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Emanuel Swedenborg

Emanuel Swedenborg

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  • 1. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONSIDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MEMBER OF THE ROUSE OF NOBLES IN THE ROYAL DIET OP8WEDEN; ASSESSOR OF THE ROYAL METALLIC COLLEGE OF SWEDEN;FELWW OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UPSALA, AND OFTHE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOLM; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN DY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME ONE SECOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INCOBPOBATBD Reproduced by Photo-offset, SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION, 1955
  • 2. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CON8IDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE ME~IBER OF THE ROUSE OF NOBLES IN THE ROYAL DIET OP6WEDEN; ASSESSOR OF THE ROYAL METALLIC COLLEGE OF 6WEDEN;FELLOW OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UPSALA, AND OFTHE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOL:I4; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN DY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME ONE SECOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INOOBPORATSD Reploduced by Photo-offset. SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  • 3. Paucis nat-us est. Qui populum œtatis suœ cogitat: rf!ulta annol"ummillia, multa populorum sllpenenient: ail il/a -respice, etiamsi omnibustecum vivcntibus silentiurn . , . [aliqua causa] indixeril: tmienl, quisine offensa, sine gl"atia judicent. SENECA, Epist, lxxix.
  • 4. CON T}~ NT S OF VOLUME FIR8T. PART 1. PAeB INTRODuc;TION, •Chapter 1. The Compo,ition und Gennine Essence of the Blood. 16 " II. The Arterie, anù Veins, their lunie", and the Cireu­ lation of the Blood. . 76 " nI. On the Formation of the Chiek in the Egg, and on the Arterics, V cil);;, and Rudiments of the Heart. 197 " IV. On the Circulation of the Blood in the Fœtus; and on the Foramen Ovale and Ductus Arteriosus belonging to the Heart in Embryos and Infants. 286 " V. The rIeart of the Turtlc. . 345 " VI. The leeulilr Arteries and Veins of the Heart, and the Coronary Vessels.. •••••••• 354 " VII. The Motion of the Adult Heart. • • • • • • • 4,18
  • 5. THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. PART I.THE BLOOD, THE ARTERIES, THE VEINS, AND THE HEART, WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. INTRODUCTION. 1. THE animal kingdom, the economy of which 1 am about toconsider anatomicaIly, physicaIly, and philosophicaIly, regardsthe blood as its common fountain and general plinciple. Inundertaking, therefore, to treat of this economy, the doctrineof the blood must be the first propounded, although it is thelast that is capable of being brought to completion. 2. In ordcr that aIl things may succeed each other in propcrorder, it is necessary to set out from general principles ; consc­quently, from the blood, in which, as a type, we discern theseveral parts of which we are to treat. For on the nature, con·stitution, detennination, continuity, and quantity of the blood,depend the fortunes and condition of the animal life. The ves­sels, namely, the arteries and veins, are only the determinationsof the blood; and such as is the form resulting from their coali­tion and complication, sucb" are the common forces and vitaleffects of the system, and such their particular qualifications. 3. The blood is as it were the complex of aIl things that ex­ist in the worM, and the storehouse and seminary of a11 that VOT.. 1. 1 (1)
  • 6. 2 THE ECONOMY OF THE ~NIM~L KiNGDOM.exist in the body. Tt contains salts of every kind, both fixedand volatile, and oils, spirits, and aqueons elements; in fine,whatever is creatcd and produced by the three kingdoms of theworld, the animal, the vegetable, and the minera!. MQreover,it imbibes the treasures that the atmosphere carries in its bosom,and to this end exposes itself to the air through the medium ofthe lungs. 4. Since the blood then is an epitome of the riches of thewhole world and an its kingdoms, it would appear as if anthings were created for the purpose of administering to thecomposition and continued renewal of the blood. For if aUthings exist for the sake of man, and with a view to afford himthe conditions and means of living, then an things exist for thesake of the blood, which is the parent and nourisher of everypart of the body; for nothing exists in the body that has notpreviously existed in the blood. 5. So true is this, that if the texture of any muscle or gland,ofwhich almost all the viscera are composed, be divided into itsminutest parts, it will be found to consist wholly of vessels con-taining [red] blood, and of fibres containing spirit, or purerblood. And cven those parts that do not appear to consist ofvessels, such as the bony, cartilaginous, and tendinons textures,will nevertheless be found, in th~ first softness of their infancy,to have been similarly composed. Rence the blood is not onlya treasury and storehouse of aIl things in nature, and therebyministers to its offspring, the body, whatever is requisite to itsvarious necessities and uses, but it is actually all in aH; andcontains within itself the ground and the means by which everyman is enabled to live a distinctive life, in his own body, and inthe ultimate world. 6. This doctrine, however, is the last in the order of comple-tion, prcsupposing, as it does, a comprehensive knowledge ofthose things that enter into and constitute the blood, as men-tioned above (3), and furthermore, an examination of an theviscera, members, organs, and tunics, which the blood at oncepermeates and vivifies. If we are ignorant of the nature ofthese, and their mode of action, we are ignorant of the natureof the blood. The occult can give birth to nothing but theoccult; in short, our knowledge of it is limited by our knowl-
  • 7. INTRODUCTION. 3edge of those things that are known to be involved in it, andof those in which itself is known to he involved. 7. From these remarks we may readily perceive how manysciences are incIuded in that of the blood, namely, the wholecircle of anatomy, medicine, chemistry, and physics; and evenof physiology; for the passions of the mind vary according tothe states of the blood, and the states of the blood accordingto the passions of the mind. In a word, the science of theblood incIudes aIl the sciences that treat of the substances ofthe world, and of the forces of nature. For this reason we flndthat man did not begin to exist till the kingdoms were com·pleted; and that the world and nature concentrated themselvesin him: in order that in the human microcosm the entire uni­verse might be exhibited for contemplation, from its last end toits first. 8. In the present Part, therefore, in which l have investigatedthe blood, blood-vessels, and heart, and not attempted to launchout far beyond the particular experience belonging to thosesubjects, l could not venture to frame any other than generalprinciples and deductions, or to propound any other than ob­scure notions of things. There is need both of time and offurther progress, in order that what here seems obscure may bemade cIear and be distinctly explained. On aIl occasions it isdesirable to take experience as our guide, and to follow theorder of nature, according to which an obscure notion precedesa distinct one, and a common notion precedes a palticular one.We never have a distinct perception of anything, unless weeither deduce it from, or refer it to, a common fountain and universal principle. This mode of proceeding indeed accordswith the original and natural conditi{)ll of the senses, and of the animal and rational mind. For we are barn in dense ignorance and insensibility. Our organs are opened only by degrees; the images and notions at first received are obscure, and, if l may so speak, the whole universe is represented to the eye as a sin­ gle indistinct thing, a fonnless chaos. In the course of time, how­ ever, its various parts become comparatively distinct, and at length are presented to the tribunal of the rational mind; whence it is nat till late in life that we become rational beings. In this manner, by degrees, a passage is effected to the soul,
  • 8. 4 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINODOM. which, abiding in her intelligence, decrees that the way leading to her shaH thus be opened, in order that aH actions, and the reasons for all, may be refe11ed to her as their genuine principle. 9. Being unable as yet to deliver any other than generals and universals, l foresee that many of the remarks l shaH have to offel, will appear to be mere conjectures or paradoxes. Theywill so appenr, however, to none but those who have not gonethrough a complete course of anatomy, physics, chemistry, andthe other arts and sciences; or to those with whom precon­ception and prejudice forestall their judgment, and who makesorne one particular govern aU the lest; or again, to those who·have no capacity for comprehending distinctly the sedes andconnection of the subject. Still, as l before remarked, there isneed of time and of further progress to render the subject clear;and moreover the doctrine of the blood, although it is the firstwe have to propound, is nevertheless the last that can be com­pleted. The result, then, must show, whether or not thosestatements, which at first perhaps appear ·like obscure guess­work, are in the end so abundantly attested by effects, as toprove that they are indeed the oracular responses of the truth. 10. Whether a statement be true or not, is easily asceltained.If it be true, all experience spontaneously evidences and favorsit, and likewise aIl the rules of true philosophYj and what lhave often wondered at, various hypotheses, in propOltion asthcy are founded on sorne common notion, either coincide withit, or else indicate pmticular points of contact or approximation;much as the shadowy appearances of the morning are shown intheir connection with real objects by the rising sun. When thetruth is present everything yields a suffiage in its favor j andtherefore it immediately declares itself and wins bcliefj or, asthe saying is, displays itself naked. 11. To a knowledge of the causes of things, - in other. words,to truths, - nothing but expedence can guide us. For whenthe mind, with aU the speculative force that belonga to it, isleft to love abroad without this guide, how prone is it to fallinto error, nay, into e110rs, and errors of enors! How futile isit atter this, or at any rate how precarious, to seek con1hmationand SUPPOIt from experience! We are not to deduce experiencefiom assumed principles, but to deduce principles themselvcs
  • 9. INTRODUCTION. 5 from experience. For in truth we are surrOllncled with illusi"e and fallacious lights, and are the more likely to fall because our very darkness thus counterfeits the day. When we are carried away by ratiocination alone, we are somewhat like blindfolded children in their play, who, though they imagine that they are waIking straight forward, yet when their eyes are unbound, plainly perceive that they have been following some roundabout path, which, if pursued, must have led them to the place the very opposite to the one intended. 12. But it may be asked whether at the present day we are in possession of such a number of facts as from these alone to be able to trace out the operations of nature, without being obliged to wander beyond experience into the regions of conjecture. In answer to this we are bound to admit, that particular e~eri­ ence, or that which strictly comprehends or immediately refers-to one and the same object, however rich in detail such experi­ ence may be, and however enlarged by the accumulated obser­ vations of ages, can never be sufficiently ample fol the explora­ tion of nature in the sphere of causes: but if; on the other hand, in exploring each partioular object, we avail ourselves of the assistance of general ~erience, that is ta say, of aIl that is known in anatomy, medicine, chemistry, physics, and the other natural sciences, then, even at the present day, we appear to be abundantly supplied with means for the undmtaking. 13. Particular experience, or that which concerns but one object, can never be so luxut1antly productive of phenomena as to exhaust and exhibit thoroughly aIl the hidden qualitics of that object. Take for example the experiments that have been made upon the blood. These inform us merely that it is of various degrees of redness; that it is heavier than water; that it sinks to the bottom of its serum; that it is of a certain tem­ perature; that it contains salta of both kinds [fixed and volatile], and -so forth. But they do not show us the origin of that red­ ness, gravity, and heat; nor in what part of the blood the phlegm, the volatile-Ulinous, oily, and spirituous substances re· side. N evertheless these questions belong ta the subject either as accidents or essentials, and can be answered and investigated only by general experience, that is, by experience in its widest meaning, or in its whole course and compass. To determine or 14
  • 10. 6 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.define a thing by occult qualities is to leave it as much in thedark as befOle. In further illustration, we do but stop at thevery threshold of the science of Angiology, unless we learn theanatomy of the body and of all the viscera, that is, diligentlytrace the blood through aIl the diversified mazes in which itflows. The same observation applies in every other instance,whether of anatomy or physics. Thus in investigating thecauses of musculal action, or the qualities of the motive fibre,unless we combine the particular experience of one individual,vith aIl the experience of others; and unless, in addition tothis, we take into account the experience recorded concerningthe blood, the arteries, the heart, the nerves, the nervous gan­glia, the glands, the medulla spinalis, the meduIla oblongata, thecerebeIlum, the cerebrum, and aIl the other members, organs,and tunics, endowed with the power of muscular motion; andfurthermore, unless we avail ourselves of the facts that havebeen brought to light in physics and mechanics, respectingforces, elasticity, motion, and many other subjects, - unless wedo ail this, we shaH assuredly be disappointed of the result forwillch we are striving. 14. From particular experience, as wa before observed, onlyobscure notions are derived, but willch are developed, and ren­dered more distinct, in the course of time and study, by generalexperience. There is a connection, communion, and mutualrelation of all things in the world and in nature, beginningfrom the first substance and force; one science meets and en­larges another, and each successive discovery throws new lightupon the preceding. Out of a number and variety of objects,judiciously arranged and compared, an idea gathers illustration,and reason enlightenment, but still it is only in succession thatits clouds are cussipated and its light emerges. Renee, in thisarena of literature, if any one wouId attempt aught that is worthyof immortality, he must not tany at the starting post, butmeasure the entire course. N ow, if we proceed in tills manner,we shaH find that at the present day we are possessed of a suffi­cient store of facts, and that it will not be necessary to wanderbeyond experience into the field of conjecture. 15. When particular experience is extended beyond its prop­el limits, as is fiequently done, and when it is erected into an
  • 11. INTRODUOTION. 7authority for general conclusions, how often and how subtillydoes it deceive the mind, which indeed lends its own reveriesto the delusion! how strenuously does it seem to fight on thesame side as ourselves! The ground of this is, that any factmay form a part in djjferent series of reasonings, precisely asone syllable, word, or phrase, may be a constituent in an infinityof sentences and discourses; one idea in Infinite series ofthoughts; one particIe or globule of an atmosphere in an Infinitenumber of modulations ; one corpuscule of salt in an infinity offlavors; and one color in an infinity of pictures. One thingmay be grafted upon another as one tree upon another, and theapurious be made to thrive upon the legitimate. 16. To avoid therefore being misled by appearances, weahould never give assent to propositions unless general experi­ence sanctions them, or unless they are decIared to be true bythe unanimous suffrage of nature; that is to say, unless theyform necessary links in the great unbroken chain of ends andmeans in creation. On this condition alone can an edifice bereared, which after the lapse of ages, and the testimony of thou­sands of additional discoveries, posterity shall acknowledge tolest upon true foundations; so that it shall no longer be neces­sary for each age to be electing new structures on the ruins ofthe former. 17. In the experimental knowledge of anatomy our way hasbeen pointed out by men of the greatest and most cultivatedtalents; sl1ch as Eustachius, Malpighi, Ruysch, Leeuwenhoek,Harvey, Morgagni, Vieussens, Lancisi, Winslow, Ridley, Boer­haave, Wepfer, Heister, Steno, Valsalva, Duverney, N uck,Bartholin, Bidloo, and Verheyen; whose discoveries, far fromconsisting of fallacious, vague, and empty speculations, will for­ever continue to be of practical use to posterity. 18. Assisted by the studies and elaborate writings of theseillustrious men, and fortified by their authority, 1 have resolvedto commence and complete my design; that is to say, to opensorne part of those things which it is generally supposed thatnature has involved in obscurity. Rere and there 1 have takenthe liberty to throw in the results of my own experience; butthis only sparingly, for on deeply considering the matter, 1ieemed it best to make use of the facts supplied by others.
  • 12. 8 THE ECONOltfY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.1ndeed there are some that seem born for experimental obser· vation, and endowed with a sharper insight than others, as if they possessed naturaUy a finer acumen; such are Eustachius, Ruysch, Leeuwcnhoek, Lancisi, &c. There are others again who enjoy a natural faculty for contemplating facts already dis­ covered, and eliciting their causes. Both are peculiar gifts, and are seldom united in the same person. Besides, l found, whenintcntly occupied in exploring the secrets of the human body,that as soon as l discovered anything that had not been ob­served before, l began (seduced probably by self-love) to growblind to the most acute lucubrations and researches of others,and to originate the whole series of inductive arguments frommy particular discovery alone; and consequently to be incapaci.tatcd to view and comprehend, as accurately as the subject re­quired, the idea of universals in individuals, and of individualsunder universals. Nay, when l essayed to form principles fromthese discoveries, l thought l could detect in various otherphenomena much to confirm their truth, although in realitythey were fuirly susceptible of no construction of the kind. ltherefore laid aside my instruments, and restraining my desirefor making observations, determined rather to rely on the re·searches of others t1lan to trust to my own. 19. To find out the causes of things from the study of givenphenomena cel-tainly requires a talent of a peculiar kind. 1t isnot every one that can confine his attention to one thing, andevolve with distinctness aU that lies in it: it is not every onethat can think profoundly, or, as Cicero says, "that can cast upaU his reasons, and state the sum of his thoughts,":Z; or, as inanot1ler place, "that can recaU the mind from the senses, fixupon the real truth in everything, and see and combine withexactness the reasons that led to his conclusion.":Z; This is apeculiar endowment into which the brain must be initiated fromits very rudiments, and which must afterwards by a graduaIprocess be made to acquire permanence by means of habit andcultivatioll. 1t is a common remark that poete, musicians, sing­ers, painters, architects, and sculptoll!, are bOIn such; and weknow that every species of animaIs is born with that peculiarcharacter which distinguishes it so completely from every otherspecies. We see that some men come into the world as prodi.
