly builds up a 3-D image. </li></ul><ul><li>AFM can be used for many advanced processes like mapping of surfaces of a range of objects from computer chips to DNA </li></ul><ul><li>It can also be used to measure nano forces too. </li></ul><ul><li>AFM tip acts as a pen to ‘draw’ with molecules as ‘ink’. Conventionally we used silicon tips but now nanotips are replacing them. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BUCKYBALL <ul><li>In 1985 smalley, curl and kroto discovered a new form of carbon, existing on red giant stars. Then they created star like conditions in lab by bombarding carbon with laser. A new molecule of carbon gets produced, which consist of 60 carbon atoms joined together as hexagons and pentagons. </li></ul><ul><li>They named it as Buckminster fullerene, which gets popular as Buckyball. </li></ul><ul><li>This new form was found to be very stable against high amounts of heat and pressure. </li></ul>
  12. 12. CARBON NANOTUBES <ul><li>Then in 1991 Ijima, stretched out buckyball and form a curved cylindrical sheet of carbon, then known as carbon nanotube. </li></ul><ul><li>This material was found to be stronger then conventional carbon, then carbon nanotubes also prepared from graphite rods and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>These carbon nanotubes have great advances in creating various sensing probes, new semiconductors, and nanomicroprocessors. Today we are available with various single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Then carbon nanotubes are found to be 1000 times stronger then steel, they can withstand 1000 c, the materials like DNA sticks to them which helps in their separations. </li></ul><ul><li>These tubes are exceptionally strong against any crack or damage, they have extreme abilities to conduct electricity and heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually they are prepared from CVD, chemical vapour deposition technique. But broadly two approaches are used top-down or bottom-up. </li></ul><ul><li>Their use is very important in creating new biosensors for sensing various biochemical levels of our body, because they can fit inside the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Also have important use in electronics as a semiconductor minimizing sizes of chips and microprocessors. </li></ul>
  14. 15. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>In this we shall discus about the force of attraction b/n any two material particles in the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Galileo was the first to recognise the fact that all bodies, irrespective of their masses, fall towards the earth with a constant acceleration. </li></ul><ul><li>During the time of Galileo a noble man called Tycho-Brahe from denmark spent his entire life in recording the observation with his naked eyes. </li></ul><ul><li>But now we know, our body have 100 million million cells. A cell is 30-35 micrometer in diameter, with nucleus of diameter 10 micrometer. In contrast the width of DNA is just 2nm.This is only due to latest techniques. </li></ul>
  15. 16. NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Simply applying the applications of nanotechnology in biotechnology is called NBT. </li></ul><ul><li>Drexler classified cells as nanomasterpieces and biology as nanoscale process. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell is an outstanding model of a self-replicating nanomachine in which various biological processes like translation, transcription, replication and other biochemical pathways are taking place at nanoscale. </li></ul><ul><li>Our body have 100 million million cells. A cell is 30-35 micrometer in diameter, with nucleus of diameter 10 micrometer. In contrast the width of DNA is just 2nm. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Ribosomes as nanomemories <ul><li>Nature has provided cells a large no of nanomachines associated in them. Like Ribosomes, which copies DNA into RNA and then collects the correct amino acids to create proteins. These ribosomes and mechanism associated with them can be used to produce nanomemory robots, which can be further used in body for diagnosis of translational errors. </li></ul><ul><li>Molecules of myosin v that converts chemical energy into mechanical energy, is found to be acting as a cargo van in the cell. </li></ul>
  17. 18. BIOCHEMICAL MOTORS <ul><li>Many bacteria for their locomotion uses whip like tails called flagella, which are found to be propelled by nanomotors. The tiny biochemical motor turns a rotary shaft that spins the tails, or flagella, and allows the bacteria, such as these E. coli , to move through liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>While producing nanoprobes or nanorobots we cant use conventional high phase motors. These effective biochemical motors will be the only option in future. With the help of these motors the various sensing devices can move inside our body for their operations. </li></ul>
  18. 19. ATPase MOTOR <ul><li>This tiny engine is based on a single molecule of ATPase bonded to a propeller made from protein. It spins at the rate of 3 to 4 revolutions per second. </li></ul><ul><li>The ATPase motor is built on the membranes of cellular mitochondria. The force it generates in moving energy in cells places it among the most powerful of any known molecular motors. </li></ul>
  19. 20. NANOBIOSENSORS <ul><li>Nanobiosensors are analytical devices that carry a biological element such as an enzyme or antibody as well as a transducer, which is but a device to convert the data from the samples into signals for detection. </li></ul><ul><li>Most biosensors based on nanoparticles are in the mesoscale(10-100nm) or in macro scale with fluorescence as the detection method. These sensors are capable of measuring calcium, sodium, potassium, glucose as well as biological warfare like anthrax. They may work singly or in parallel with millions or billions of individual units. </li></ul><ul><li>The nano probes of 20nm radius can easily fit inside a cell. Molecules inside the probes emit light specific for zinc or copper ions, which are critical for functioning of cell. So we can conclude anything about position and function of these ions in cell. </li></ul>INTERNAL VIEW OF BODY
  20. 21. NEW FEATURES OF DNA <ul><li>Nanotechnology is detecting new features in DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been found that the immune system gets switched on only if the gene swirls in a left handed orientation, unlike the right handed coil described by Watson and crick. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the position of active genes plays a crucial role in the onset of disease. Perhaps movements of genes may also silence their activity at times. These are some new puzzles nanobiotechnology is supposed to solve in coming years. </li></ul><ul><li>Italian researchers have studied electrical transport properties of DNA. The DNA base guanosine was used for building an electronic device, field-effect transistor. </li></ul><ul><li>DNA is most effective intelligent glue, can be used to fix or keep nanoparticles and probes at a particular position in the body. </li></ul>
  21. 22. NANOSUBMARINES <ul><li>A nanoscale ‘submarine’- only a few tens or hundreds of atoms long- is made to navigate through blood. They are submarines that flow in your bloodstream. Their target: destruction of a programmed disease. This is not just a science fiction. They will be propelled by motors shown in previous slides. </li></ul><ul><li>They will carry a tiny cylinder filled with drugs. The drugs designed to fight tumors, or melt the unwanted fat in the arteries. Research is under way to ensure no side-effects. </li></ul>
  22. 23. NANOMEDICINE <ul><li>Drugs cannot reach many parts inside the human body. So nanodevices have been constructed, making drug delivery more effective and less painful. For example, pancreatic cells are encapsulated into nanoparticle that are sent into the blood stream where they continue to secrete insulin without being attacked by antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>A cardiac drug can be taken without the risk of its potential adverse impact on the kidney or liver. Moreover, cancer treatment without side-effects is also possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In cells hitted by cancer, self-regulation mechanisms goes silent. Such cells are destroyed by apoptosis, but if the mechanism of apoptosis goes silent. Then we can use nanopulses which leads changing in structures within the cell and trigger the cell to commit suicide by activating the needed enzymes. </li></ul>
  23. 24. NANOWONDER <ul><li>Nanoparticles can also be used to cut the blood supply lines to tumors. </li></ul><ul><li>A nanoparticle packed with the gene raf-1, forces blood vessel cells to destroy themselves. The beauty of the gene is that it destroys only newly formed blood vessels and not established ones. Moreover, it is a nanoparticle and not a virus, there is less chance of it being rejected by the human immune system. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanofibers are expected to carry genes into cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology is expected to help scientists discover mechanical properties of tissues and cells and how blood vessels respond to increased blood flow. </li></ul>Nanoparticle packed with Raf-1
  24. 25. <ul><li>I know only two things that are infinite- the </li></ul><ul><li>universe and the human stupidity. And I’m </li></ul><ul><li>not sure about the first. A ALBERT EINSTEIN </li></ul>
  25. 26. A BONANZA FOR TERRORISTS <ul><li>Terrorists may misuse the collaboration of nanotechnology and biotechnology by creating more dangerous biological weapons . </li></ul><ul><li>They can develop viruses of anthrax, plague, polio etc and can spread them in human population by using nanoparticles. </li></ul><ul><li>Information available on internet about genetic and physical makeup of various pathogens and their encapsulation techniques is going to help them in upcoming future. </li></ul>
  26. 27. JUDGEMENT DAY <ul><li>Self replicating intelligent nanorobots are one of the most dramatic danger for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>The huge robots are not dangerous to us but if we consider them on nanosize, then just their inhaling during production can be very harmful. And if it have memory and self replication properties then it will be as harmful as a virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael crichton the author of Jurassic park, recently wrote a new thriller, prey. The book explores the applications of nanobiotech and AI. The thriller describes how super small and super smart robots are destroying earth and humans. </li></ul>
  27. 28. CURSE OR BLESSING? <ul><li>Everything is like a coin having two faces, one good one and other one is evil. Its on us which face we want to see and apply. </li></ul><ul><li>Its on us to take nanobiotechnology as a blessing or as a curse, in both ways it have ability to change the world. </li></ul><ul><li>But as a blessing its surely going to change it in a better way. </li></ul><ul><li>SO IF U WANT TO BECAME BETER THEN THE BEST THEN LET THE NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY BE UR GUEST…. </li></ul>
  28. 29. THANK YOU