  • 13. INTRODUOTION. 9gies endowed with superhuman powers of memory; others withan extraordinary activity of the whole faculty, amounting to apeculiar strength of imagination and intuitive perception; byvirtue of which no sooner do they set the animal mind in mo­tion on any subject, than they excite the rationality of thecorresponding rational mina, they arrange their philosophicaltopics into a suitable form, and afterwards engage in thoughttill they see clearly whether their opinions are consonant withthe decisiot1s of a soundjudgment; when, if any element of anobscure character embarrasses the subject, by a happy gift. ofnature they separate the obscure from the clear, and in its placeinsert sorne other element more conformable to the general idea,80 as to make all the parts aptly cohere. With a natural facilitythey distribute their thoughts into classes, and separate mixedtopics into appropriate divisions; and skilfully subordinate series,thus perspicuously divided, one under the other, that is, theparticular under the general, and the general under the univer­saI. Thus are they never overwhelmed by the multiplicity ofthings, but continuaIly enlightened more and more, and, by thehelp of arrangement and general notions, recall to mind when­ever they please, such parts of the subject as had become efiàcedfiom their notice, and unfold such as are complicated or per­plexed. Those who are born with tbis felicity of talent, and afterwaldsploceed in due order to its development, the more profoundlythey penetrate into the depths of science, the less do they trustto their imagination, and the more cautious are they not to ex­tend their reasoning beyond the strict limit justified by facts:or if they indulge in conjecture at ail, they treat it as mere sur­mise and hypothesis unti! experience bespeaks its correctness.They avoid as a hydra any premature attachment to, or implicitcredence in, opinions, unless there are circumfltances duly tosupport them. Even if they retain them in theu: memory, theydo not admit them as links in any chain of reasoning; but whileconducting their argument, in a manner banish them fiomthought, and keep the attention fixed on data and faets alone.The fictitious depresses them, the obscure pains them; but theyare exhilarated by the truth, and in the presence of everythingthat is clear, they too are clear and serene. When, after a long
  • 14. 10 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO};1.course of reasoning, they make a discovery of the truth, struight­way there is a celtain cheering light, and joyful connrrnatorybrightness, that plays around the sphere of their mind; and akind of mysterions radiation, - 1 know Dot whcnce it proccec1s,- that darts through sorne sacrec1 temple in the brain. Thus asort of rational instinct displays itself, and in a manner givesnotice that the soul is caUcd into a state of more inwaTCl com­munion, and has returned at that moment into the golden age of its intellectual perfections. The mind that has known this plcasure (for no desire attaches to the unlmown) is carried away wholly in pursuit of it; and in the kindling flame of itslove despises in comparison, as exte111al pastimes, all merelycorporeal pleasures; and although it recognizes them as meansfol exciting the animal mind and the purel blood, it on noaccount foIlows them as ends. Persons of this cast consider thearts and sciences only as aids to wisdom, and lea111 them ashelps to its attainment, not that they may be reputed wise forpossessing them. They modestly restrain aIl tendency to inflat­ed ideas of themselves, knowing that the sciences are an ocean,of which they can catch but a few drops. They look on no onewith a scornful bww, or a supercilious air, nor arlOgate anypraise to themselves. Theyascribe aIl to the Deity, anc1legardHim as the source from whom aIl true wisdom descends. Inthe promotion of his glory they place the end and objeet oftheir OWll. 20. But those who go in opposition ta nature, and with nowisc10m to befriend them, and strive to intrude themselves arbi­traily into this condition, are only doing violence to their powers.The more they attempt a transition from one reason to another,and to draw a single conclusion from aIl, the more do theyen­tangle the threads of their argument, till they enclose themselveswithin the folds of the intricate web they have woven; and atlast are enshrouded in darkness, fiom which they flnd it impossi­ble by their own endeavors to escape. These chiefly are they whom the sciences and a multiplicityof studies benight and blind, or whom lea111ing infatuates.These are they who invent senseless hypotheses, and gravelyin vite the public to visit their castIes in the air. Who displayan absurd ambition to narrow the limits of knowledge, and per­
  • 15. INTROD UOTION. 11suade themselves that there is no cultivated lauù beyond theborders of thei.r own muddy lake. Who, if haply their eyesbe opened, nevertheless contend to the last for the false againstthe true. Who procIaim that nature is altogether beyond thereach of human comprehension, and consign her to chains; bid­ding the world despair of seeing her liberated at aIl, or at leastfor ages. Who claim aIl wisdom as an attribute of memory,and hold nothing in esteem but bare catalogues of facUl, regard­ing as of no account any inqui.ry into their causes. Who, inimitating the character of others, and omitting their own, or infighting fiercely under anothers standard, fancy themselvesamong the leading geJ;liuses of the age, and think they havemerited the leadership. Who consider themselves as havingrevealed the secrets of Delphos, if they have only been able toinvest the obscure oracles of another mind with sorne new, andas they supposed ornamentaI, costume of thei.r own. AlI whicherrors of theirs arise from the fact, that they have not leamedto measure their genius by the mIe of nature. 21. As the natural gift we have mentioned, or the faculty bywhich the understanding sees acutely and distinctly into theseries of things, is to be perfected by the use of means; so evenwhere this faculty is by nature excellent, there are many thingsthat retard its advancement, diminish its energy, and enfeebleits efforts. Such, for instance, are the desires of the animalmind and the pleasures of the body, which render the rationalmind, when too compliant to them, unable any longer to pursueits high investigations; for then it is as it were in bonds, andforced to go wherever lust will have it. This faculty is impairedand destroyed also by the cares and anxieties arising fiom do­mestic circumstances and the consideration ofworldly prospects.For these determine the mind to low and outward things, andnever raise it to the high and the inward. Nothing superin­duces more darkness on the human mind, than the intClferenceof its own fancied providence in matters that properly belong tothe Divine Providence. 22. This faculty, however, is chiefly impaired by the thirstfor glory and the love of self. l know not what darkness over­spreads the rational faculties when the mind begins to swellwith pride; or when our intuition of objecta calls up in the
  • 16. 12 THE EGONOMY OF THE ANIMAL K1NGDOM.objects themselves the image and glory of our own selfhood. Itis like ponring a liquor upon sorne exquisite wine, which throwsit into a fioth, sullies its purity, and clouds its translucence. Itis as if the animal spirits were stirred into waves, and a tempestdrove the grosser blood into insurgent motion, by which theorgans of internaI sensation or perception becoming swollen,the powers of thought are dulled, and the whole scene of actionin theu theatre changed. In those who experience these disor­derly states, the rational faculty is crippled, and brought to astand-still; or rather its movements become retrograde insteadof progressive. A limit is put ta its operations, which its pos­sessor imagines to be the limit of aH human capacity, becausehe himself is unable to overstep it. He sees little or nothing inthe most studied researches of others, but everything - 0, howvain-glorious! - in his own. Nor can he return to conect con­ceptions until bis elated thoughts have subsided to their properlevel. "There are many," says Seneca, "who might haveattained to wisdom, had they not fancied they had attained italready." z The Muses love a tranquil mind, and there is noth.mg but hurnility, a contempt of self and a simple love of truth,that can prevent or remedy the evils we have described. But how often does a man labor in vain ta divest himself ofhis own nature. How often, when ignorant or unmindful of thelove that creeps upon him, will he betray a partiality to himself and the offspring of his own genius. If an author therefore de­ sires that his studies should give birth to anything of sterlingvalue, let him be advised, when he has committed to paper whathe considers to be of particular merit and is fond of fi-equently perusing, to lay it aside for a while, and after the lapse of months to return to it as ta a something he had forgoW;m, and as the production not of himselt; but of Borne other writer. Let him repeat this practice three or four times in the year. In accord­ ance with the advice of Horace,­ .. Reprehendlte, quod non Multll dies et multa litura coercult, atque Perfectum decJes et non castlgavlt ad unguem." De Arte Poeticd, 1. 292-294.Should his writings thcn often raise a blush upon bis counte­nance, should he no longer feel an overweening confidence withregard to the lines which had received the latest polish from his
  • 17. INTRODUCTION. 13hands, let him be assured that he has made some little progr",ssin wisdom. 23. l think that l shall not at aH detract from the literatureof the present day, if laver with many, that the ancients sur·passed us in wisdom, in the art and perfection of distinguishingthings, and in the shrewdness of their conjectures respectingthe occult. For with no instruction Bave their own, they laidthe foundationB of numerOUB arts and sciences upon which theirposterity aiterwards built; nay, from the resources of their owngenius, and without being under any intellectual obligations tothe past, they raised the superstructure to no inconsidelableheight. Of the truth of this fact we have evidence in theirwritings, which, more lasting than brasa, have been handeddown uninjured through an interval of thousands of years evento this very day. The instructive lessons they have taught, andthe opinions they have pronounced, we, their posterity andcbildren, are still wont to respect, to receive, and to apply tothe practical purposes of life. It is scarcely necessary to men·tion such names as Aristotle, IIippocrates, Galen, Archimedes,Euclid, and others. 24. On the other hand, l think l shaH not detract fiom thepraise due to ancient literature, if again with many laver, thatthe late and present ages are distinguished above thoso of theancients for the aids they have afforded in carrying to a furtherextent the developments of genius, or for accumulating exper­imental facts; thus for supplying posterity, of whom we havethe brightest hopes, with materials for a wisdom that is yet tocome. Each therefore has occupied its peculiar province; theancients excelling in genius; the modems abounding in mate­rials that. may afford support to future genius. 25. Thus does it seem to be tho will of that Providence whorules aH earthly affaira, that the one state should be Bucceededby the other; that the parents should instruct the children;and that the ancients should incite their posterity to the acqui­sition of the experimental knowledge by which their contem·plative sciences may be confinned; and in like manner that weof the present age should stimulate the generations that followus, to work again and again in the mines of the same experi­ence, so that they, in their tum, may attain to a deeper insight:, VOL,I. 2
  • 18. 14 THE EGONOilIY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO.lI.and a fmther progress; in fine, that various ages should culti.vate variuus kinds of learning; in order, as it woulc1 appear, thatthe sciences may at last arrive at their destined perfection. Whether we contemplate the sphere of generals or particu­lars, we al ways behold na ture busied in alternations. She poursaround the world the light of day, and then the darkness ofnight, and from darkness leads on a new day through the gatesof the breaking dawll. She advances from spring to summer,and from summer to autumn, and retums through winter tospring-time. She guides the infant through youth and manhoodto old age, while at the same time she is preparing a new gen­eration to enter on the years of infancy and youth. By likealternations, or u similar order of things, it is reasonable to sup­pose that the republic of lettèi-s is govemed. First came theday, and the world was enlightened with the brilliance ofgenius; then the night, and for ages the human mind layslumbering in c1arkness. N ow again the dawn is near, and weabound in experience. Haply the progress hence will be to anew day and a second age of genius. 26. And the time is ut hand when we may quit the harborand sail for the open sea. The materials are ready: shall wenot build the edifice? The harvest is wuiting: shall we not putin the sickle? The produce of the garden is rüe and ripe:shall we fail to collect it for use? Let us enjoy the providedbanquet, that is to say, from the experience with which we areenriched, let us elicit wisdom. Had such a store as we possessheen set before the sages of antiquity, there is reason to pre­sume, that they would have advanced tile sciences to the heightsnot only of Pindus but of Helicon. Nor will there be wantingmen at this day, with this splendid inheritance of knowledge;who - provided they devote their minds to the object ficmtheir earliest years, and with their full native powers, and donot suffer themselves to be cunied away by the sensual pleasuresand dissipations of the age - will carry the same sciences be­yond the Pindus of the ancients. 27. But to launch out into this field is like embarking on ashorelcss ocean that environs the world. It is easy to quit theland, or to loose the barses fiom the starting-post; but to attainthe end or reaeh the goal is a labor for Hercules. N evertheless
  • 19. INTRODUCTION. 15we are bounc1 1.0 attempt the abyss, though as }(t we must pro­ceed Iike young birds, that with the feeble strokes of t11eir new­fledged wings first essay their strength, and from their nests trytbe air, the new world into which they are 1.0 enter. 28. But ail this contributes nothing 1.0 the business before us,or 1.0 the knowledge of the blooc1. l shall therefore detnin thereader no longer, but proceed immec1intcly 1.0 the matter in hanr1.Allow me 1.0 observe, thllt in each chapter of the ensuing treatisel have prescribed 1.0 myself the following method. First, byway of introdJction l haye premised the expericnce of the bestauthorities, ac1bering closely 1.0 their own worc1s, that nothingmay be suppressed which may be suspectec1 of militating againstmy views. N ext, l have procceded 1.0 foml sorne general infer­ences, and 1.0 confinu them one by one by the previous experi.ence, so LIr as it has gone, the latter serving as tbe foundationof the present work; my principal object in which is, 1.0 let factitllclf sreak, or 1.0 let causes flow spontaneously frOID its lips
  • 20. 16 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. CHAPTER I. TB]l: COMPOSITION AND GENUINll: ESSENCll: OF TBll: BLOOD. 29. LEEUWENHOEK has observed, that blood drawn from hisown hand was composed of red globules floating in a crystallinehumor not unlike water, but that he was in doubt whether aIlblood was of the same nature. He says, that upon a closeexamination of the globules, after separating one from the other,and even dividing sorne of them, they presented the appearanceof being very slightly colored. Milk he found in like manner toconsist of globules fioating in a limpid humor, but these weretransparent. (Philosophical Transactions, n. 102, p. 23.) Healso clearly discerned, as he says, that every globule was com­pounded of six smaller ones, which were as fiexile and soft as thelarger. That in proportion as the larger were stretched out orelongated, the smaller assumed the same lengthened figure, tillthey became like threads. He also relates that he had subjectedthe larger globules to violent motion, when they burst in pieces,and displayed the smaller globules. Also that the globules ofmilk were of different dimensions, but that those of the bloodwere of only one dimension. (Lectiones Gutlerianœ, v., p. 84-86.)He saw that the globules were flexible and pliant in proportionas the blood was healthy, and in passing through the small capil­laryarteries and veins, changed to an ol)long figure (Phil. Trans.,n. 117, p. 380), three times as long as broad: also that theypassed byand into one another, and by reason of their softnesscould be moulded into various shapes, but when at liberty imme­diately recovered their former globular condition. Where manyglobules came together, and lost their heat, they appeared as auniform matter in which no parts were distinguishable. (Lect. Gutl., p. cit.) When the author was ill, the globules of theblood he drew from himself appeared to he harder and firmer;but when he was in a good state of health, they were betterconnected with each other, being softer and more fiuid: whencehe infers, that death may sometimes proceed from the hardnessof these globules. (Phil. Trans., n. 117, p. 380, 381.) Whenhe examined blood possessing much crystalline liquor, and placedin one of his tubes, and carried it into the open air at a time
  • 21. COMPOSITION AND ESSENCE OP THE BLOOD. 17 when there was a pretty strong wind, he observed that the glob- ules were agitated, like the air itself, by concussions and mutual motions; and he observed moreover another kind of motion, in that eaeh globule gyrated round its own axis. (Ibid., n. 106, p. 129, 130.) He likewise observed that the transparent liquor in whieh the red globules of the blood swim, itself consisted of fim"ll globlllel, which were fewer before evaporation than after. In the same liquor hc also distinguished certain bodies of a quadrangular figure, which he considered to be saline particles. (Ibid., n. 117, p. 380.) But the globules of the blood, he says, are specifically heavier than the crystalline liquor, for the moment they escape from the veins, they by little and little subside toward the bottom; and being made up of soft, fluid corpuscules, and lying one upon another, they unite together, and by their close conjunetion, the blood that is under the surface alters its color, and becomes dark red, or blackish. The red globules, he says, are 25,000 times smallcr than a grain of sand. (Ibid., n. 106, p. 122.) He observed that in a tadpole the particles of blood wcre fiat and oval, and that sometimes, by reason of the tenuity of an artery, they were made to assume a tapering figure, and were so minute, that a hundred thousand myriad of them could not equal in bulk a large grain of sand. (Epist. 65, Arcana Naturœ Detecta, p. 161, 162.) 30. LANCIS!. " Microscopical experiments demonstrate, that the blood consists principally of two parts, namely, of serum whieh is mostly limpid in healthy subjects, and of extremely minute globules from which the general mass of this fluid derives its redness, whether it be in circulation, or intercepted in any part of the system.... Leeuwenhoek observes, that in fishes he found that the partiel es whieh occasioned the redness of the blood were plano-oval; that in land animais they were round, so far as he eould judge from the cases that came under his own inspection. But that in human blood these globules were soft, and each of them fOlmed by the union and conjunction of six: smaller globules. fo these he attributes the redness of the blood, and considers that it is deeper and more intense the more numerous they are, and the more agglutinated the one to the other. With respect to my own observations l would remark, that 1 have made them with the greatest care, and with the assistance also of the illustrious Blanchinus. There are four principal things that wc noticed in drops of blood recently drawn, when received on a crystal plate and submitted to the microscope. 1. Innumerable globules of a lcd color, which on, exaulination 3ppearcd to be mixed up with a transparent scrum, and swimming in it, but which, when the serum had soon after 2"
  • 22. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 227Of this formative substance, therefore, scarcely anything canbe predicated adequately, inasmuch as it occupies the supremeand superlative degree :mlong the substances and forces of itskingdom: but 1 would rather calI it a formative substance thancaU it nature; for it has within it a force and nature such as 1have described. 257. Except that it is the first, the most perfect, the mostuniversa1, and the most simple, of al[ the BUbstances andforcesof its kingdom. It is evidently thefirst, because it commencesthe thread, and when commenced continues it to the ultimate oflife. (n.253.) It is the most perfect, because it causes all thingsto proceed in the most distinct manner (n. 248); and perfectlysubordinates each severaUy, and when subordinated, coordinatesthem for their uses and ends. (n. 252.) It is the most univer­sal, because it insures the general good of aU things, and at thesarne time the particular good. It is the most simple, becauseaU other things in the body are successively compounded. 258. And that it has a8signed to it, within its own litUe cor­poreal world, a certain species of omnipresence, power, knowl­dge, and providence: of omnipresence, because it is the mostnniversal substance, and in a manner the aH in aU of its king­dom; for in forming all things, it must be everywhere present inorder to form them. Of power and knowleàge j for it goes fromprinciples to causes, from causes to means, from means to effects,frOID use to use, or from end to end, through the mysteries ofaU the mundane arts and sciences; so that there is nothing,however internaI and deeply involved therein, but it evokes it,and summODB it to assist in building and completing its king­dom. In the animal kingdom, therefore, in whatever directionwe turn our eyes, we meet with wonders that overwhelm DBwith astonishment; so that it would seem that to this force orsubstance, starting fiom its principles and proceeding fromorder to order, no possible path were refused, but its course laythrough aU things. Of providence j for it ananges prospectively,that the membeJs and parts of the members shaU combine, andundergo renovation and formation, in one peculiar and contra­distinctive manner. (n. 261.) We shaU admit a certain provi­dential series if we attentively contemplate the parts in thewhole, and see how one is prepared for the sake of another;
  • 23. 228 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.how one always comes to the use of the nen succeeding; andhow aIl, individually and coUectively, are for the sake of thefirst substance; since they refer themselves to their antecedents:hence aU the consequents refer to the first of the series, on whichthey depend, and for the sake of which they exist in one dis­tinctive manner. (n. 252.) 259. This formative substance or force then it is whichgovems the sceptre and Bits at the helm of the kingdom; thatis to say, marks out the provinces, disposes the guards, distrib­utes the offices, and keeps èverything in the station in whichit h38 been placed, and thus takes care that everything shaUexecute its functions in aIl their p.etails. Bince, therefore, it isthe most powerful, the most scientific, the most present, of aIlthings in its body, it follows that it is 38 it were the demi­goddess, tutelar deity, and genius of the microcosm. Never­thelèss its power is extremely limited, although leBB limited thanthat of the substances and forces that come after it, in regardto which indeed it is comparatively unlimited. 1 say compara­tively, for so far fiom being essentially unlimited, there is noth­ing poBBible to it but that which h38 been impressed upon andimparted to its nature; so that its omnipresence, its power andprovidence, are almost entirely confined within the circ1e of itsown narrow world. For the Author of Nature has reserved tohimself the supremacy over it and aU things, both in regard topower, presence, knowledge, and providence, which supremacyhe exercises according to the law (Bince the soul has ceased tobe his image), that so far as it is dependent upon him, so far itis perfect in every faculty, and conducted to universal and abso­lute ends, and its lower powers and degrees, by its means, arethe sarne; but so far 38 it ceases to be his image and likeness,so far it becomes impelfect in aU its faculties, and lapses awayfrom the nobler ends.· 260. The jir8t ends, as well a8 the midàle and ultimate ends,according to which cause8 jollow in provi8ive and given ordertilt they arrive at the ultimate effect, appear to be present to it,and iMerent within it, simultaneously and in8tantly. Thisfollows from the law, that the antecedent is formed for the use • This sentence appears to be Imperfect ln the original: an attempt h here made toaupply the sense. - (Tr.)
  • 24. ON THE FORM.ATION OF THE CHIeK, ETC. 229of the consequent (n. 252); but there would he nothing conform-able in the antecedcnt, unless this use or end had been beforerepresented. Were not this the case, the rudimentary spinalmarrow could not be adapted from the beginning to the condi-tions of aU the members; the heart could not be fonned with aview to the conditions of the arteries and veins, nor yet with aview to the condition of subserving the lungs; the lungs couldnot he constituted for the reception and expiration of theilatmospherc; nor the trachea, fauces, tongue, teeth, and lips, forthe articulation of sound; nor the eye for the enjoyment of sight,and by sight, of the universe; nor the ear fOI the reception {Iftones. The same observation applies to a11 the other members,in each of which the use and end is always foreseen before it isactuaUy present. To repeat my formel comparison (n. 248),unless the archer take a Iight aim with his eye at first, the an(Wat the end of its flight will he found vastly wide of the m:uk.But when distant and ultimate ends are kept in vicw as if theywere present, intermediate ends are comprehended at once, nndare carried onwards with a fixed aim and an llnCrrLIlg directIon.Thus when the formative force or substance by a kind of intui-tion, if 1 may so speak, comprehends the ultimate end, then theintermediate ends are at the same time contnined within it, ex-tending to the end foreseen and pointed at; that is, they 1!ûwin an unerring order. 1 am aware, that in speaking of first and ultimate ends assimultaneously present and involved in the same substance andforce, 1 am using terms that are not fully intelligible so long aswe are ignorant of the mode in which they are present and in-volved. Yet 1 must have recourse to these terms, 8Ïnce scarl;t!lyanything adequate can be predicated of this force and substance. (n. 256.) For it is in the first principles of its things, and in acertain intuition of aIl ends, or replesentntion of its univerlle. We cannot by any other means speak more adcquately of it,3ince it lies heyond the sphere of common words, and of aUsuch as are applied to the comprehension of the lower S(IltlCS. But how the intuition of ends can accomplish sach an e1f((t,- how it can form a rea11y connected and actua11y corporeal /lYs- tem, - this is not more eusy to understand th an is the manner in which the intuition of the mind (which is also an intuition of VOL. I. 20
  • 25. 230 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIM.4L KINGIJOM.enda) is enabled to rouse a11 the mUAc]p,s of thp, hody to palpa.ble motion, or in which a bare will is enabled to determineitself into real actions. Here we would only observe, that inthis formative substance, ends are at once preBent and involved jnot that all things that can ever be in it are in it at once, butthat they will be communicated to it, and thus are in it. Wemay fitly illustrate the case by an algebraic equation, whichsimultaneously comprises ratios, analogies, and harmonies inindefinite number, each of which may be successively educedand evolved, and again successively reduced into the sarneequation. And it will be seen in the sequeI, that different endamay be present and involved in it, or the same ends in a differ­ent manner. This is true in the finite sphere. But in theInfinite Being, aU things that can ever by possibility be involved,are involved at once; and this of themselves or essentiaUy, andnot successively. Of Him, therefore, change of state is neverpredicable, although it is predicable of a11 natural and finitethings, and even of the formative substance itself. 261. Oonsequently this substance or force represents to itselfthe state about to be formed,just as if it were astate alreadyformed,. and inileeà the state alreaày formed as astate alJoutto be formed. For if the ultimate ends are in it, together withthe middle and first, then the state that has been formed is rep­resented as present in the state that is to be formed, and thestate that is to be formed in the state that has been formed; theone being involved with the other in momentaneous presence.The case is the same as when the mind embraces sorne ultimateobject in its plans; for then it sees this object as if it were pres­ent, or when the means are furnished, contemplates it as al·ready accomplisfted and realized: and how much more is thistrue in this higher faculty, where the principle of the mindsreason resides, or the force of forces, and the substance of sub­stances! That this substance represents to itself the state which is tobe formed as already formed, is in sorne measure evident fromthe methodical distribution of the motive fibres in the body; somethodical indeed, that conformably to the slightest hint of thewill, a11 things rush into effect. For the motive fibres are 1;0fitly ~ombined in the muscles, s,nd the muscles in the body, that
  • 26. ON THE FORMATION OF THE Cl1IOK, ETC. 231the mere nod and breath of the will is sufficient, in less than amoment, to excite and animate the associate ministers of actionto the motion intended; that is to say, when this substance orforce, for whose disposaI they are thus prepared, determinesfrom its principles. This we may see exemplified in the case ofdancers, harlequins, buffoons, posture masters, athletes, harpers,songstresses, &c., whose lungs, trachea, larynx, tongue, mouth,fingers, eyes, features, feet, arms, chest, and abdomen, act in moststupendous concert; not to mention other instances. Is therenot here a represE.ntation of the thing formed, like as of thething about to be fonned, since the obedience of the whole is soready and so easy; into which obedience all that is formednaturally falls, by vll"tue of the same principle of action. Forunle88 what is formed represented itself in what is to be formed.,a similitude and concordance so great never could exist. Andthis is the reason why this substance, in the state of formation,always also persiste in the thing formed, nor ever desists fromthis until the thread of life is broken. Wherefore the truth ofthe rule is evident, that subsistence is perpetuaI existence. 262. That this substance represents to itself the state formedas astate yet to be formed, is a consequence of the formertruth; for this substance is always in a state of formation andexistence; otherwise what is formed could not subsist. This isshown in a lively instance in the case of parental love or storgë;for parente regard their infants as themselves in the infants, oras most united other selves, and not as separate until long afterbirth: a sign, as it would seem, that the very force and sub­stance that was in the parent, is trnnsplanted into the offspring.If this be the case, then the sarne substance, always sirrülar toitselt; cannot ad otherwise in that which is formed., than in that,namely, in the parent, which had previously been fOlmed. 263. Moreover the series of all the contingents, in the oràerin which they successively appear f01 the pmpose of c01npktingthe work of formation, is instantly present to it, and as it wereinherent within it. Those things appear as contingent, whichare successively to become present, in order that the process offormation may be rightly completed; and which, if they wereDot present, would occasion the work to stop, and the connec­tion to be broken and continued no farther. Renee, when
  • 27. 232 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. during the state of fonnation these contingents do not present themselves in their just proportion and rightful mode, the parts of the system are connected together in accordance with those contingents which are presented: as we see evidenced in mon· strous bilths. (n. 255.) For in the egg and the !Comb, all things that can p08swly be contingently present, are alreaày present,provided, and prepareà. For everything that is wanted is in· volved in the albumen and yolk of the egg; and this, with such exactitude of arrangement, that each particular can be caUedforth and come in the proper order. The yolk also itself is dis·tinct from the albumen, and within it lie the ingredients of the red blood. The like is the case in the womb, where the embryodraws from the mothers general store whatever its nature re·qlliJ:es: thus it is provided and as it were foreseen that nothingin the chain or series of contingents shall by any chance bewanting. We may likewise instance parental love as a contin·gent, without which the slender and early thread of the infantframe could never be drawn out to the period of adult age.These things, 1 have said, appear as contingents, inasmuch asthey must present themeelves successively; but they are re·garded as necessarily consequent, since theyare present in thething formed, and thus are already provided. Thus one or theother of them being given, the effect cannot be otherwise thanin conformity to it; for instance, warmth and fotus being given,other results present themselves of neccssity. The same ruleobtains in all other cases: for example, aIl the use of the heartis marked out before the heart is completed; and indeed by thelittle spinal marrow, before the heart appears. So likewise thelungs are designed in the heart, before the latter is doubledback upon itself into the form it is ultilnately to assume. Suc­cessiveness gives an appearance as if use then first contingentlybegan to determine itself to a consequent, when it is present ina previous organ aIready fOlmed j but that the case is otherwise,is clear both from what 1 have here adduced, and from n. 260and 261. So again it is plovided that the ovulum be roIleddown fi"Om the ovaries through the Fallopian tubes, the fimbri·ated extremities of which embrace and forward it, and that hav­ing reached the uterus, it should be sUlTounded with the mem·brancs and liquor amnii; and by means of the placenta shoula
  • 28. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 233 emulge the blood: so that if only the contingent is provided, namely, the presence of the seed, aIl the other things necessarily follow. 264. Since a11 thcse things follow by inevitable connection,what shaH we think of the fortuitous events, as they are ca11ed,that happen in civillife ? It is not our province here to con­sider whether these are present and involved à priori, or not.At aU events they are hidden from our view, just as the chrys­alis and butterfly states are hidden from the silk-worm, theprocess of formation from the embryo and chick, and theeconomic functions of the body from ourselves. Notwithstand­ing our ignorance in these respects, we are nevCltheless. con­strained to admire the wonderful connection of ends within us,whenever they become revealed by the development of the ulti­mate end. But this matter cannot be fully explained, becausethe above are effects of the Divine Providence, and it is requi­site that we should first inquire into the nature and effects offree-will. 265. According to the nature and 8tate of thi8 formative8OO8tance, and auitaJJly to it8 intuition or repre8entation, caUBe8jlOUJ into their ejfect8. That diversity and change of state arepredicable of this substance, is a truth which l do not wish toprove by philosophical arguments, but by inductions derivedfrom experience. l would here observe only, that everythingnatural and finite is capable of successively assuming differentstates, and when thus assumed, of holding them simultaneously:but l do not here propose to consider the quality of these states,but oo1y to declare, that according to the nature llnd state ofthe formative substance, causes and effects f1.ow conformably tothe intuition or representation of enda. 266. A8 appears from the dijferent forma of animals. Toenumerate all the animaIs and their different forma, wouldrequire me to traverse ocean, earth, and ail. For there areaquatic, ten-estrial, and winged animaIs. Of each of these thereare genera and species. There are moreover insects, multitudesof which elude the sight when unassisted by glasses. Of thesemsects there is as great a diversity as of the soils that produce,the leaves that nourish, and the sunbeams that vivify them.They have each thcir own proper form, and each their own 20·
  • 29. 234 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIiIlAL KINGDOM.proper formative substance. This formative substance COll­structs the effigy in accordance with the nature derived fiomthe parent, rarely deviating from the mode!. Inasmuch asthis is obvious to the senses, it remains only to conclude fromthese data the reason why fOl-mS are produced so dissimilaramong themselves, and yet bearing such extreme resemblanceto the one common parent. 1 ask, then, whether the rationalmind cao arrive at any other conclusion in this case, than thatthere is a formative substance and force, which in conformitywith its nature and state establishes such forms and laws of~gimen as are suitable to the government proper to its king-dom; and that the body thus formed is an image of the repre­sentations of its soul ? 267. From the imaginatilJeforce in pregnantfemales, caus­ing corre8ponàîng marks on the liule body of the embryo. Forin case the mother experience any great alalm, or any inordinateemotions of terror or longing, and in this state the represen­tation of anything be vividly made to her mind, it will im­mediately descend to the brains of the embryo through thevascular and fibrous passages, and (if 1 am not mistaken in theconjecture) through the innermost coat of the arteries and theoutermost coat of the veins, and thence through the spirituousfiuid and the purer blood. In this manner we find impressedupon the tender body of the embryo, figures of strawberries,chenies, phuns, rape-seed, figs, apples, pomegranates, herbs, earsof corn, grapes, roses, parsley, lettuces, mushrooms, caulifiowers,finger-marks, weals, rods, Hies, spiders; hence also arise dark­<lolored stains, fissuled forehead, hare-lip, swines snout; marksof fish, serpents, oysters, crabs-claws, bunching or webbed fin­gers, slugs, combs of cocks, mice, donnice, &c,: nay, further, fromthe continuaI contemplation of a beautiful pelson, the mothermay supminduce the impression of a beautiful face, it may beher own or that of sorne other object of her admiration. Theimpression thus made does not disappear, but is permanent andcontinues to grow even during adolescence. Let us supposenow that the figure of a slug or dormouse was marked upon thecuticle of the fœtus; that the cause of this phenomenon wassome unsatisfied longing on the part of the mother, some emo­tion of terror or inordinate desire which had disturbed her
  • 30. ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 235brain j so that during the formation of the body of the embryoan impression corresponding with this emotion was made uponits tender substance: then from a consideration of these cir­cumstances, let us proceed to infer the cause which operated inmarking those members, and ask ourselves whether that whichinscribed on the cuticle the effigy of the slug or dormouse wasanything different from that which inscribes on the substanceof the body the form of every successive viscus j whether, in fact,it were anything but a seal impressing, whence arose a corre­sponding impression during astate of body in which everythingyielded to the imprinting agent j that is, whether it were any­thing but causes flowing into their eifects in a manner conform·able to the superinduced representation. 268. From the formation of the brains, or of the organismof the internal senses, as being different in different species ofanimals, and in different individuals of the same species. Thismay be inferred from the external forms of animaIs, and alsofrom the internaI forms of the several viscera and parts. Ofthese we would select for example only the brains, where weflnd the organism of these senses. In some animaIs the brainsare small, as in fowls and flsh, and have no furrows and convo­lutions on the surface, but the membranes lie upon them in closecontact j there is little or no cortical substance in the periphe­ ries, but almost the whole of it is situated about the ventricles, and the thalami of the optic nerves are like two succenturiatecerebra, &c. Land animaIs and quadrupeds exhibit the greatest differences in the insuIcations of the brains j in the connection and formation of the ventricIes, choroid plexus, glands, tubercles, infundibulum, and rete mirabile j in the influx and efllux of the blood j the organism being in fact altogether different. But in man the brain is more perfect and more capacious, and three times as large as even in the ox: more caution is shown in the mode of distributing the blood through the arteries j not to men­ tion innumerable other things, which are aU so many evident proofs that causes flow into their effects according to the state and nature of the iOrmative substance, or conformably to itB intuition or representation. 269. Whence it follows, that no condition of the organism is primarily the cause of the internal faculties, but that that
  • 31. 236 THE EOONOMY OF THE .rfNIMAL KINGDOM. formative force or 8WJstance is the cause, tehose nature, andthe image of tehose representations, determines the form of aJlthings in the body. For such as is the formative force, such is thething formed; such as is the seal, such is the impression; such asis the efficient, such is the effect; such as is the principle, such isthe principate; such as is the thing determining, such is the thingdetennined; hence such as is the formative force or soul, such isthe brain and the body. For the body may not inaptly be caUcdthe image of the soul; and so much is this the case, that fromobserving the face it is possible we may not always be wrong inour conjectures concerning the animal mind: but especiaUy ifwe judge by a mana actions, which are mere executions of thewill, and actual representations of the inner mind. This fonna­tive force therefore causes those creatures that have no intelli­gent or rational soul to be ignorantly impelled to ends by aninstinct analogous to reason; while to those creatures, such asman, that have a rational souI, it has imparted a more capaciousbrain, a more spacious internaI organism, and a more powerfulfaculty of using reason; and in this instance has prudently dis­posed its sanguineous allies under the control of the brain, andhas prolonged the age in which reason may be cultivated so asto grow up to adult maturity. Rence no condition of the organ­ism is primarily the cause of our eljoying reason; but the soulis the cause, which as an intelligent agent designing to enjoy thesociety of the inferior taculties, has so prearranged matters, thatthe avenues leading to herself may be properly disposed andduly laid open, or that aIl things in her kingdom may representherself in an image. For this formative substance, inasmuch asit is comparatively eminent in situation, and is in the highestdeglCe, cannot descend immediately to the mechanism of thebody; for if there be three or four different degrees, the highestcannot act upon the lowest except through the intermediate.Renee it is, that when the organism of the intermediate degreeis injured, or in any way a1fected, the soul cannot flow into theultimate degree, or into the sphere of effects and actions, exceptin a manner eonformable to the state of the intennediate degree.There are numerous contingents that may abrogate or alter ~ecommunication of the one with the other; for instance, whenthe brain is compressed in the womb of the mother; when it is
  • 32. ON THE FORM~TION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 237flooded -with blood or fluid that is not snfficiently purified, but has been disturbed by violent emotions, or by diseases; when the placenta has not been properly connected with the uterinefolds j when the ovulum has not descended through the Fallo­ pian tubes in proper time and order: with an infinite number ofothèr circumstances, in aU ofwhich the formative force is under the necessity of combining the parts of the machine in a manner different from what it otherwise would have done, and accord­ing to the series of contingents which has befallen it. (n.255,263,267.) Besides, even after birth, accidents, wounds, and dis­eases occur, which injure, affect, and invert the natura! state jfrequently causing loss of memory, and of the power of exercis­ing reason, also stupidity, stolidity, madness, fury, melancholy.None of these things, however, prevent the soul from remainingin a state of intelligence, although the intermediate organism,which has received from the before-mentioned casualties a dif·ferent condition, cannot flow into the effects and actions of theultimate degree except in such a way as is conformable to thiscondition. Thus we may understand how a soul as rational mayreside in the tenderest infant, nay, in the idiot, as in the mostconsummate genius. 1 have stated that the sou! in irrational animals causes theanimated body or animal to be ignorantly impelled to ends byan instinct analogous to reason. By natural instincts 1 meanall those operations which do not come within the consciousnessof the miDd, or to its intuitive knowledge or percepîion; such,for instance, as the economical and chemical operations of theanimal kingdom, aIllong which we may enumerate the systoleof the heart and arteries j those laws of the commixtion, discrim­ination, separation, and elaboration of the blood which are re­counted in n. 199; and an in:finite number of other things whichfollow in their train. Of these operations the cerebellum appearsto be the conductor, and it acta aU at once or undividedly outof the Gordian knot of its structure, and moreover it is an organ­ism of the second degree. (n.164.) But not so the cerebrurn,which is discriminated into innumerable cortical thalami, andits organism carried to the third degree of composition (n.1M),aU the voluntary operations of the body being therefore underit. This formative subetance is bound by necessity to adjoin
  • 33. 238 THE EOONOMY OF THE .ANIMAL KINGDOM.the cerebellum to the cereb11lm; so that the greater part of theeconomical functions and exercises of the body may be refelTedto the cerebellum, lest by any chance the cerebrum, when in­tent on its own concerns and reasons, should allow the republioto fall into inactivity and ruin, or distract and destroy it by in­surrectionary motions, or by allurements and cupidities. Since then aIl things in the body are adapted to the natureof the soul, and to the image of herrepresentations, it is wiselyprovided that animaIs which possess no reason, and consequent­ly no will, should live under the guidance of their instincts. 1say no reason, and consequently no will, because will is a con­comitant only of reason, and can be called will only in virtue ofthe liberty which results fiom reason. Animal instincts never­theless so resemble reason, will, and liberty, as those privilegesexist in us, that nothing can simulate them better; nay, 80weIl are they counterfeited, that we are aIl but deceived by theresemblance. Indeed, the actions resulting from instincts aretruly marvellous, and seem as if they were determined by aspecies of deliberation and forethought, instead of proceedingfiom a blind impulse. In illustration of this we have only torefer to the different offices pelformed by instinct; as in thecase of bUds building their nests, laying and incubating eggs,excluding the young fiom the I:lhell, nurturing theu unfledgedofispring, sending off their fledged offspring, giving warning ofthe season, selecting the food proper to them, distinguishing anddreading their enemies, eluding their pUlsuit, &c. In the caseof spiders, weaving their ingenious webs under the tiles, settingtraps for flies, and when captured coiling th.reads round theprisoners. In the case of bees, rifling the flowers, elaboratingwax, storing their cells with honey, providing against winter,emigrating i~ swarms from their hives, stripping the drones oftheir wings, &c. In the case of the silk-worm, ensconsing itselfin sUken filaments, hiding itself until it assumes the chrysalisstate, soaring next as a butterfly, and excluding its eggs with a"iew to continue the species: and what more may 1 not add inregard to other instances? AlI the outlines of the future bodyare traced by a similar instinct, in the egg alld in the wornb.Now, if we rt::~ort to analysis, and reduce the known and un­known to an equation, and then evolve its proportions, do we
  • 34. ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 239not clearly perceive that there is a soul proper to every speciesof animal; that this soul adapts all things to the image andnature of itself; and that it cannot and ought not to constructthe organism of the brains in brutes otherwise than that theymay be governed by instincts in place of that reason and willby which man is distinguished. But 1 shall treat more distinctlyof this subject in the Parts on the Brain,· where 1 speak ofvarieties of organism. 270. The veriest formative force and substance is the souZ.For of the soul alone can we predicate that it is the most uni­versaI, the most perfect, the most simple, and the first of thesubstances and forces of its kingdom (n. 257) : that it is every­where present, potent, conscious, and provident in its body (n. 258): that it is the sole living substance, or that by whichaU other things in the system live: and that in its own kingdomit is the principle in every action; and may claim the predicateof having momentaneously present to it, and involved within it,bath first, and riddle, and ultimate ends (n. 260) : in a word,that in what is formed, and in what is to be farmed, it is similarto itself; being taken by derivation from the soul of the par­ent. That it bas momentaneously present to it, and as it wereinvolved within it, the series of aU contingents necessary forcompleting the work of formation. (n. 263.) That its power isso exalted that in aIl the public and private affaira of its king­dom, it can give its subjects laws from the throne of its simplewill; that it advances to the attainment of its purposes throughthe mysteries of all the natural sciences and arts, so that itmeets with nothing so insuperable, but that in its descent fromits principles down the ladder of order, it is enabled to arrive atlength at the ultimate end which it had represented to itselt:(n. 258.) Wherefore every action of the body is the soulsaction, so far as it is an action of the will, this, an action of thereason, and this, of the principle of reason in which the soul is.But as the soul cannot descend without intermediates into theultimate compositions and effects of its body, because the soulis in the highest degree, and cannot fiom the highest flow intothe lowest and act upon it immediately (for which reason there • 8ee the Animal Kingd{)fn, Appendlx, vol. Il., p. 657, where there lB Rome accountIl) Dr. Sve4bom of Swedenborga extenaive TreatJse on the Braln.- (no.)
  • 35. 240 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.is a subordination and succession of things before there is anycoordination and coexistence), therefore it foilows, that ne;ct tothe soul, in the order of forcee and substances, is the spiritu0U8 jluid; next, the purer blood, and next, the red blood; whichlast is thus as it were the corporeal soul of its O1JJn little worlil.The red blood, therefore, simultaneously comprising within itselfthe superior fluids, is the storehouse and seminary, the parentand nourisher of aU parts of its kingdom, whether solid, soft, orfluid; so that nothing exists in the body that did not preëxÏstin the blood. (n. 59, 61.) And on the nature, constitution,determination, and continuity of the blood depenc1 the fortunesand condition of the animal life. (n. 62.) The blood is theultimate fluid which discharges the functions of the soul inthe animal kingdom. (n. 46.) See also n. 37-42, 91-99, 102,133-137, 143-147, 154, &c. Thus all these may be calleà formative substances and forces, that is to say, each in iesO1JJn degree; while the one vital substance, which is the saul, presides and rules over aU. 271. Binee, then, aU thin.ls are thus most nicely suboràinateàand coordinated, it fOl101JJS, that the spirituous jluià is the firstcause. The first cause of ail is indeed the soul, which is the lifeand spirit of the spirituous fluid; anc1 the detennination of thiafluid proceeds fiom the soul as its first principle; but since,through the defectiveness of terms, scarcely anything can beadequately predicated of the soul, we mày consider this fluid,which in point of unanimity is the other self of the sou~ as thefirst in the series of agenda. But how this fluid acts or formsfrom determining principles, - this is among the secrets ofnature. For in the primordial state, as Malpighi relates, "aUthe parts are so mucous, white, and peUucid, that use whatglasses we may we cannot see c1early into their structure.•..But this much certainly is visible, that the blood or sanguineousmatter does not possess from the commencement aU those things that are afterwards found in it. For at first we see in the vesseIsa species of colliquamentum conveyed by little channels towardsthe fœtus; afterwards, by means of fermentation, a yellowishand rust-colored humor is produced, which ultimately becom68red.... Hence ... successive changes in the sanguineous matterare evidenced by the addition of color to the blood." (n.242.)
  • 36. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 241From the whole process of the formation of the chick in theegg, as described by Malpighi and Lancisi, it is evident thatthese fluid substances act as the causes of things according tothe before·mentioned order; as is clear from the firet livingpoint, the carina, the initiament of the medulla spinalis, of theheart, and other appended organs; from the colliquamenta,zones, vcsicles; from the successive change of the liquide, andfrom the nature of the albumen and yolk in the egg. For whenfinally the red blood comes to be formed, and its assistance tohe required, the vessels elongate till they reach the yolk, out ofwhich the constituent, combining, and complementalY elementsof the blood are educed. They also so extend as to come incontact with the atmosphere (n. 50), Bince there are passages·and commissures which lead through the shell of the egg,through the medium of which whatever the yolk may wantis supplied by the air. That such is the succession and subordi·nation of causes is acknowledged even by the most celebratedauthore. Thus Lancisi observes, that "with regard to the quaI­ity of the fluid that slowly traverses the umbilical vessels towardsthe end of the second day, it is firet yellowish, then rust-red,and at last sanguine or blood-red; whence it is very clear thatthe more fluid cylindere of colliquamentum, which appear pel.lucicl and perfectly limpid before and on the first day of incuba­tion, me through certain gradations of color, yellowish andrusty red, before they attain the character of blood; thesechanges being brought about by a gentle fermentation causedby the warmth, and by the elasticity of the air in motion, thesulphurous particles meanwhile being disengaged by degrees,and the saline volatile particles raised [to the sUlfaceJ." (n. 245.)And Malpighi states, that the blood "ultimately becomes red,and in this last state is put in circulation by the heart." (n.242.)Consequently, 272. That the purer Olooà Îs the second cause,. and the redblood, the third cause, or the ejfect of the former causes. Alsothat the purest fibrils are first produced,. then the vessels of the purer blood,. and lastly, the vessels of the red blood,. one ofthese orders preceding the other, and then, according as theyare compounded, one acting with the other. These positions are but • ClIlel traneltue. VOL. J. 21
  • 37. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONSIDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MBIIB:&R OF THllI BOUSlIl OF NOBLEB IN THllI ROYAL DII!lT OP8WJIDIlN; A8BB880R OF THllI ROYAL IOIlTALLIC COLLJllGI!l OF 8W11DI!lN;FELLOW OP THIl ROYAL ACADJIlMY OF SCIlllNCE8 01 UPSALA, AND OFl8lIl ROYAL ACADI!lIlY OP llCII!lNClIl8 OP STOCKHOLM; COBBl!lSPONDINGMBIIBIlB 01 TBIl IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE8 OF 8T. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE- LATIN BY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME TWO SIICOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS UlOOJlPOJl.l.T.D Reproduced by Photo-offset, SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  • 38. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CON8IDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHlLOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MEMBER OF THE BOUSE OF NOBLEB IN THE ROYAL DIET OPBWEDENi ABSEBBOR OF THE ROYAL MlilTALLIC COLLEGE OF BWEDEN;FELLOW OF THE ROYAL AC~EMY OF SCIENCES OF UPBALA, AND OF"HJ: ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOLM; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE- LATIN BY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME TWO SIIlCOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INOOIIPOBA.TIIlD Reproduced by Photo-offset. SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  • 39. Paucù natus est. Qui populum tZtatis sua cogitat: multa annorumm.7lia, multa populorum 6upervenient: ad .11a respice, etiamsi omniblUtecum lJiIJentibus SI1entium . . . [aliqua eausa] indixerit: lJenient, quiline offensa, ,ine gratta judiunt. S&N&CA, Eplet. lxxIx.
  • 40. CONTENTS OF VOLUME SEOOND. PAR TI. - Oofltinued. PAUCh&pter VIII. AD IDtroduetion ta Rational PaycholoQ.. • •• 6 PART II. Chapter 1. On the Motion of the Brain; ahowlng that lta ÂII­ imation lB coïncident with the Reaplration of the Lunga. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 61 " n, The Cortical Subatance oC the Brain apeciflca1ly.. 118 Cl m. The Human Sou!.. • • • • • • • • • • • 201Index of Authon. • • • • • • Sli7Liat of U nverifted Citations.. • • 859Bibliographlcal NotIcea of Authon. 861IDdex of Subjecta. • • 869A.ppendîL • • • • • ü9 ~
  • 41. THE ECONOMY 011 THE ANIMAL KING DOM. PAR TI. - Oontinued. CHAPTER VIII. ~ INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCBOLOGY. 579. PSYCBOLOGY is the science which treats of the essenceand nature of the souI, and of the mode in which she 1I0wsinto the actions of her body; consequently it is the first andlast ofthose sciences which lead to the knowledge of the animaleconomy. But whereas the soul has her residence in a place sosublime and eminent (n. 270), that we cannot ascend to her,and attain to the knowledge of her, except by a particular andgeneral investigation of the lower and accessible things of her-kingdoID; or whereas she lives withdrawn so far within, thatshe cannot be exposed to view until the coverings under whichshe is hidden are nnfolded and removed in order: it hencebecomes necessary that we ascend to her by the same &tepsor degrees, and the same ladder, by which her nature, in theformation of the things ofher kingdom, descends into her body.By way therefore of an Introduction to Rational Psychology, 1will premise THE DOCTRINE OF SERIES AND DEGREES (a Qoc­trine, of which, in the preceding chapters, 1 have made suchfrequent mention), the design of which is, to teach the natureof Order and its rules as observed and prescribed in the succes­sion of things: for the rational mind, in its analytical inqniryinto C&tllleS from effects, nowhere discovers the,ID, except in the 1- 1
  • 42. 6 THE ECONOMY OF THE nrIM..4.L KINGDOM.Subordination of things, and the Coordination of subordinates;wherefore, if we would advance from the sphere of effects tothat of causes, we must proceed by Orders and Degrees; aglee·ably to what rational analysis" itself both approves and advises. (n.67, 161.) The rational mind also, by means of this doc­ trine carefully investigated and established, will see opened toits view a broad and even path leading to the principles ofcauses, and will behold the dissipation of those occult qualities,which, like the shadows of a thicket, deepen at every step so 88to shut out aU further prospect and progress: for as often asnature betakes herself upwards from visible phenomena, or, inother words, withdraws herself inwards, she instantly as itwere disappears, while no one knows what is become of her,or whither she is gone, so that it is necessary to take science asa guide to attend us in pursuing her steps. Without a guideof this kind, moreover, we shall have a tendency to fall intovarious premature opinions; we shall be apt to think, for in·stance, that the BOuI, either from principles proper to herselt;or flom such 88 are above herself, flows immediately into theeffects of her own body; whence, it necessarily follows, thatthe communication of operations between the soul and the bodymust be explained either by Physico1 Injlw:,t or by Occasional Oauses;t or if by neither of these, a third is assumed, as theonly alternative, namely, that of Preëstablisheà Harmony. §Thus the one or other system flows as a consequence from ourwant of knowledge respecting the subordination of things, andthe connection of things subordinate; even supposing the mostaccurate examination and the most profound judgment to havebeen exercised upon the phenomena; for reasonings natnrallyfollow the course of their pdnciples. But whereas aH things insucceeding each other follow one another in order, and whereasin the whole circle of things, from first to last, there is not asingle one which is altogether unconnected or detached from thelest; 1 am therefore compelled, as 1 said, previous to developingthe snbject of Rational Psychology, to take into considera.tionthis doctrine concerning order and connection, so remarkablyconspicuous in the animal kingdom. In the mean while, whether• A.D aoalY8la protleedlng by ratlo8. (Tr.) t The doctrine of the A.r!8toteUao8. (no.)t The doctrine oC Des Cartee.- (no.) § The doctrine oC Lelbmlll.-(2l.)
  • 43. ,AN INTRODUOTION TO R,ATION,AL PSYOHOLOGY. 1there be truth in what has been said, and what remains to besaid, may he easily ascertained from the four fo11owing con·siderations: First, In case the truth spontaneously manifesteitself; and 88 it were establishes a belief in its presence, with·out requiring any support from far-fetched arguments; for weoften, by a common notion, and, as it were, by a rational in·stinct, comprehend a thing to be true, which afterwards, by amultiplicity of reasonings drawn from a confused perception ofparticulars unarranged an.d unconnected with others which aremore remote from our notice, is brought into obscurity, caUedin question, and at last denied. Sec01ully, In case a11 expe­rience, both particular and genera~ spontaneously favors it. Thiràly, In case the mIes and maxims of rational philosophydo the sarne. Lasay, In case the proposed views makes the ditferent hypotheses, which have been advanced on the subject, tocoincide, supplying us with the proper condition, or commonprinciple, which brings them into order and connection, so that,contemplated in this manner, they are agreeable to the truth.We may remark that a system constructed on the ground ofsuch an agreement, merits the title of ESTAllLISHED llimlONY.But to proceed to the Doctrine of Series and Degrees. 1. 580. By the doctrine of series and degrees we mean thatdoctrine which teaches the mode observed by nature in the sub­ordination and coordination of things, and which in acting shehas prescribed for herself. Series are what succe8Bively andsimultaneously comprise things subordinate and coordinate.But degrees are distinct progre8Bions, such as when we tind onething is subordinated under another, and when one thing iscoordinated in juxtaposition with another: in this sense thereare degrees of determination and degrees of composition. Inthe mundane system there are several series, both universal andlcss universal, each of which contains under it several seriesproper and e8Bential to itse~ while each of theee again containll
  • 44. 8 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.series of its own; so that there is nothing in the visible wo~which is not a series, and in a series. Consequently, the scieDceof Datural things depends on a distinct notion of series anddegrees, and of their subordination and coordination. 581. By tM à<Jctrine of serie8 and àegrees we mean that à<Je­trine wMch teaches the mode observeà lJy nature in the sub<»,di­nation and coordination of things, and which in acting she haapreseribed f<» herself. This doctrine constitutes a principal partof the natura! sciences; for everywhere in nature there is order,and everywhere the rules of order. It is a ~octrine which ex­pounds the nature of the veriest fonn itselt; without whichnothing which is predicable of anything can occur. If the fonn of which wc may be treating be the veriest fonn itselt; and thingsbe regarded as the subject-matter, in this case the subject­matter joined to the fonn perlects the science; thus, for in­stance, in the anatomy of the animal body, everything we meetwith is a subject-matter of science, while notwithstaDding if theveriest fonn of the whole and of every part be not known, thescience is not perlected. The most perlect order in the mun­dane system Js that which reigns in the animal kingdom; 80perlect, indeed, that it may be considered as the living exem­ plar of aU other things in the world which observe any order.Consequently the doctrine of series and degrees ought to teach,Dot only in what manner things are successively subordinatedand coOrdinated, and in what manner they coexist simultane­ously in subordination and coordination, but also, in what man­Der they are successively and simultaneously detennined accord­ing to the order thus impressed, that they may produce actions,iD which may be causes, between which actions and causesthere may be a connection, so that a judgment may be fopnedrespecting caUses from the order in which they exist. 582. Series are what auccessively and simultaneously comprisethings suh<»,dinate and coordinate. Subordination indeed andCOOrdination properly have respect to order in causes, of whichalso they are commonly predicated; but whereas there is noth­ing in the animal kingdom, which does not, in some way, actas a cause, it is aU the same, whether we caU the severalthings in this kingdom successive and coexisting or simnl­
  • 45. .4N INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 9taneous, or whether we call them subordinate and coordinate.When the things themselves are subordinate and coordinate,and thereby distinct from other things, their whole complex, insnch case, is called a series, which, to the end that it may co­exist, must e:Dst successively; for nothing in nature can becomewhat it is at once, or simultaneously: since nature, withoutdegrees and moments, whether of time, velocity, succession,or determination, and consequently withont a complex andseries of things, is not nature. 583. But degrees are distinct progressions, such as we findwhen one thing is subordinated unàer another, and when onething is coordinated in jw;taposition with aJnother,. in thissense there are degrees of determi1Wtion, and d.e,qrees of compo­sition. With philosophera, degrees are quantities of qualities;as degrees of heat, of gravity, of colora, and of many otherthings; thus they constitute relations. But degrees are prop­erly progressions and determinate steps; thus, for instance, inthe case of ourselves, when we walk forward, we measure outwith our feet determinate distances, and not only so, but inclimbing a ladder, the very ladder itself has its separate steps orgradations. Hence it is that degrees never exist but in thingssuccessive. In things coexisting they are conceived to exist, forwhich reason they may also he predicated of them; since uponreflection we perceive that they exist within them, because with­out succession, and thus without degrees, they could not havecoexisted. (n.582.) Rence we say that a series, or coordinationof several things, is to be considered as distinguished into itsdegrees; for we do not, because it coexista, deprive the mindof its ides, that it existed or came into existence; since other­wise there would be no distinct perception of the efficient cause,and of its effect. 584. In the mundane system there are severalseries, both uni­versa~ and less universal. These series, the instant they aredetermined, or viewed as determinate, are usually arranged intogenera and species, whence arise superior and inferior genera.,and in like manner species, which acknowledge degrees of uni­versality; wherefore species, and occasionally even individuaIs,are considered as a genus; and vice versa, when compared withgen.era more universal. The most universal series is the uni­
  • 46. 10 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.verse, or the system of the world, which contains witbin itselfseveral series. The world or universe, according to the cele­brated WoUt is a series of finite entities connected with eachother, consequently it is one entity; but this sytem comprisesmany simultaneous and many successive things. (Oosmologia Generalis, § 48, 51, 52, 60.) The series which the world com­prisee, are three superior, and three inferior. The superior seriesare those of the circumambient universe or world; the inferiorare those of the earth. Of the circumambient universe orworld, there is a series of substances simply derived from thefirst substance by the order of succession. The second seriesis that which the same substances constitute when left. to them­selves and their own nature, or when endowed with the libeltyof gyrating, whence cornes fire, both solar and inferior elemen­tary fire. (n. 84.) The third series is that of the auras of themundane system, arising from the combination of the two for­mer, thus from their active and as it were passive principles:this latter series is that for the sake of which the former exist;it constitutes the circumambient world itself; and without it,the three inferior series, which are those of the earth, cannoterist. The auras themselves, which constitute this series, whenexamined as to their causes, by a rational analysis founded onfacts, are four, which, as they succeed each other in order, de­crease in simplicity, purity, universality, and perfection. Theseare the most perfect forms of active and passive nature, repre­senting her forces brought ioto forma. The world itself con­firms their existence; so that he who doubts it, precludes him­self from the investigation of every phenomenon and from thediscovery of causes in every effect. (n. 53-58, 65-68.) The general series of the earth, which in relation to thefûrmer ought to be denominated inferior, are themselves alsothree, and are commonly called kingdoms; namely, the mineraI,vegetable, and animal kingdoms. The mineraI kingdom containsseveral species; as metals, stones, salts, earths, liquids, in short,oumerous inactive substances. The vegetable kingdom containsalso various species, one under the other, such as trees, herbs,flowers, shrubs, and pulse. In like manner the animal kingdomcontains its several species, which it would be tedious to enu­merate. These kingdoms, or general terrestrial series, succeed
  • 47. .AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL P8YCHOLOGY. 11each other in time and in order. The first is the mineraI king­dom, or the earth itself, the parent of the rest. The vegetablokingdom derives its existence from the mineraIs of the earth, inwhich also, as in a matrix and womb, it deposits its seed as oftenas it proceeds to renew its birth. After this fo11ows the thirdgeneral series, or the animal kingdom; for an animai requiresfor its existence and subsistence both the whole of nature andthe whole of the world previously existing. The last of theseries in the animal kingdom is the MOst perfect animal, orman, who is the complement of all things and of the whole,and the microcosm of the macrocosm. In these six seriesnature seems to have rested; for there is no seventh. 585. Each of which contains under it several series prope1and eS8ential to itse{f, while each of these again contains seriesof ies own. This is the case, not only in the genera, but alsoin the species, and in the individuaIs of every species; and, sincethe animal kingdom is more immedtately the subject of ourpresent attention, we shaH select for our example the humanbody, as anatomically and physically examined, in part, in ourpreceding chapters. Every individual animal is a series of sev­eraI other series that are essential and proper to the general one.Its essential and proper series are the viscera; of which thehigher selies are t.he cerebrum,cerebellum, medu11a oblongata,and spinaIis; the lower, or those of the body, are the lungs,stomach, liver, pancreas, spleen, womb, kidneys, and severaIothers: for these, taken together, are constituent of the form.Each of these series contains other subject series which areessential and proper to it. The latter may be ca11ed partialeeries, and the lormer integral, or the former single and thelatter common, a11 belonging to the whole series. Thus theliver, which is a large gland, includes in it a conglomeration ofseveral glands, as do these again a conglomeration of their ownmost minute glands. The case is the same in the lest of theviscera which have reference to their integral series, in the SfdYlemanner as the integral has reference to its common series, andso forth. A similar law prevails in the other kingdoms; as forinstance, in the vegetable kingdom, in which a tree is one seriescomplising branches, which are its proper and essential series;whilst, in like manner, to these branches belong le88er ones,
  • 48. 12 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.twigs, and leaves; then finally fruits and seeds, which correspondto the generativa members in an animal, only with this difference, that in the tree they are renewed every year, whereas inan animal they are permanent. 586. So that there is nothing in the visible UJorld, lJJhich isnot a seMes, and in a seMes. The first substance of the worldis the only one which does not fall under the notice of theunderstanding as some kind of series: from this, as from thefirst determining substance, or the substantia prima, proceed aIlthe rest, as series, and betake themselves within the sphere ofnature. Thus, whithersoever-we tum our attention, an thingsthat we meet are merely series, originating in the first, and ter­minating in the first. Mere series, and series of series, consti.tute alithmetic, geometry, physics, physiology, nay, all philoso­phy. Even governments, both public and private, have respect00 their forms and their subordinations; and are consequentlyseries of things. By series it is that we speak, reason, and act.Our sensations, too, are series of varieties, more or less harmo­nious, whence result agreement, imagery, idea, and reason.For where aU is equality, or where there is no series, natureperishes. 587. Oonsequently, the science of natural things ilepend8 on adistinct notion of series and àegrees, and of their subordinationand coordination. The better a person knows how to arrangeinto order things which are to be determined into action, so thatthere may exist a series of effects flowing from their genuinecauses, the more perfect is his genins. And inasmuch as anarrangement of this kind is prevalent throughout nature, so thefaculty of arranging is perfected by observation and reflectionon the objects of nature, by natural abilities, and by the assist­ance of those instrucOOrs whose minds are not 000 artificiallymoulded, or under the influence ofprepossessions, but who daimto tbemselves a freedom in contemplating the objects of naturewith a view to become instructed by tbings themselves, as theyflow forth in their order. II. 588. To the intent that we may advance from the primary. sources of existence, we shaH begin with substances, which are
  • 49. .L!N INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 18the subjects of accidents and qualities. These substances aremanifold; nevertheless, of all that are in the universe, there isonly one from which the rest flow, and on which, as their firstprinciple, the principles of natural things are impre88ed by theDeity. Each series has its first and proper substance, whichsubstance nevertheless depends for its existence on the first sub­stance of the world. 589. To the intent tkat tee may advance from the primarys(YUrces of e;cïstence, we shall begintoith trU1Jstances, which arethe sufrjectB of accidents and qualities. A sufrject is that, inwhich are aIl things that can be predicated ofit. Accidents arethe things thus included; such as form, figure, magnitude, de­tennination in agreement with the form, active force [vis agendi).&co Qualities are predicated of substances considered as thesubjects of accidents; as the quality of form, figure, magnitude,intrinsic determination, force, &c.: aIl these things are sustainedby the substance, as the subject. For if it be inquired, What isIMre in a substance? The reply is, accidents. If again, Whatsort of things are accidentsl The reply is, They are determi­nablequalities. If again, What is their quantity, or Dow much JThe reply is, They are quantities, which are also degrees of qual­ities. Aristotle defines substance to be an ens which subsists perse, and sustains accidents; that is, to which the things within itare proper, or appropriately belong, so that they cannot be at­tributed to other things ; as eBSence, or form and nature, togetherwith the rest of the particulars which flow from them. If itsubsïsted froID other things, it would not have ft distinct subsist­ence; wherefore it must be said to subsist of itself, whence itderives the name of substance. For example: every compoundsubstance, or one series, if the things contained in it were notproper to it, would not be a substance per se, consequently therewould he no substance or universe. N evertheless, there is ftconnection of all things, in respect to existence, as also in respectto subsistence, so far as subsistence denotes perpetuaI existence.W 0l1f observes, that "substance is the subject of intrinsic, con­stant, ,and variable determinations," and" is that in which dwellthe sarne e88entials and attributes, while modes succe88ively vary." He, therefore, supposes ~at substance, without active VOL. IL 2
  • 50. 14 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.force, is not conceivable (Ontologia, § 769, 770, 776) j and hen.:lehe describes its accidents [forces?] as alive. (Oo8mologia, § 378,379.) But there are also mert substances. 690. The8e substance8 are manifold j neverthele88, of alJ, thatare in the univer8e, there i8 only one from which the re8t jlow.The reason is, that there is a connection between aU things inthe world, and a mutual dependence on their first principles,since there is nothing which is not a series, or in a series. (n. 586.)This transcendental truth is manifested only by contemplationof the various objects in the world j and is consequently notacknowledged except by a rational view of the facts presentedby general experience. N evertheless, that the truth is such,both reason and experience abundantly testify. 591. A~;,d on which, a8 their first principle, the principle8 ofnatural things are impres8eà by the Deity. Consequently, theabove-mentioned substance is the first substance of nature, andthe first of the mundane system. To this filllt substance areappropriated and attributed the things which are in it; thus itmay be said to 8UlJSi8t lJy itself J but not to sustain accidents jfor wheu we reflect on it abstractedly, we perceive that the ideaof accidents, resulting from the forms and essences of finitethings, is not in any wise adequate to it; since nothing can becategorically predicated of those things which are above nature,as are those which are in the first substance. Wherefore onlyhalf of the philosophers definition of a substance, namely, thatit is an entity which subsists by itself, and sustains accidents,applies to this first substance of the universe ; but the whole toaU other substances. The ancients, therefore, said with Plato,that the materia prima is a thing of abstruse and obscure con­sideration, and that it is impossible in the nature of things thatany knowledge should be obtained of it, except such as is indi­rect; or, as Aristotle affirmed, except by way of analogy andsimilitude; and that it is to be considered as without form andaccidents, &c. But so far as it contains the cause of the exist­ence of aU other substances, it is to be understood as their firstpriDciple; yet Dot a first principle of itself; because it was cre­at.ed by the Deity. 692. EaJ:h BerÎes haB its jir8t and proper SUb8tance, which~ nerJerlhelesB àepenàB for its e:x:istence on the jirst 81dJ..
  • 51. .AN INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PBYOHOLOGY. 15stance of the IlJorld,. ~ as the first substance of the mineraikingdom, the first of the vegetable, and the first of the animal;or the first of every species, that is, of every individual of therespective kingdoms. These first and proper substances arewhat are called by some elements, monads, primitive and simplesubstances; not that they are absolutely primitive and simple,but that they are so in respect to the compound substances oftheir series; for if they were absolutely such, they would alldiffer from the first substance of the world as to essence, or asto form and nature; and would flow as differences immediatelyfrom the first substance; which nevertheless they cannot dobut by an order of succeBBion, from the most universal substanceof nature. Consequently, we should then trace up nature to nohigher an origin than nature, and should bound the rationalanalysis of the mind either in things already thus simultane­ously created, or in things thus to he created, succeBBively nomone instant to another. Rence all irregularities and imper­fections would be made to flow immediately from the first sub­stance, or to be immediately created such, whereas they oughtto be ascrihed to nature alone. In a word, we should involvethe causes of things in numberless occult principles, whichthe ancient philosophy involved oo1y in a few. 1 wouldallow the first substance of any series to be absolutely primitiveand simple, if anything in nature would be thereby renderedcapable of explanation; but since nothing whatever can be soexplained, 1 think that 1 ought not to make the admiBBion.Still less can 1 do so, if that substance Î!J to be conceived assimple according to the usual description of a simple entity, viz.,as destitute of parts, magnitude, figure, internai motion, divisi­bility; by which adjunct, substance would be deprived of thenotion essential to it; as is done when a negative is associatedwith an affirmative, and a privative with a positive. 1 do notsay that these things are to he affirmed of the first substance,but still, that for want of better terms, they are not absolutelyto be denied. (n. 650.) Wherefore if the first substance of everyseries he assumed as depending for its existence on the first sub­stance of the world, then, according to Wout; "Every state ofevery element involves a relation to the whole world. In ele­ments and simple substances are contained the ultimate causes
  • 52. 16 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.of tbose tbings that are found in material things. The con·nection of material tbings depends on the connection of ele­ments. Extension cannot originate from Zenonic or self-similarpoints." (Oosmologia, n. 213, 191, 192, 205, 218.) III. 593. Tbe first substance of every series is its most simple andonly substance, wbicb reigns tbrougb tbe wbole individualseries. From it, and according to its natnre, flow aIl thingswbich bave a visible determination in the entire series. Forfrom it, by order of succession, and by connecting media, arederived substances more compounded, whicb are its vicegerentsin tbe ultimates of tbe series, and thus give determination totbe tbings existing in tbat series. By tbe determination oftbese substances are formed otbers more compounded, whicbmay be called mediating and subdetermining substances; bywhiob tbe eB8ential and proper series, wbicb constitute tbeentire series, are compacted and connected togetber. By deter­mining substances, tbrougb tbe medium of sucb as are sub­determining, one tbing is so perpetually connected witb anotber,that an unconnected part is not proper to tbe same series; con­sequently, tbere is a coestablisbed barmony. Tbe establishmentof tbis barmony is the more perfect, in proportion as the moresimple substances are more distinctly discriminated from themore compound, and substances of tbe same degree, from tbeirasaociates, tbeir essence and attributes remaining tbe same :consequently tbere exists a barmonious variety. 594. The jirst substance of eVeMJ series is its most simple andonly substance, which reigns through the whole individual series.Tbus tbe spirituous fluid in every individual oftbe animal king­dom, is tbe only living substantial fluid, and tbe all in everypart; by tbe operation of whicb, everytbing in that limiteduniverse is continued, supplied witb moisture, nourisbed, reno­vated, formed, actuated, and vivified. (n. 37, 38, 40, 41, 91, 97,100, 101, 152-154, 177, 360, 361, 370, 556.) Tbe vegetablekingdom bas also its own formative and plastic substance:di1fused througbout tbe wbole of every individua~ and stored
  • 53. .nv INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 17 up ln the inmost bosom of the seed. Every species, too, of the animal and vegetable kingdom, has its own propel substance, in respect to which aU the other things which are in the com­ pounds, are accidents. But this most simple substance is such only in regard to its own microcosm or little world, and is not the most simple of a11, which latter is only in the macrocosm or world at large. (n. 592.) 595. From il, aruJ accoràing to itIJ nature, ftOUJ all thingl which have a vÏ8ible àetermination in the entire series. This 1 thIDk is confirmed in Chapter III., On the Formation of the Chick in the Egg. 596. For from il, by oràer of succession, anà by connecting media, are àeriveà substances more compounàeà, which are its vicegerents in the ultimates of the series. Thus there is the purer or white blood consisting of plano-oval spheruIes; next to this follows the red blood, which is the third in order when the spirituous fluid is considered as the first. Wherefore the red blood is called the corporeal soul (n. 46, 102); and the spiritu­ ous fluid is called blood by way of eminence. (n. 91-94, 100.) The nature of the composition of each species of blood from its own spirituous fluid is explained in n. 91, 92, 95, 96, 108, 371. This composition is effected by saline connecting cor­ puscules taken from the family of such as are inert. (n.43-45, 50-57, 91, 92.) These corpuscules act as concurrent and ac­ cessory causes; and being accessory, although they are such by virtue of an express provision, they are called contingent. (n. 263.) Thus the mineraI and vegetable kingdoms concur to the existence of the animal kingdom, Binee without those king­ doms, the connecting, compounding, and perfecting elements would be wanting; and the spirituous fluid, being destitute ofits auxiliaries, would in vain attempt to carry on its work offormation. 597. AruJ thus give àete:rmination to the things e;;r,isting inthat series. To the intent that they may give this determina­tion, it is requisite, 1. That they be fluids; for fluids, especiallythe atmospheric fluids of the mundane system, and the livingfluids of the animal kingdom, represent most perfectly the forcesof active and passive nature in their form: since in these forcesis contained the cause of the coexistence of things. It is requi­ 2·
  • 54. 18 THl!: EOONOMY OF THE ANIlrlAL KINGDOM.site, 2. That they flow within their tunics· or membranes, by which they receive their determination. Thus the spirituousfluid is determined by its tunics or membranes, whence arisefibres; and both kinds of blood are determined by their tunics:md membranes, whence arise vessels. (n. 130.) For a fluidIlDcircumscribed is only an indeterminate fluor. It is requisite,B. That the fluid and its tunic act cODjointly as one and thesame determining cause; thus will the one be in conformity tothe other. (n. 134, 135, 522.) 598. IJy the determination of tll-ese 8ubstances are formedothers more compounded, which may !Je called mediating and81JlJcletermining sub8tances. Snch, for instance, are moving ormuscular fibres, which are produced by the determination oftheir fluids in their fibres and vessels. (n. 503, 510.) For thatfluids may llUt anything in motion, the little vessels containingthem must be so arranged, as to possess the ability of moving,which is a consequence of determinations, or of subordinationsand coordinations. Wherefore no part of the body is destituteof its motive fibre; and whatever part becomes destitute, livesnot in its entire series, in an active, but a passive character, orlives not in the particular, but in the general; such as bones,cartilages, tendons, which yet originally were formed by thecoalescence of moving fibres. (n. 536.) But motive fibres areDot determining substances, because they are the fibres andvessels of those fluids which determine them; neither are they,in respect to the members which are put in motion, substancesdetermined, for they exercise a moving force; wherefore theymay properly be caUed subdetermining and mediating sub­stances. To the subdetermining substances of the body cor­respond the subdetermining substances in the brain, which areits organic substances, spherules, and cOltical tori. (n. 287, 505,657, 661, 644, 647.) 599. The little glands themselves, or congeries of mostminute vesicles, may also, in some measure, be called mediatingsubstances, Bince they are the first substances which are deter­mined by the muscular fibre, so as to receive, secrete, dispense,and distribute, alimentary matter to the blood and viscera, andto cause them to exist perpetually such as they existed at first;consequently, they enter the animal economy as inferior subde­wrmining substances. (n. 163-165, 205.)
  • 55. ÂN INTRODUOTION TO RÂTIONAL PSYOnOLOGy. 19 600. By wMch the e88ential and proper series, wMch consti­ tute me entire series, are compacteà and connected together. Such are aU the viscera and members, and aIso the organs, which construct a series, and cause it to act according to its structure or form. Therefore the viscera and members them­ selves, as being substances determined, consist merely of mus­ cles and glands; the muscles and glands consist merely of diminutive vessels, these diminutive vessels of mere fibres, and the fipres of a mere spirituous fluid, which is the aIl in every part. Consequently, the viscera and members consist of the sarne spirituous fluid, for which reason they are its essential and proper series. (n. 585.) 601. By àetermining substances, throUgh the medium of BUck as are suhdetermining, one thing is so perpetually connected with anotMr, that an unconnected part is not proper to the sa11U: series/ consequently, there is a coestablished harmony. This flows !lB a consequence from what has been said above, and fromwhat remains to be Baid, without any further comment. In themean time, the subject here principally treated of is the -::onoeo­tion of the animal series, which being the most perfect of aIl inthe system of the world, may be considered as the exemplar ofthe lest. For a similar order everywhere prevails; that is tosay, there are determining substances, subdeterminiog sub­stances, and things determined, where descent or ascent is madeby thlee deglees; but in cases where there are only two de­grees, there is no complete determination. For to every per­feet determination there is required a threefold progression;since to the existence of an agent and a patient, there is requi­site aIl intermediate having reference to both. 602. The establishment of this harmony is the more perfect,in proportion as the more simple substances are more distinctlydiscriminateàfrom the more compound. This is the case moreespecially in the brains, although it is verified likewise in thebody. For in the brains the spirituous fluid, with its fibres,secretes and separates itself most distinctly from the blood or itsvessels, inasmuch as the red blood, at the instant of its anivalst the cortical substance of the brain, ceases to be red, andenters into it as white blood, and hence again into the littlefibres as pure blood, or spirituous fluid, yet still it is in perpetuaI
  • 56. 20 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.continuity, and suifera no part of itself to be excluded from tha1.continuity, The more distinctly, therefole, the fluid of one de­gree secerns itself from the fluid of another, whilst the con­tinuity still remains unbroken, the more pelfect is the harmonyestablished. So likewise in the body; the more perfectly thevessels of the red blood distingllish themselves from the vesselsof the white blood, and those of the white blood flom the fibres,whilst the continllity still remains unbroken, the more perfect isthe harmony. (n. 91-94, 100, 149, 150, 158, 214-216, 371, 557.)Hence the circulation of the blood is subtriplicate. (n. 148.)Thus one fluid in its place mayact as a cause, and another in itsplace as another cause, and also al! together conjointly as onecause. (n. 147, 150.) 603. A.nd substances of the same degree, fram tlLeir a8S0­ciates, tlLeir essence and attributes remaining the same. Forthroughout the whole body there is not a single artery, vein, ordrop of blood, which, as to al! its accidents and qualities, is ex­actly similar to another, there being a diversity in ail. (n. 97-99.)Thus neither is there a single fibre altogether similal to another,as to its essence and attributes; consequently neither is thereany fluid pervading them altogether similar to another: henceneither is there any fibre but has its own proper little heart pre­fixed to its origin in the brain. (n. 177, 471.) And if the fibresthemselves, or their most slender matres or membranes, aretormed and elicited out of their own fluid, by the privation insome degree of its forces and fluidity, it follows, that no indi­vidual thing can possibly be the subject of an exactly similaraccidentality. N evertheless, in each and ail, there may be thesame tendency conspiriog to produce effects, of which theessence may be remlered the more perfect) in proportion as thesubstances from which they result, are distinguished from eachother, and in proportion as the more simple ale distinctly se­cerned fiom the more compound. 604, Oonsequently tlLere exists a lwrmonious variety. Byharmonious valiety we mean aIl that difference, taken collee­tively, which cao exist between individuals of the same gemis orspecies in their accidents and modes, while the common formand nature, or the essence and its attlibutes, remain the same.The title, harmNûous variety, is the more applicable to these
  • 57. AN INTRODUCTION 1"0 RATION.JL PSYCHOLOGY. 21 ~ifferences, inasmucb as tbey exist most perfectly in prior sub- Jtances. As for example; tbey exist in tbe first aura, or inmost ~tmosphere; tbe individual parts of wbicb we may conceive !B nowbere equal to eacb otber, but most distinctly various, f,ccording ta tbeir distance fiom tbe common centre of tbeir 2>ctivity, wbence arises a variety, of wbicb tbe most perfect bar- Illony may be predicated. Tbis, bowever, is imperceptible to the human understanding, since tbe diffelences, degrees, or mo- ments, are inexpressible by common numbers. For an aura of this description, formed 10 receive the forces of tbe most perfect J1ature, possesses within it aH possibility of applying itself to{very inconceivable minutia of variety, and consequently, of~oncurring witb every possible determination; so tbat there isDotbing whatever witbin it tbat admits of any comparison witbI1umber, nor is tbere any surd or irrational, wbicb it cannotsupply witb its own unit, degree, or moment. For it is weillmown that every number, whetber io.tegral or fractional,rational or irrational, bas relation to its own units, and fromthese to its numbers and ratios, as bomogeneous. It is weillmown tbat by tbe more simple units, a number of wbicb eitberconstitutes or proximately defines a given unit, we can approxi-mate ta a true ratio in an irrational quantity, and we arrive thenearer to it, in proportion as tbe simplicity of tbe said unit ismore unassignable: thus we come very neady to tbe propor-tion wbich tbe diameter bears to tbe circle, and tbe diagonal tothe side of a square. Consequently, if tbe inmvidual paits ofthis aura are susceptible of every variety, wbilst its essence andattributes remain tbe same, tben tbere never can be any disbar-mony in tbe derivatives and compounds, whicb tbey cannotrender barmonious; and indeed in tbings absolutely irrational,they can approximate so nearly to a proportional, tbat tbe dif-ference is of no account, or may be said to vanisb; especiaHywben tbis unassignable minimum, or least quantity, whicb bas inpotency aH tbe units wbicb it is to put on, is compared witb itsunassignable maximum or greatest quantity, tbat is, tbe mun-dane system. Let us take our explanation of harmonious varietyfiom a nearer object, and let tbe air serve as our example. Noindividual part of this air is equal to anotber. Tbe parts of itwbicb occupy tbe bigher region, are more expanded, conse-
  • 58. .22 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.quently ligbter, and act less by their vis inertiœ and more bytheir vis activa. Yet they are so conjoined with each otbert.hroughout the whole atmospbere by contiguity, that the resultis harmonious variety. J 605. From this aura we may now advance to the filSt sub.stance of the mundane system, and inquire whether a similarharmonious variety may be attributed to this also. It seemsindeed that this substance must be acknowledged to possess thehighellt degree of constancy and permanency in regard to itsessence and attributes; and that in regard to its other faculties,which in the subsequent substances are caUcd accidents andmodes, it possesses the most perfect harmonious variety: other-wise we could not possibly understand anything to be containedin it beyond a most fixed oneness. This 1 believe to be themeaning of the celebrated Wolff, when he describes substanceas the subject of intrinsic, constant, and variable determinations,and 88 that in which dwell tbe same essentials and attributes,while modes successively vary. (n. 589.) By reason of the in-sufficiency of telms, instead of harmonious variety being prcdi-cated of this substance or first aura, harmony alone seemspredicllble of it, without the addition of varicty; for althoughvariety is not inconsistent with it, yet that term is not adequateto express the true idea. The view of the subject developed both here and in theforegoing observations, seems to have been favored by sorneancient philosophera; as by Anaximencs, and Diogenes ofApollonia, who held, that the first elements of aU forms weresusceptible and flexible. By Xenophanes of Colophon, andMelissus (who was opposed by Aristotle), who held, that onething is infinite, one finite: where he seems to have usedthe term infinite, not instead of God, who impressed those prin-ciples on things, but instead of the terms indefinite and unas-signable, for he does not specificaUy define what his infinite is. By Anaximander, who held that a certain infinite principle was founded on the infinity of things in the world, one of which continually produced another. By Pythagoras, who held that there is hannony and agreement, and thus unity. By Arche- laus, the Athenian, who held that there is an infinite aura, from which aU things were brought forth. By Anaxagoras of
  • 59. AN INTRODUC1fON TO RA.TIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 23Clazomene, who held that there are certain similar substances,by the composition of which aUthings are produced, &c. Thusthe.idea of them aU seems to have been similar, although notexpressed in similar tenns; for it is only by a slow progress thatnames or terms attain their peculiar bearings, and are distinctlyexplained. The ancients, who lived nearer to the golden ageof truths, seem to have been content simply to describe the barething itself; not to circumscribe it with any oroate investitureof words. 606. Thus in these respects, the animal microcosm, or littleworld, is similar to the macrocosm, or world at large; viz., itsfluids, especially the purest, are in the most perfect harmoniousvariety; as are also the substances and auras of the mundanesystem, particularly the first and purest; the harmonious varietyof which, in consequence of the defectiveness of language, can­not possibly be expressed in adequate terms. (n. 650.) IV. 607. By this process the corporeal system is constructed and pCifected; in which one thing remains fixed in such a state of subordination 00, and coordination with, another, that ail indi­ Vidually respect and depend upon each other; in such a manner, that the more simple substances are rendered conscious of every change which takes place in the compound series and sub­ stances; and whatever is determined into aet, is effected by.the more simple, either determining, or concurring, or consent­ ing. Moreover this is aecomplished according to natural order, proeeeding from an inferior substance to one pro):imately su­ perim, or from a superior to one proximately inferior; but notfrom the supreme to the ultimate except by intermediates. 608. By this process the corporeal system is constructed andperfectedj in which one thing remains jixed in such a state ofsubordination to, and coordination with, another, that all indi­vidually respect and depend 1.pon each other. This law prevailsuniversally and perpetually in the animal body; as also, in thevegetable and mineraI kingdoms, and in the world at large, asthe eomplex of aIl. The first substance of every kingdom,
  • 60. 24 THE ECONOllfY OF THE ANUfAL KINGDOM.I:lpecies, and subject, is what gives being [esse] ta the lest; itis that, also, by which, and for the sake of which, the lesthave existence, sa that there is nothing in the whole serieswhich bas not respect ta it, botb as tbe beginning and end of thewbole, and as that under wbich everytbing else exists in astateof subordination. Tbus, there is nothing but what is an inter­mediate ta sorne further use and end, in such a way, tbat, beingplaced between tbe things wbicb precede and those wbich followit, it bath contains tbe relation of the tbings which follow it,and is itself in relation ta tbose wbicb precede it, on which itdepends, and for tbe sake of wbich it exists in tbat and in nootber manner. (n. 252.) See also n. 248-253,257-298. Tbusin every series there ia established a kind of circ1e, in vÏJtue ofwhich tbe first tbing can have reference ta the last, and the lastta the first. Tbus in tbe human body it is the soul ta which aIltbings in the body refer as tbeir first substance, by which, andfor the sake of wbicb, they exist. The purposes, state, and bap­piness, of the soul, tberefore, are the abjects which all theseregard: and to tbe intent that its pmposes may be carried on,there must be something which bas precedence, or whicb isprior and superior, by wbich, and for tbe sake of whicb, the soulexists. Thus notbing terminates in tbe finite universe, but anthings universally in the first Ens of created tbings, in respectta wbom tbere is nothing in the whole compass of nature andof the mnndane system, which is not a medium or intermediate,He being, preëminently, the Beginning and the End; for whichreason also aU things fiow, in a most wondelful manner, froman end, through ends, ta an end. (n. 296-298.) Thus it is thateven tbe universe itself is distinguished into its series. (n. 584­586.) And thus in every series there is a similar cbain of subor­dination, arder, and form of rule, so that each, whilst accorn­plishing, inclivic1ually, its own purpose, is accornplishing, also, thecam mon and bence the universal purpose of all.% 609. In such a manner, that the m01e simple substances arerenderecl consci<YUs of every change which takes place in the com­pound series and substances. This follows as a consequencefrom tbe connection establi.shed between them, which is the more • Or," so thnt each, while acting in its cnpncity of an individunl rauRe, arts also lntbat of a common, and bence in tbat of a universal cause."-(Tr.)
  • 61. A.N INTRODUOTION TO RATIONA.L PSYOHOLOGY. 25 perfect, in proportion as the more simple substances are distinct trom the more compound, both in the brains and in the body (n. 602); and in proportion as the substances of the same de· gree are distinct from their associates, their essence and attri· butes remain the same. (n. 603, 604.) To the intent that theRe effects may be secured, organs are provided, which may have a sense of al! changes that take place out of the series, and of aIl things that are in contact. with it. The tunic or membrane which is the clothing of the whole, is sentlible of the more gen- eral impressions arising from the touch, appulse, and impact ofexternal objects. The tongue is sensible of the forms of differ- ently shaped bodies, and especiaIly ofthose which are somewhat.fOugh, or hard, and floating in aqueous fluids: the nostrils aresensible of similar purer bodies floating in the aërial fluid: theear is sensible of the modulation of the atmospheric fluid; and Lhe eye, of the modifications of the ethereal fluid; thus therela nothing in the earth which does not produce and induce some .::nange with regard to some organ of sense. But in regard tochanges of & higher order, such as those, for instance, whichocour in the Rtill more pelfect auras, and which answer to themodification of the inferior auras, there are also more eminentorgans within the series, which have a sense even of tbese, butin a more pelfec! manner according as the harmony establishedbetween them (n. 602-604) is the more pmfect; and accordingas the compounds suffer themselves, without the intervention ofmutable sub.;;tances in the worlel and in the body, to be deter-mined to a more orderly arrangement by their more simple sub-stances. But in what manner the more simple substances andseries are rendered conscious of w hat happens in such as arecompound, can be known only fiom their connection, some·ideaof which ia suggested in this Part, as in n. 216, 217, 234,268,287,505, 557, 561,574-576; also in the sequel, n. 641-647;and as respects the ce!cbellum, in JI. 558-561, inclusive, whereit is shown that this organ is ~endcrcd conscious of the generalchanges existing in the body; but as those changes do not comeinto the distinct perception of the cerebrum, they are generaIlysupposed not to reach us. 610. And wootever is determined into act, is effected by thdmore simple. either determining, or concurring, or consenting. VOL. n. 3
  • 62. 126 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. What the substances are, which give determination to the thinga existing in their series, may be seen in n. 597; and inasmuch as they are distinct from each other (n. 602), determination maybe predicated of each. When, therefore, the determination comes from the more simple substances, it is according to natu­raI order (n. 271-278); but when it comes from such as are compound, viz., when causes out of the body, or when causes within the body, are those which excite, then the more simplesubstances either concur (for to the intent that a full action mayexist from sufficient causes, a concourse of severalthings isrequisite, with which the force of the more simple substances,being that which gives detennination to aIl the rest, must con­eur); or else they consent, since without consent no actionensues. .Even palts whieh are dissentient can enter into con·sent; but when the determination exists in act, the palts whichhad consented prevail over the rest. Thus freeàom is predicable of the will, when causes arisingfiom the world, or the body, can be referred a~ exciting causesto the will of the superior faculties or powers, and wheo at thesame time these latter concur or consent before they are deter­mined inta act: consequently ta the fieedom of the will, it isof no importance what has ingress, but what has egress, or notwhat excites, but what is determined. The fieedom of the su·perior faculties of the same series, therefore, is the less,· in pro­portion as they are the more drawn to that side of the questionto which the inferior faculties are impelled; and, on the otherhand, the freedom of the superior facultiel! is the greater in pro­portion as they are able to descend to that. si.de of the questionof their own accord; especially in proportion as they are morestrongly induced to descend. In the mean time, when deter­mination takes place, the inferior faculties can no longer beeaid to determine or act, but ta be detelmined and acted upon;because they are under the superior, and are bound ta comply,in order that what is determined may come into existence. Forthe existence of an action is owing to the principal cause; butas to the quality of the action, we may observe, that those, ormany of those things which are in the action, are either owingta the principal cause providing that such accessories shall attendit; or to sorne mediate or proximate cause doing the same, and
  • 63. .dN INTRODUC1ION TO R.dTION.dL PS YCHOL OGY. 27hence to the principal cause which adroits thero into the action;or finally it is owing to a still higher cause, which providedthem from a still earlier origin. Thus an action is endowed withqualities according as it derives them either from a more prin­cipal and hence a more perfect cause, or else from other causes.N ow, so far as there is liberty of acting, so fal also is there theliberty of suffering ones self to be acted upon by what isBuperior. And Binee, as already observed, liberty is predicableof the will, therefore when causes alising from the world, or thebody, can be referred as exciting causes to the will of the supe­rior faculties or forces, and these concur or consent, that ie, con·descend to them, it hence followe, that there is a liberty of sodisposing ones self as to be in a state of suffering ones self tobe acted upon; to form which state, things superior also coneur,whieh provide for the accession of those things whieh qualify, orgive the quality, as was saill above. There ie, therefore, a libertyof acting, relatively to things· inferior; a liberty of sufferingones self to be aeted upon, relatively to things superior; fromboth whieh results a libelty of disposing ones self to be aetedupon. 611. Moreover this is accomplished according to natural 01­(ler, proceeding from an inferior substance to one prozimatelysuperior, 01 from a superior to one prozimately inlerior,. butnot from the supreme to the ultimate except by intermediates.On this aceount subordination is distinguished into degrees, thatall things may flow in due order. For a fibre eannot aet exeeptupon its OWll motive fibre, whieh is its mediating and subdeter­mining substance; nar ean this latter aet upon the fleshy movingfibre, except by an intermediate. (n. 503-505, 510, 532, 557.)The flame law prevails with aIl other substances, whether existingin an animal (n. 571-578), vegetable, or mineraI; for it is eon­trary to the nature of thingB, that a rcmote cause thould be aproximate one, and that one prior in order should be the im­Mediate cause of the one which is ultiroate, or of the effect.(n.210.) Thus the same law prevails, whether an inferior causeIlct upon a superior, or a superior on an inferior, as in the casesrnentionec1 in n, 609, 610.
  • 64. 28 THE ECONOMY OF THE .ANIMAL KINGDOM. v. 612. Simple substanc(:s, and those which are less and mort!compound, which are the determlning substances of the thingsin tbeir own series, are, according to their degrees of simplicityor of composition, prior and posterior; superior and inferior;interior and exterior; more remote and more proximate; and,amongst each other, are as efficient causes and effects. Thosewmch are prior are also more universal, and in every qualityare more perfect than those which are posterior. The prioralso can exist without the posterior, but n~t the posteliorwithout the prior. 613. Simple substances, and those which are less and morecompound, which are the determining substances of the tMngsin their own series, are, according to their degrees of simplicityor of composition,prior and posterior j superior and inferior jinterior and ~terior j more remote and more proximate j and,amongst each other, are a.s efficient causes and effects. By sim­ple substances 1 mean the first of every series, in respect ofwhich those which follow are compound; such for instance isthe spilituous tluid in the unimal kingdom, after wbich followsin order the blood of each kind; next, the mcdullary or nervousfibril, which is only a most simple artery; then, the motive ner·vous fibre in the muscles; and so on. (n.115.) The substances,therefore, which are more simple, are also prior, both in orderand time: they are superior in order with respect to degree, forthe first holds the supreme station (n. 91-96, 100,148-150, 158,371); they are also interior (n. 216): and likewise more remote.(n. 548, 549.) Wherefore nature is said to ascend, and to be­take herself inwards, and indeed the more highly and inter­nally, in proportion as she approaches nearer to her simplesubstance, in regard to which, aIl the lest, which are com­pound, are posterior, inferior, and exterior. A simple substancemay thus be considered a cause, since a prior, superior, and in­terior substance continually operates as a cause to one whichis posterior, inferior, and exterior. Rente arise the expressionsof; a priori and a posteriori j of ascending, descending, and transcending in series; of nambers being raised to higher
  • 65. AN INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 29powers, and of nature retiring into herselt; which she doeswhen returning to prior causes, and more inwardly still, whenreturning to their first pi.nciple. 614. Those which are prior are also more universal. Thusthe first substance of the mundane system is the most universaIof substances, because the only one in compound substances.In like manner, the spirituous ftuid is the most universalsubstance in the animal series, because it is the aIl in everypart, and the only substance in the series that lives, or bywhich the lest live. The medllllary or nervous fibre is the oneonly oetermined substance in the same kingdom, whence it isthe most universal; and thenervoull motive fibre is the one onIydetermined substance in the muscle, because it ruIes universallyin that kingdom. So Iikewise in aIl other cases. For accordingto AristotIe, that is a universal which is predicated of manythings (De Interpret., lib. i., tr. iv., cap. vii.), and which nat­uraIly is in many things; for, as he says, the common essenceor nature, which others calI the universaI principle in manythinM ie always preserved even during the perpetuai and con­tinued succession of individuals." Wherefore, the philosophyof universaIs is that which contains the principIes and ele­ments of the things which follow from them. But a univer­saI has respect not only to substances as giving determina­tion, but also to series as receiving determination from them:hence it is usual to arrange things into genera, 88 aI80 generainto species, and indeed into genera superior and inferior, thedeterminations of which, as being general, enter into the speciesand into their particulars or individuals. Therefore, Bince thereare Jegrees of universality, and there is nothing in the whoIesystem of the world which has not respect to something moreuniversal, a species is sometimes taken for a genus, either supe­rior or inferior, according to its relation to the things whichbeIong to it in order. (n. 584.) 615. And in every quality are mOlfe perfect than those whichare posteriOlf. In other words, prior substances viewed in them­selves and in their own nature, are more peIfect than such asare postedor viewed in themselves and their nature. (n. 176.)They are more perfect, for instance, in regard to form, essence,attributes, accidents, and qualities; consequently they are moredistinct, similar, unanimous, constant, and fluid; they are in the 8­
  • 66. 80 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.fuller enjoyment of aIl their virtue or force, just as active sub­stances are in the fuller enjoyment of their elastic force j theyare also more heautiful, and more disposed to agreement: hencealso it follows, that they are less limited, more free, in greaterpotency, more sensible, more rational, more durable. (n. 100­102, 115, 258, 259.) For the smallest defect in the first deter­mining substances would occasion the greatest in the substancesdetermined j since error would increase according to descent indeglees. (n. 248, 249, 251.) 616. Order also itself exists in greater or less degrees ofperfection: but the perfection of the order flows flom the per­fection of the first substance or first determining principle inevery series; for the very determining principle itself is a series,because in the series of the universe. (n. 586.) Wherefore theorder of the whole series depends on the order of the firstsubstance, as being in itself and in its own nature the moreperfecto The gleatest perfection of sny entire determined series,is, when it corresponds to the pelfection of the determiningseries: yet the highest pelfection cannot on this account bepredicated of it, unless the pelfection of its first determiningseries, from which a like determination flows, corresponds tothe perfection of the first series in the lDundane system. Butthat the order of derivatives may conespond to the perfectionof primitives, we must suppose that nU those things which areto enter into the delivation of things posterior, accede to it,either by express provision or contingently: they accede to itby express provision in the natural formation of every series,nay, even in what is thence formed, in order to its perpetuaIexistence, that is, to its subsistence. Wherefore the series ofthe contingents are simultaneously included in the determinationof the first substance of every series, which so alTanges thern asto cause them to accede.. (n. 263-265, &c.) If they .accedecontingently, they are provided either by sorne other superiorprinciple, whence comes a more perfect order j or by some in­ferior principle, whence comes a more imperfect order. Con­ceming the pelfection of barmonious coestablishment, see n.602-606. This perfection in things successive coincides withthe "transcendental goodness" of the ancients, which, accord· • A qui alc dlaponuntur ut accedant.
  • 67. .4.N INTRODUOTION TO R.4.TION.4.L PSYOHOLOGY. 31ing to W o~ is predicated of the order which prevails inthe variety of those things which are together, and follow oneanother; or of the order of thofle which ngree with an Entity;whose peIfection is greater, in proportion to the greater (orbetter) variety of consenting things. (Ontol., § 503: Cosmol.,§ 552.) Hence it is evident that the world at large, and alsoour little world, are themselves most perfect (n. 115, 239, 240),but that we ourselves are the cause of our imperfection. 617. The prior also can exist without the posterîor, but notthe posterîor without the prior. 1 speak not of things undeter­mined, which are the subjects of the theoretical sciences, butof things determined, which are subjects of the world and ofnature, in which there iF! nothing whatever that is undetelmined,because there is nothing which is not either a series, or in a seriel!.(n. 586.) For the spirituous fluid exists prior to the purerblood and the purer blood ptiOl to the red blood, in which lastthe spirituous fluid is the one only substance which lives. Thesame holdtl in aIl other cases, as may be seen throughout Chap­ter III., on the Formation of the Chick in the Egg. Conse­quently, what is prior can subsist without what is posterior(n. 67); and thus, after the decease of the body, the soul will.survive; for when the body perishes, nothing perishes but mereaccidents, and nothing recedes from the soul but mere accesso­ries, or elements borrowed from the kingdoms of the eartb. VI. 618. Sucb as are the substances, snch likewise are theiressences, attributes, accidents, and qualities; or all their ad­junets. Of these also it may be predicated, that they areseries, and are in a series; of the adjuncts, that some are moreor less simple, prior, superior, interior, universal, and perfect,compared with others; just as is the case with the substances inwhich they are, and from which they flow. It IDay he predi­cated further, that the superior entel by influx into the inferior,and vice versil, according to the mode in which the substancesare formed, and in which they commumcate by connection witheach other. But those which occupy a superior place are in­comprehensible, and to the sensory of things inferior appear as
  • 68. 32 JHE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.continuous; whilst those which occupy an inferior place arecomprehensible, and appear to the sensory of things superior ascontiguous. Yet such is the coestablished harmony of aIl thingsin the same series, that they mutually correspond to each other,without any di1rerence but that of perfection according to de­grees; wherefore the inferior regard the superior as their ana­logues and eminences. 619. Buch as are the substances, such likewise are their es­sences, attributes, accidents, and qualities,. or all their ac?juncts.For substances are the subjects of accidents and qualities. Iftherefore we say, that matter joined to form is the substance;that the nature by which it determines itself according to theform, or the nature joined to the form, is the essence of thatsubstance; that the possibility of admitting modes is its attri­bute; that the modes themselves are its accidents; and that thevariety of modes is their quality; we may in such a case inferthe followillg to be the order of the whole: - that essentialsproperly belong to the substance itsel~ attributes to essentials,accidents to attributes, and qualities to accidents. Consequent.ly, whatever is predicated of a substance, is such as the sub­stance itself is. 620. Of these also it may be predicated, that they are series,and are in a series. For unless accidents be series, qualitycannot be predicated of them. Thus a muscle is a compoundsubstance, and is a series of motive fibres, and is in a series, viz.,in the integral or common series of the body: its essence con­sists in the form or construction of the fibres in and amongstthemselves (n. 503); consequently, in the nature, by which itdetermines itself according to the form: its attributes are theforces or powers of acting that exist in the fibres, or, if takencollectively, in the muscle: its accidents are modes: its modes,taken either successively or simultaneously, are the action, ofwhich, according to the variety and relation of the modes,quality is predicated. Therefore, since a muscle is viewed as aseries, the forces and modes, with the action thence resulting,are also viewed as series, which receive their qualityaccordingto the form and the nature of the action thence resultingbelonging to the muscle itself. (n. 586.)
  • 69. .AN INTBOIJUC1ION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 33 621. Of the adjuncts, that some are more or less simple, prior, superior, interior, universal and perfect, compared with others j just as is the case with the substances in which they are, and from which they jlow. Thus as the simple motive fibres in a muscle are its first and supreme substances, &c.; as the white motive fibres are its posterior and inferior substances in respect to those which are supreme, but its prior and superior in respect to the fleshy motive fibres made up of the vessels of the red blood, which are its posterior and inferior substances; 80 likewise are these posterior and inferior substances prior and 8uperior in respect to the entire muscle, or to 0.11 the mus- cles of the same common series, which are the most compound motive fibres, consequently the last or lowest in respect to 0.11 , those which are prior and superior. The case is the same with the forces, modes and actions resulting from them. 622. It may be predicated further, that the superior enter ln) injlu:x; into the inferior, and vice versâ, according to the mode in which the substances are fornted, and in which they commu- nicate by connection with each other. For the forces and modes themselves may be compured with fluids, since fluids resemble the forces of active nature. (u. 66, 67, 100,171-172,&c.) Whencealso the forces are said to he modified; whele-fore forces, vicwed abstractedly from substances, may be Baid to jlow, and to he injluent j or injlux may be predicated of them ; just as substances may be said to be connected, and by connec- tion, to act mutually on each other. Thus, in a muscle, the power or force of a simple motive fibre flows into that of a(Ompound motive fibre, according to the order in which the8ubstances act on each other. 623. But those wMch occupy a superior place are incompre.heruJible, and to the sensory of things inferior appear as contin.UOt48. For one muscle may consist of a myriad of fleshy mo-tive fibres: one fieshy motive fibre may consist of a myriad of white or mediate motive fibres; and one white or mediute motivefibre, ofa myriad ofsimple motive fibres, The sensory, therefore,which discerns only the degrees and moments of the entire mus- cles amoIigst each other, cannot distinguish the degrees and moments of the motive fleshy fibres amongst each other, still less of the simple fibres; wherefore the forces and modes of the
  • 70. 84 THE EOONOMY OF THE ÂNIMAL KINGDOM.latter appear as destitute of degrees and moments, consequently88 incomprehensible and continuous. 624. Wkilst those whicl~ occupy an inferior place are corn·prehensibk, and appear to the sensory of things superior ascontifJUOUB. For the sensory itself cannot judge distinctly ofthe sensible impressions of which it is the subject, since it con­ceives only a general notion of them, that is, of the generalaction of the forces and modes. Hence, to judge of what be­longs to an inferior power, a superior power is required. Forthe superior distingnishes and discerns, in the inferior, the es­sences, attributes, accidents, and qualities, as compounded oftbeir more simple pIinciples, but entering into them in a generalmanner, consequently as distinguished into degrees and mo­ments j whence comes the perception of what is simultaneousand of what is successive, consequently of space and time. 625. :Fét BUCk is the coestablished harmony of ail things inthe same series, that they mutually correspond to each other,without any difference but that of perfection according to de­grees. ThuB the simple moving fibre acts precisely in the sameDlanner as both the white and the fleshy one. (n. 472, 570.)For in order that one may be an acting cause productive of theaction of another, there must exist a harmony, not only betweenthe cojjrdina~ in the same degree, but also between the sub­ordinates in several degrees j othenvise one cause could not actupon another, and make a compound action, in which it shouldhe the cause and beginning: since if the two did not corre­spond, collision and error would ensue. 626. Wherefore the inferior regard the superior as theiranal<Jgues and eminences / because they are incomprehensible(n. 623), and yet mutually corresponding to each other. (n.625.)Therefore, the proximately superior may he called the analo{JU6of the proximately inferior j that which is still superior, maybe called the eminent of the inferior; and that which is stillsupedor, may be called its supereminent / and so on. 627. What has now been said respectmg the forces and modes of acting of the muscular motive fibres, is to be under­ stood also respectiug sensations, regarded as forces and modes. For if the organs themselves be considered as series, and these series as compound substances, which sustain accidents both
  • 71. 4N INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL P8YCHOLOGY. 35intrinsic and extrinsic; or if they be consideled as subjects ofthe sensation of the things which befall them; in this case theorgans, according to tbeir kind, have sensation of those thillgB,and impart their scnsations to the brain, accordillg to the kindof connection intervening between the two. Again, vice versa,the brain, which is the common sensory of the organs of thebody, has sensation according to its quality or kind, and causesthe organs to sensate according to the kind or quality of theconnection intervening between them and itself. (n.622.) There­fore, from the connection of the subst,ances, we may fonn ajudgment concerning the influx of sensations. What is theharmony coestablished in the bram for this purpose, will be seenin Il. 641-648. VII. 628. Aggregate entities of the sarne degree and series havereference to their units, aB to their most simple parts, withwhich they are homogeneous. From the fonn, nature, andmode of acting of these aggregates, are discoverable the fonn,nature, and mode of acting of the parts. Consequently, ageneral and particular experimental knowledge of the thingswhich at any time reach any sensory, will point out the essenceof the mOBt minute things of the sarne degree,as also of thecorrespondïng things of the still more simple or superior degrees.Wherefore we are lcd into the inmost knowledge of naturaJthings by the doctrine of series and degrees conjoined withexperience. 629. ..4.ggregate entities of the same degree and series haV(JrfJerence to their units, as to their most simple parts, mth whichthey are homogeneous. By units l do not mean the monads ofMorinus; or the homœomerim of Anaxagoras of Clazomene; orthe atoms of Epicurus, Democritus, Leucippus the Elean, or ofMochus the Phœnician; nor the primitive and simple elementsof other philOBophers, considered as incapable of being furtherreaolved; but by units l mean the most minute constituents ineach degree of any series. For in_a series of three -iegreestpere ar!Lthree-9~t.lnct l!!!its, or three distinct quantitics ofunits; or, should any one prefer another mode of expressing if.,
  • 72. 36 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. in a series of three degrees, there are three substances 2,.r-!iwple forces to be considered ~ EDits; one of which is more simple than another, yet having a mutual relation to each other; thus the other things composed of them, are as numbers composed of such units, each of which is homogeneous to its own unit. (n. 156.) Thus in the animal kingdom there are three succes­ 1. sive fluids to be considered as quantities, viz., the re~od, the intermediate blood, and the SpirituoUB 1iuid, each of which.J has reference tô ifsown unit as the most simple particle of its own dcgree. (n. 115, 156.) The case is the same in other in­ stances: as in that of the blood-vessels and fibrils of the nerves; in that of the motive fibres of the muscles, and of the simple pores and vesicles of the glands. It is the same also in the vegetable and minerai kingdoms, thus in every species of metal, minerai, earth, stone, salt, water, oil, and spirit, in every de­ gree of composition of which there are particles, which a~ the units of their quantities.... So again in the circumfluent or at­ mospheric world; the air, ether, and higher auras are a11 com· posed of such parts. Consequently, as this is the case with substances, so is it the case with their essences, attributes, acci­ dents, and qualities. (n. 619-627.) If these be viewed as the matter of the things belonging to them, their units are the parts or elements of such matter, with which aIl other things of the same degree maintain a homogeneity. It is here to he observed, that matter, parts, and elements are predicated of things considered as abstracted from their substances, or of the adjuncts of their substances: 80 that these units are the parts and elements of philosophical matter. The degrees alsa and mo­ ments themselves, when considered düfelentially in regard to each other, are each equivalent to their unit. (n. 155, 156, 158 -161.) 630. It is important ta have a distinct idea of units or parts, and of the quantities and qualities thence resulting, in order that we may have a distinct idea of degrees in the progression of things; for from these ideas flow a distinct notion of series, its form, nature, composition, change, and divisibility. For every series of things simultaneous, or in other words, every aggregate of things cooldinate, admits of being divided till you arrive at its unit; beyond which you cannot proceed further,
  • 73. AN INTRODUCTION TO RATION&L PSYCnOLOGY. 37and yet leave a unit, or a part cf that degree; for if this UDÏthe reBOlved, there no longer remains a unit of its own degree,but of a superior degree. For a unit itself is a series of severaIother units, because it is itself in the series of the universe; norean anything be conceived as not being a series, except the firstsubstanoe of aIL (n. 586.) Consequently, a superior unit, andthe prorimately inferior unit of the same series, are to eachother in a triplicate ratio; that is, the one bears the same ratioto the other as a root to its cube; the case is the same withregard to the rest. Thus they are not homogeneons to eachother; neither are the units of different series, unless they areoontained under the same genuB. For to the production of aUthe variety that exists in the universe, it is requisite that therehe distinct series, viz., one within another, one in juxtapositionwith another, and one for the sake of another; yet aIl wonder­mUy connected with each other, and aIl having reference to thefirst series of the universe. U nits thus considered are either ofa determined or celtain quantity or quality, as in an terrestrialthings; or of one that is undetermined or varying, as in theauras of the world, amongst the parts of which therefore thereis 8 harmonious variety (n. 604-606); parts which nevertheless,in respect to their own ratios, are determinate. The Pythago­rean philoBOphy seems to have acknowledged similar units, hav­their harmonies and concords, which it compares with the units of numbers. 631. From the form, nature, and mode of acting of thesaaggregates, are discoverable the form, nature, and mode of act­ing of the parts. For aggregates are nothing but a numher of their units or parts, which does not carry with it any peculiar nature of its own, but merely that of its units. This may be illustrated by the instance of the air or ether, the greater vol­ umes of which are circumstanced, in aIl their modes of acting, exactly like their lesser volumes, and their lesser like their least or their particles: for there is nothing in such a pure volume, which is proper to it, but what it has received from its parts; as elasticity, e~ansibility, compressibility, modificability, Jluidity; with the distinguishing quality belonging to each, and by reason of which it is such as it is. So likewi8e in regard to the fluids of the animal kingdom; each of which, in its largest volume, VOL. n. 4
  • 74. 38 THE ECONOMY OF THE .ÂNIIJUL KINGDOM.represents its least volume; consequently, any one part is thetype of the whole. (n. 105,156,159,306.) The case is the samewith everything else which nt any time becomes an object ofsensation and perception. But the aggregates of units, or ofparts, are no longer of one and their own degree, when, byother intermediate or accessory uoits, they form a compoundunit; for then, of what was before an undetermined aggregateof units, a determined single one is formed, which acquires thename of a substance subsisting by itself. (n. 589.) From theseremarks it follows as a consequence, That a general and partie­tdar ~mental lcnowledge of the things which at any timereach any 8ensory, will point out the es8ence of the most minut6thing8 of the same degree. 632. As also of the corre8ponding things of the 8till more8imple or 8Uperior degrees. Fol according to the theorem inn. 625, such is the coestablished harmony of all things in thesame series, that they mutually correspond to each other, with­out any difference but that of perfection; and the inferior regardthe superior as their analogues or eminences. (n. 626 and 252.)There is nothing in any selies which does not contain the causeof aU that is subsequent to it, and refer itself to aU that islUltecedent. Thus the nature of the efficient cause is mademanifest from a careful examination of the effect. Renee byrefiection alone on perceptible phenomena, only adding to themthe degree of perfection which our rules direct, and investigatingthe origin which is proper to theÏr nature, we arlive at theknowledge of things superior; but only of those which arein series of the same species, in which everything that ooou18illustrates and declares, in its own way and manner, what is thequality of each particular. Nay, from these we may cven arriveat the knowledge of what there is in the others, if the con­nection and relation between them be given, and their specificand particular differellccs. Wherifore we are led into the in-­m08t knowledge of natural thingB by the doctrine of Beries anddegrees conjoined with ~ience.
  • 75. MY INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 39 VIII. 633. The MOst simple and the only substance of the animalkingdom is the spirituous fluid; which is most perfectly deter­mined by the tirst aura of the world; whenee it obtains such anature, as to he a substance capable of fOlming its own body;and to have in it life and consequently soul, which is the prin­ciple of the things existing in the whole of that series. 634. The mast simple and the an/y substance of the animalkingdom is the spiritUOUll jluid. This we have often shown inour preceding remarks. It is the a1l in every part, and the onlysubstanee which lives, all the lest being derived from it, throughthe inteIjection of elements bOnowed from the. earth, which aceaocessories, by means of which it passes into the inferior fluids,through these into the material body, and thus into the ultimateworld. 635. Which is most p~fectly determined f>y the jirst auraof the /lJ()rld. This follows as a consequence, if the parts of thisfluid are a series, and in the series of the univeree; sineenothing is prior, superior, more univereal, more pelfect, thaothe aura immediately formed fiom the ti~t substances, fromwhich it possesscsall its poteocy - a poteocy which is soarcelymore expressible than is that of the parent substance itselt; 00which, as their firet principle, the principles of natural thiDgsare impressed by the Deity. (n. 591.) For the firet aura is theveriest form of the forces of the created universe, to which thequalities of the inferior auras cao be asoribed only by way ofemineoce; such as detenninability, modLficability, fluidity, elas­ticity, with several othere; for this aura is the very and mostperfect force of nature in form. But whether the individnalpalticles of the spirituous fiuid are formed by the determinationof that aura, 80 as to he the tiret and most perfect series of theanimal kingdom, can ooly he concludcd from the knowledge ofeffects, or seen as it were by reflection in a mirror; for themind [men8] cannot be elevated into the knowledge of thingswhich are above itself; hence it must aim at the higher by be­ginning from the lowest; consequently, it must hegin wit~ thephenomena which indicate in what manner the inferior auras
  • 76. 40 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.ftow into the life of an animal; - as first, in what manner theair flows in, next, in what manner the ether, then in whatmanner the superior aura, and lastly, the supreme: for thatthere are four in order is shown in various parts of our W ork.(n. 53-58, 65-68, 584.) With regard to the air, it expendsall the natural potency and force it possesses in sustaining theanimal body. It exercises, for instance, the potencyand forceof pressure on its surface, that the parts may be held togetherin connection with the whole: its potency and force of fluencyupon the lungs, that they may respire, and enable the parts ofthe body, in connection one with the other, to live: its potencyand force of producing modifications upon the windpipe, larynx,and tongue: its potency and force of receiving modificationsupon the ear, the whole structure of which most artificially cor­responds to its modes or modulations; nay, it also assists in thecomposition of the red blood. (n. 43-45, 50-52, 91, 92.) With regard to the ether, or more eminent air, this also employs its potencies and forces in holding together in connection, and in giving animation to, the parts con-esponding adequately to its nature; as might be proved by numerous examples which it Î8 not necessary here to adduce. 1 will mention only, that this ether modifies its own organ, or the eye, whence cornes vision as the analogue of hearing: it produces also modifica­ tions in those animaIs that spontaneously excite for themselves light in dlllkn()ss, as cats, dormice, &c.; beside which it con­ tributes to the existence of the purer or middle blood. (n. 53­ 57.) With regard to the superior et/ter, that it supplies to the purer organs similar aids for their activity and life, is sufficient­ Iy evinced by the subordination of the organs and sensations of the body to those of the bmin, - a subordination, which, on comparing the instincts of the higher with those of the more imperfect 01 brute animais, whose spirituous fluid is de­ termined by this ether, is seen to be different in different species. With regard to the buman spirituous fluid, tbis is determined by an aura still more eminent and celestial, aIl things in which are inexpressible, because incomprehensible, and as it were con­ tinuous, to the inferior sensory. (n. 623, 624.) Thus as bya ladder composed of so many steps, we in a manner ascend from the sphere of visible effects or comprehensible deter­
  • 77. ÂN INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 41 minations, to the supreme sphere; and this, acco~in~ the max­ iI!1S 9f.tb_e~p~iloso~hers, who have asserted that s?-~~orl) things do_not suifer themselves tQJ:>e kno!nt except. by reflection, andm::~Jfec~ as their mirror. The C~lllan, Egy~jan, Gre~k, and ~n philosophers, wer~of opimon th~~lli~._are ~~§"!al J ~...@s, by which they meant the circumfluent unive~e:- Mer­ curius Trismegistua, ~ Jamblicus, and Alcinous;believed tho~eav.ens to~he ill~ and anim~ted? andcong~co@îeive th~m ta have reason, togetber with virtuous aDaViclOus inclina­ tions. Aristotle says, indeed, that theyare animated (De CO?1o, lib. ii., cap. ü.), but he attributes to them an assistant soul without intellect;" exactly according to our meaning in this theorem. 636. Whence it obtains BUch a nature, as to be a substancc ca­ pahle offorming its own body,. a faculty and vÏitue which have been treated of in Chapter III. By the nature of a thing, 1 mean, acoording to the definition of the philosopher [AristatleJ, its prin­ ciple ofmotion and rest,- a nature in which it is ofitself, and not by its accidents (Natural. Auscult., lib. ii., cap. i.). According to the same author, there are three principles to everything, viz., matter, form, and privation, • from which exists its nature, so as ta be the cause of the things in its series. The first aura is therefore the matter from which other things are derived; from the determination of this ama results its form; ta this matter and form may be added the third principle, or that ofprivation, to the end that a substance may erist which subsists by itself, having in it a nature which is its principle of motion and rest, in which nature it is of itself, and not by its accidents. Thus the same philosopher says, that by natural things he means a body result­ ing from the union and composition of matter and ofform.t 637. And to have in it life, and consequently sout, which is the principle of the things existing in the whole of that series. Of this subject we have treated in Chaptel III. Aristotle defines the soul ta be the first perfection of the natural organic body, having life and potency (De Anima, lib. ü., cap. i.); also, as the principle by which we first live, feel, are moved, and understand (Ibid., cap. i.) ; but that its extraction is more noble and exalted. He further affirma, that soul and form are thefirst perfection ofbody, and that • See edltlon of Arlstotle, Paris, 4 vols. fol., illM; vol. 1., p. 64, ln the Srnop.u dMl. Doct. Peripatet., also arletôt1e, Na4ural. Awcult., lib. 1., llIIp. vii. t Bee the s~e SlInqpBÏB, Ibid. 4·
  • 78. 42 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.its second are the functions and operations which depend uponthe first." These things are furthel treated of in n.647. 638. Materiality cannot be ascribed to the human spirituousBuid. For when we speak of form, and the matter or Tnateriaea: quâ, in qui1 et circa quam [WoUf, Ontol., n. 949), to whichmatter are assigned its parts, which are such that quantitycannot be predicated of them, we mean, with the andente,some things in opposition to no things; in which sense, thephilosopher saye, that matter ie the first subject from whicb aUthings subsist, which are born originally of themselvee, and notthlough the medium of another; and that it is the ultimatepart into which things are resolved, and in which they termi­nate: wherefore also amongst principles he leckons mattel andform. But th.e same term, applied to substances, is at this dayapplicable to compounde, as having vis inertiœ and extension.Wolff says: "Matter is an extense endowed with vis inertiœ "it is modified by variation of figure; and is that which is deter­mined in a compound entity." «(Jos1nol., § 140, 146; Ontol.,§ 948.) This very Buid itself; in which is life, is determinedfrom the most eminent aura of the world, and has nothingin it of inertness; because tbat aura is the most perfect forceof nature in a form, and knows nothing either of resistance,or of weight~ and its correlative lightness; for it is itself thefirst principle of weight and lightness, consequently of inen­oess. The heavens, says Aristotle, have neither weight norlightness: wherefore a11 materiality, as being inert and a tel­restrial phenomenon, must be abstracted from force as the firstprinciple of weight, consequently fi·oro the tirst aur~ and frOIDits most noble determinate. Thus active and living force an­swers to gravity, as its analogue, or fellow by way of eminence.But al as 1 how difficult it is for the Undellltanding to exercisesuch a degree of abstraction, as not to retain, in thinking offirst principles, notions which it has conceived fiom the entire effect. (n. 650.) Owing to this cause it is that the velY minditselt; whose activity in its body is in no case pure, is often at variance both with itself and with others: and thus that one and the same thing, wben not similarly conceived as in tbe suc­cession of things dependent on it, gives rise to great disagree­ ment, especially if derived from things which are said to be in· cluded in the principles.
  • 79. nT INTRODUOTION TO R..dTlONAL PSYOHOL 0 GY. 48 IX. 639. If we woilld explore the efficient, rational, and prin-cipal causes of the operations and effects existing in the animalbody, it will be necessary ·first to inquire what things, in asuperior degree, correspond to those which are in an inferiordegree, and by what name they are to be called; which is awork demanding both a knowledge of facts and skill in judgingof them. For in proportion as nature ascends by her degrees,so she laises herself from the sphere of particular a:ld commonexpressions to that of universaI and eminent ones; till, at length,in the supreme region of the animal kingdom, where the humansoul is, there is no corporeal language which can adequately ex-press its nature, and much less the nature of tbings still supe.rior. Wberefore a matbematical philosopby of universals mustbe invented, which, by characteristic marks and letters, in theirgeneral form not very unlike the algebraic analysis of infinites,may be capable of expressing those tbings wbicb are inexpres-sible by ordinary language. Such a philosopby, if well digested,will be, in a manner, the one science of all the natural sciences,becnuse it is the complex: of aIl 640. Hefore proceeding to an explication of this part of oursubject, it will be necessary to premise a brief description of thabrain and its substances. For to deduce, à priori, the modflin which the soul 1l0ws into its mind, and tne mind intoits body, would be to act like an augur who should utter hispredictions before he hnd inspected the entrails of the victim;or, if 1 may use the sirolle, would be like describing, from theegg, the body which has yet to be formed, instead of takingtbe description from tbe body itself aft.er it bas been alreadyformed. 641.• From tbe two braina, of whicb one differs from tbeotber in Bize and function, and of wbicb one is called tbe cere-broum, tbe other tbe cerehel1um, 1l0w and are derived tbe twomedullœ,. the Buperior of which baying a common connection • The paragraphs lrom n. Ml to Mtl are markcd ln the original by loverted com·mu: whlch·perhaps ImpUes ~hat they are extracted from the aothors great Work onthe Braln. -(71.)
  • 80. 44 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. with both the brains, and distinctIy deriving its origin from each, is called the medulla oblongata,. and the inferior, which is Il continuation of the superior, is called the medulla spinalis. From the two medllllœ flow and are derived the nerves, and from the nerves ail the texture of the adjoined body. The connection and composition of the body are such, that the body acts and suffers according to the impulse, and ut the pleasure, of the brains; und the connection and composition of the brain urc such, that the brain knows whatever is passing in the body, 110 that everything which occurs in the latter may be undcr its regulation, and that everywhere there may he unanimity and concord in performing the several offices resulting from the several divisions of labor. For this reason the superior me­ dulla, as to a great part of it, appears to be a continuation, appendix, and ofThpring of the brains; the inferior medulla to he a continuation, appendix, and offspring of the superior; the nerves to be a continuation, appendix, and offspring of the medullœ; and the body to be a continuation, appendix, and oa8pring of the nerves. 642. Each brain and each medulla is encompassed with its coats and membranes, which are called matres and meninges.That which forms the outermost surface, and lînes the inside of the skull, is the dura mater, or crassa menime ,. that which occu­ pies the place next to the braina, is the pia mater, or tenuismenime. Another covering al50 intervenes, of a reticular form,C;8.11ed the arachnoid, which, like a lymphatic duct projectedioto a plane, encloses the better lymph, or nervous juice, anddispenses and distributes it into the beginnings of the nerves,wherever there is need of it. These membranes, matre", ormeninges, as COlDmon coverings, accompany the nerves, which,on leaving the medullœ, gradually assume and superinduce fromthem a coat as a sheath: and thus clad, as they proceed intothe provinces of the body, and descend iuto its hollows and val­leys, they gradually lay their coats aside agaiu. The nervesthemselves, with their membranes, become finer and finer intheir progress, till they attain their extremities and the inmostparts of the viscera, where at length they are possessed of sucha deHcacy, form, face, and expansion, that they are affected bythe slightest modes, changes, and differences, answering to
  • 81. AN INTROIJUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 45similar ones in the brains to which they retum. Thus the brain,in its first principle, is made sensible of whatever is transactingin all the extremities of its kingdom. 643. Each brain and each medulla consista principally ofthree substances,. the first of which, when occupying the outer­most region of the brains, is called the cortical substance, andwhen occupying the inner region, as in the medullm, is calledthe cineritious substance. The second is called the meàul1aryor white sUbstance, and is always in continuity with the corticalor cineritious. The third is produced from the minute arteries,which, accompanying the meninx, penetrate into the brain, andunfold themselves everywhere in its minute spaees. 644. The cortical substance, either when lying proximatelybeneath the pia mater, and watered, nOUlished, and cherishedby the purer blood, or when, under the name of the cineritioussubstance, it occupies various tracts more remote from the sur­fàce, may, by thc naked eye, and morc plainly still by the helpof glasses, be seen to consÏ8t entirely of minute spherules nearlyapproaching to an oval form. The cerebrum and cerebellumthemselves, also approach nearly to the spherical and oval form,and thus assume a shape like that of their paIts. Renee theseminute organic substances, inasmuch as they are like their whole,and have the same potency individually, which, conjointly andaggregately, is exerciscd in the compound, metit the name ofcerebellula. The eye, also, by artificial aid, is enabled to dis­coyer that these fonns, spherules, or cerebellula, are clothedwith, and enclosed in, a membrane or meninx, much in the samemanner as the brain itaelf, except that their membrane or meninxdeserves the title of pia in the superlative degree, and that theyare distinguished from their neighboring and associate sphernlesof the same kind. It may also be diseerned, that these mostdelicate coats are composed of villi and capillary shoots, of mostminute arteries, in multitude innumerable, in determination won­derful, and in order most beautiful; which diffuse in aIl direc­tions a volatile and spirituous fluid, educed from the blood, andconceived by eminent generation in their most pure wombs.These cerebellula appear to be the internaI sensolies, which re­ceive impressions and modifications from the external sensories,and which convey them afterwards higher up to the judgment­
  • 82. 46 THE .JWONOillY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.scat of the mind. These ccrebellula being again collected intotori or masscs of dl1ferent forms, and encompassed by a compli­cation of minute vessels, construct and constitute a kind ofsecond dimension of organic parts. 645. Whcn, therefore, animal nature, in this last and firstend of iœ arteries, nerves, and tunics, has first moulded iœorganic elements into spheres of the most perfect fonn, BO thatfrom these, as from its summits or centres, it can survey what­ever is passing within the range of its appendages; it nexthecomes nece883ry, in order for it to contemplate the state of itseconomy in and from these organic elements, to emit radü intothe whole circumference of its dominion: it therefore puts forthminute fibrils frorn each of these conglomerated spherules, bymeans of which it continues itself to aIl the ultimates of itskingdom; much in the sarne manner as the brain, which is thecomplex of aIl the sphendcs, continues itself, on a larger scale,into its medulla oblongata and medulla spinalis, and thcnce intothe nerves. Those cineritiolls particles clothe the flbrils emittedfrom themselves, with coats, in an order similar to that in whichthe brain at large clothcs its medullm and emissary nerves.Rence, whatever of a fibrillary nature is visible in the medullaryor white substance, is derived from the cortical and cineritioussubstance, as its parent. Many of these minute fibrils collectedinto a fascicle, and clothed in like manner with a membrane,originate a second dimension of fibril, corresponding to a collec­tion of the sarne number of cortical spherules. In the samemanner is originated also a third dimension enveloped withtunics; to which answers the brain itself, which, with these, proceeds through the foramen magnum of the occiput into the cavity formed by the vertebrre, down to the os sacrum and os cocoygis; and which from this cavity, through the vertebral holes and notches, proceeds onward, to excite and strengthen the whole machinery of determinations, which the formative substance aims at forming according to the exact mode and law of its own power and representation. Inasmuch as the arteries of the brain continually divide themselves, until they become most minute capillary tubes and filaments, and are continued into all the cortical substance; the cortical and cineritious substances depend fiom the shoots of
  • 83. .A.N INTRODUCTION TO R.A.TIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 47their minute arteries, like mulberries and elderbenies from thetender stalks of their boughs, or like clusters from the branchesof the vine, or else like other fonllS according to the differentspecies of the animaIs, so that they seem to be similar to theultimate effects in shrubs, and to resemble, as it were, the littleseeds, in which the most precious juice, issuing fiom a richvein, terminates and concentrates itself; just as in citron andother precious fiuit-trees, in which one citron or other fruit per­petually comes to its birth as another drops off; that it mayalways have something from which to begin anew, and in whichto enclose and transmit its alkahest and most highly refinedessence; and also that it may represent most purely what is thequality of the whole, and at what quality it aims while tendingfrom its first principle to its last effect. 646. Thus the brain is so determined from, and constructedo~ little vessels and fibres, as to contain the principles or begin­nings of the things existing in the body in so active and livinga state, as from its hemispheres to enlighten as it were everyparticular part, and compel it to action whenever it pleases:these paits being thus subject to the brain, refer to it every oneof their changes, so that, from consciousness and foresight,there may be determination to action. Nay, the human brainis endowed with intelligence, or the power of examining, con­sulting, and judging, previous to acting; as likewise with thepower of restraining from action, until reason persuades andoccasion requires. The brain has, in general, two offices to perform: the first,to will what it knows, and to know what it wills; the second,to transmit into the blood, contained in the sinuses at its base,a certain most noble fluid, elaborated in its cOltical spherules.To theflrst kind of these offices are appointed a11 the organicparts which encompass and constitute the surface like a cortexor bark. To the second are appointed its members, which,taken collectively, form a Rort of chemical laboratory, of whichVe have spoken in n. 360, 861, 556. These members of thebrain, 01, if the reader prefer the term, these chemical organs,ought tô be carefully distinguished fiom its sensitive and intel­lectual organs; they are moreover so separated by an interven­ing septum or fence, that one cannot enter into the province ofthe other, except by a most general mode of acting.
  • 84. l·t8 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANL.lfAL KINGDOM. I~ however, we would see how, by a most wonderful con·trivance, aIl things are arranged in their respective order, wemust conceive of the whole brain as formed in motion and formotion, or represent it to ourselves as having an animation;that is, an alternate expansion and contraction. For thus weshaIl see what is the function, cause, and mode of acting, propelto each part; since the individual palts are so arranged in refer­ence to each other, under the more general, and these under themost general, that whilst the whole draws its breath, there is nopart but is drawing its breath at the same time, or contributingto the animation of the whole; for which reason, we have beenled to say, that aIl the parts of the brain are situated in thestream of its motion. (n. 219, 258, 281, 287, 557.) The brain is constructed with a view to reciprocate the alter­nations of its animation in so ordeily a manner, that wheneverit spirates and respirates, it refers itself fiom hs surfaces toits planes, from its plancs to its axes, and from its axes to itscentres. For its surfaces are severaI. Its outermost is constituted bythe dura mater or crassa meninx; the next by the thin mem­brane caIled the pia mater; and the next by the membranecalled the arachnoid. U nder this threeCold surface is depositedthe cortical substance; which being the part that encompassesthe centrum ovale or medullary nucleus, discharges as a sort of cortex the office of a surface. The common or general plane:l are those which are caIled the processes. One of these diyides the cerebrum into two hemi­spheres: it is caIled the first, the vertical, the longitudinal, and the faciform process, or faIx: proceeding from the crista galli,or rather from the spina coronalis, it luns under the longitudinal sinus, and over the corpus callosum, as far as the fourth sinus.The second is the horizontal plane, or the transverse or second process of the dura mater, which is continued near the fourth sinus from the superior process, descends to the cerebrum be­ tween it and the ccrebellum, and proceeds sideways, in each ilirection, to the opposite regions of the cranium. It thus in­ volves the cerebrum, and divides it from the cerebeIlum, so that both may discharge their offices conjointly and separately. There are al80 two ClUS. One of these, which is the tran8­
  • 85. .4.N INTROnÙOTION TO RATIONAL PSYODOLOGY. 49vell!e, descends from the highest region of the cranium, wherethe canals of the sinuses meet in the occipital bone above thecerebeUum, and passes midway between the cerebrum and thecerebeUum, down to the isthmus of the ancients, or the regionof the pineal gland, the nates, and testes. This axis is con­stituted by the fourth sinus itself; or the torcular Herophili, andis snpported by the isthmus. The sinus seems to terminate inthe third ventricle; for it is there takea up by a vein which issometimes double, and luns across the ventric1e: but when itdescends there into the chemical laboratory, it is immediatelycontinued from the infundibulum into the pituitary gland; agland which thus occupies the othel extremity of this axis.The second, or the longitudinal axis, begins in the crista eth·moides, whele it is divided; but is continued, through the clet.of the septum lucidum, undel the fornu, across the third ven­tic1e and the aqueduct, and so through the fourth ventric1e andthe calamus scriptorius, till it reaches beyond into the spinadOll!i. It makes its appearance on separating the hemispheresand taking out the corpus caUosum; and its continued progres·sion is seen on raising up the isthmus and the cerebeUum. Itis thus a common or general canal, surrounded and shut in onèvery side with banks, which have here and there interveningcreeks. The centres are formed by the pineal gland and the base ofthe fornix, placed at the two extremities of the third ventric1e.There are two of them, because, as observed above, the brainhas two general offices. One of these centres, or the base of thefornix, acts as a pedunc1e to the chemical laboratory, to coUectand transmit its medu1lary substance; whence, in a certain sense,it may be caUed the centre of lest, the other being the centre of motion. There is also a similar order and arrangement in every sub­ divided part of the brain; as in aU that which constitutes its cortex, and is composed of conglomerated cOltical substances;for every conglomeration has respect, from its proper surface, to its planes, from its planes to its axes, and from its axes to its pedunc1es, as to its centres; much as is the case with the brain in general. Even the pia mater, which is the common surface evt!rywhere insinuates and enfolds itself among the serpentine VOL. n. fi
  • 86. .....,60 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.an&actuosities, much as the faIx does between the hemispheres;by which means there are insinuated as Many planes as thereare congeries formed of such substances. Along these planesthere also evelywhere descend arterial sinul~ just as the fourthsinus descends between the cerebrum and cerebellum; andthese, by their descent, form a species of axes. These arterialsinul~ soon running out into ramifications, at length determinethemselves into the individual cortical spherules, as into soMany centres; fiom which are educed fibrils compacted intopeduncles, which then enter the medullary globe. But it is not80 easy to discover what representation of the processes andcentres is exhibited in the surface itself of these congeries ortori of the cortical substance, except by comparing them withthe cerebellum, which is the greatest cortical congeries or torus,and an effigy of which, in miniature, is afforded by these of thebrain; for when they are dissected and examined as to their in­Most structure, we find a shadowing forth of the same arborealramification as in the cerebellum. Now as the above mentioned cOltical tori are Most regularlyformed in motion and for motion, so also are the individualcortical spherules, which are composed of vessels divaricatedinto the most delicate fibres: and as they are MOst pelfect formsand organic parts, it may be inferred without doubt, from theregularity of the parts compounded ofthem, that they also havea MOst distinct relation, from their piissimœ matres to theirplanes, from their planes to their axes, and from these to theircentres. For they are so mutually discriminated one from theother, and so perpetually conjoined, as to be enabled to act asthe beginnings of determinations. For one spherule, by generaland particular contact and connection, has respect to another asthe companion of its task: so also have the fibres producedfrom them, which, being bound together to form a certain paI­ticuIaI texture under the general one, cause the brain, from itsmost particular individual parts, to conspire to one commonanimation; cause each at its pleasure to flow into its alterna­tions, and by its mutual relations one to the other leadily tosu1fer itself to be excited into its prescribed mode of acting. 647. From an attentive consideration of the organic struc­ture of the brain, it is very manifest that the spirituou~ fluid, ln
  • 87. AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 51which is life, has not an immediate communication with theoperations of its body, but that its communication is etrectedthrough various organic sub,stances; the first of which are thosewhich we have ca11ed cerebe11ula, namely the minute spherulesof the cortical and cineritious substance, which prevail in thebrains and the medullœ, and are the first determinations of thespirituous fluid by its fibres, or the subdetermining substances ofthe brain, to which correspond the subdetermining substancesof the body. (n. 287,505,557,561,598.) These spherules in thebrain are so coordinated, as to be enabled to be excited intoaction either separately or conjointly; for the purest fibrils of aIl,or the ultimate divarications of the minute arteries, are dedicatedto form the contexture of that substance. Thus there is noinflux of the soul into the ultimate operations of its body, exceptmediately, by these most exquisitely organic substances. Nordoes that influx take place by and from these immediately; foreven these are associated and collected together into congeries,elusters, and cortical tori, which being encompassed and inter­woven with minute vessels of the purer blood, as their deterinin.ing fibres, constitute a further degree of organic substances,which are so arranged as to be capable of being elevated, ofexercising an animation, and of being modified, both separatelyand conjointly. (n. 287, 505, 561.) Fina11y, to these suceeedsthe whole brain as the common sensory and complex of a11, inwhich each palticular part keeps itself most distinct from everyother. Yet there is a continuoUB connection of them all bythe fluids, and their vessels, filaments, and fibres, or by theirdetermining substances; for a blood-vessel, divided into similardegrees, is continued from the whole brain into its cOltical tori,and frOID these tori into the cortical spherules, and from thesespherules into the medullary fibres, consequently into the nerves.Thus there exists a COESTABLISHED HARMONY. Thus also wesee what are the channels which this spmtuous fluid preparesfor itself; in order that it may descend by degrees into theetrects of its body; we see that its capability of acting on thebody depends on the state of its organic substances, and ontheir connection; cOllsequently, that although these substancesmay sutrer changes, lesion, privation of their fluid, or remainwithout culture, still the soul lives in the state of its own intel­
  • 88. 62 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.Iigence, as in embryos, infants, and idiots, (n. 265-269,) Thu8we pcrceive how the soul, according to Aristotle, has no imme­diate communication with the operations of its body (Ibid., cap.L); how, together with fOIm, it is the first perfection of thenatural body, having life and potency; and how the secondperfection consists in the functions and operations which dependon the first (Ibid., cap. L). (n. 637.) 648. If we would explore the efficient, rational, and principalcauses of the operations and ejfects existing in the animal hody,it will he necessary jirst to inquire what thin.qs, in a superiordegree, correspond to those which are in an inferior degree, andhy what name they are to he caJJed. In other words, what thingsin one and the same series mutually succeed each other, aredependent on and have respect to each other by degrees; for soseparate from each other do they appear, that without the mostinternaI and analytic rational intuition, it seems impossible thatthe things of a superior degree should be recognized and ac­knowledged as the superior forros of things inferior; for to thesensory of the inferior forms, they are incomprehensible, andappear as in continuity with thern. (n.623-626,) In other words,unless the things of the inferior degree were distinct from thoseof the superior, they could not be compared with a substancewhich 8ubsists by itself (n. 589), but would be the same thingswith the superior ones, taken in the aggregate, 01 coIlectively. (n. 629,630.) In order then to ascertain and to know what that is in a superior degree which corresponds to its properinferior, rules must be discovered to guide us in pointing it out, which we are enabled to do under any of the foIlowing circum­ stances. 1. In case in the several things, which are beneath any given one, and not only in the one proximately beneath, but in aIl which follow, it be found to be the cornmon and universal reigning principle. 2. In case it be so distinct from the superior that it subsists by itself; or is able not only to snbsist together with the other, but separately by itself with­ out it. 3. In case it be unknown whether it be its superior correspondent, except by way of analogy and eminence; and we are ignorant of its qnality except by leflection, 01 by the knowledge of inferior things, as in a minOI. 4. Rence in case it bas to he marked by an entirely ditrerent name. 5. In case
  • 89. AN INTRODU01ION TO RATIONAL P.9YOHOLOGY. 53th~re be a connection between the two, otherwise the superiorand inferior entity of that series would have no dependence oneach other, or mutual relation. "By refiection and abstractionalone," says Wolff, "universal notions are not made completeand determinate. For refiection is whoIly occupied in thesuccessive direction of the attention to general principles; noris anything obtained by abstraction, except that those generaIprinciples are seen to be different from the objects of percep­tion in which they exist.... Thus it does not hence appear,whethel those general principles contain more or fewer particu­lar8 than are sufficient to... distinguish the things of thatgenus or species from those of another.... Therefore, it is un­known whether they are complete and determinate." (Psycho­logia Rationalis, § 401.) The making the discovery, therefore,is a worlc demanding both a knowledge of facts and 8kill injudging of them, for if we rely eithel on reason without facts,or on facts without reason, our endeavor to flnd what we seekwill be to no purpose. 649. For in proportion as nature ascends by her degrees, 80she raises herselj from the sphere of particular and commone:qyressions to tha-t of universal and eminent ones. For exam­pIe: J. The red blood is a substance of an inferior degree: tothis, in a superior degree, corresponds the purer blood; and tothis latter the spirituous fiuid, which is the common and univer­8al substance, reigniug in the inferior ones. Of this universalsubstance we may thus predicate what is affirmed in the rules,viz., that those sanguineous fluids are distinct, so that they maysubsist together, and separately by themselves; and that it isunknown whether the superior be the correspondent of the in­ferior, except by way of analogy and eminence; as that thespirituous fluid is blood eminently, or blood by analogy; thatits quality is unknown except by refiection, or by a knowledgeof the substances inferior to it; that it ought to be expressedby a quite different name; that there is an intervening connec­tion between them, whence they have a mutual dependence andrelation to ench other: aIl which subjects have been frequentlytreated of above. II. An artery is a vessel of an inferior de­gree: to which, in a superior degree, corresponds a vessel ofthe purer blood; and, in the sUI)reme deglee, a meduIlary or 5·
  • 90. 54 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.Bimple nervous fibre. TIl. A muscle is that to which corre­sponds in a superior degree the motive fleshy fibre; to the motivefleshy fibre, the motive white fibre; and to the motive whitefibre, in the supreme degree, the motive nervous fibre. IV.The sensations belong to the organs of the body: to these, ina superior degree, corresponds the imagination; to the imagi­nation, the thought: for if we ask the simple question, whatis imagination eminently? the notion spontaneously presentsitse~ that by it is meant thought, to which thelefore images andideas are attlibuted by way of eminence: but to thought in asuperior degree corresponds a replesentation of that which isuniversal, or the intuition of ends. V. To the body- as far asregards the looks of its countenance, the arrangements andRtates of the parts belonging to it, and its powers [potentiœ] ofacting and forms of action - in the proximately superior degreecorresponds the animal or external mind [animus]; to this, theintellectual mind [mens]; and to this, the soul; wherefore, ac­cording to the rules ploposed in n. 648, the soul is the commonand universal principle which reigns in aIl things beneath it(n. 270), and aIl these, singly, so subsist and live one amongstanother, that they can act separately, and also conjointly. Thatthey can act separately, is evident, since the superior is fie­quently in combat with the infèrior, or the interiOi with theexterior, and vice versâ, as with something aHen and diversefrom itself; nay, they evidently act each by itself. That theycan act conjointly, is al80 evident; for they do so in eyel)" deter­mination which cornes forth from that which is inmost: for thestate of the external mind [animus] is usuallyeffigied in thecountenance, in the forms of the actions and speech. In theexternal mind [animus], also, the intellectual mind [mens],though less manifestly, has its image; consequently the soul,likewise, is effigied in the inteIIectual mind [mens], although ofthe soul, as being most remote, it is impossible to form a judg­ment. The soul, then, is an intellectual mind [mens] by wayof eminence. Now, Binee the soul does not flow into the ac­tions of its body, except by intermedintes (n. 611, 647); nor bya continuous medium, but as it were by a lac1der divided intosteps; there can be no such thing as Occasionality of Causesand Physical Influx. For if the state proper to the soul be
  • 91. AN INTRODUCTION 10 RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 55called a moral state, in which is found the beginning of reason,or the principle from which reason originates; and if the stateproper to the intellectual mind [mens] be called a rational state,in which is found the beginning of affections and impulsivecauses, or the principle from which these originate; and if thestate proper to the external mind [animus] be called a physicalstate, in which are found affections as the impulsive causes ofthe actions of the body; and if the state proper to the body becalled a mechanical state; it then follows that there can be noinflux fiom the moral state into the mechanical state of thebody, except by the rational state, and thence by the physica~or by two intermediates (n. 611), and this also, for the mostpart, not by direct determination, but by a mode of conCUlTenceor consent; by reason that the powers and faculties are dis­tinct, whence results liberty (n. 610): according also to therule in n. 648, connection is requisite, whence result dependenceand mutual relation. (n. 587, 601, 608, 618, 622, &c.) Conse­quently, there can be no snch thing as Preëstablished Harmony.Hence the more an inferior principle derives fiom a superior one,the more the inferior partakes of its state, or of the perfectionof its state; for instance, either more of morality, or more ofrationality, or more of solicitation from the affections as impul­sive causes. Thus there is a Coestablished Harmony. VI. Taactions conespond forces [vires]; to forces, potencies [paten­tiœ]; to potencies, in the supreme degree, the force of forces,that which is principally the living force, which, in an animal, islife. VII. Ta sensual pleasure [valuptas] seems to conespond,in the next superior degree, animal desire [cupida]; to animaldesire, the desire [desiderium] of something future, whenceresults will; and finally, to this, the representation of ends inself-preservation. VIII. To sexual interco·urse correspondslove considered as an enticement and animal desire; to this,a purer love which wants a proper name, conjoined with therepresentation of another person in ones self, and of ones selfin another, or of à certain most intimate connection; and tothis, in the supreme degree, the representation of ones self inthe preservation of ones own kind for the sake of more universalends. IX. Ta laughter, as a gesticulation, corresponds gladness [lœtitia]; to gladness, contentment; and lastly, in the supreme
  • 92. -...56 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.degree, a good conscience. According to our rule in n. 648,one of these may subsist both separately without tbe other, andconjointly with it. That tbey may subsist separately, îs evident;fol laughter may exist witbout gladness, ail in the case of actors,mimics, and little children who are compelled to laugh whilsttbey weep, &c.: moreover to exhibit gladness without a con­tented mind, is an art most common at tbe present day in theworld of compliment and politics, and one whicb we continueto learn, and to which wc accustom ourselves fiom childhood;for to wear a serene countenance, and display a cheerful exter­nal mind [animum] under circumstances wbicb the intellectualminds [mens] regards as most adverse, is an attainment cs­teemed above aIl others as nceessary for those who live in civilsociety. To enjoy a contented intellcctunl mind without a goodconscience, is also not uncommon among those who either knowor care nothing about what conscience is. There can be nodoubt also that they may exist conjointly,. ancl gladness itsel~with its frec expression in laughtcr, is the more pelfect, in pro­portion as it proceeds from a contented intellectual mind, andthls again from a good conscience: and when a good consciencereigns in tbe various things which follow beneath it in succes­sion, nothing in the whole world can be more full of a sense ofenjoyment and delight. Thus it is that we attain the summumbonum - the sllpreme good. In the mean time, the gladnesswhich naturally flows from the active state of a contented mint!,acknowledges as its efficient cause the harmonious series ofthings, or order perceived with its degrees and connection;tbis order, however, is not perceived except by relation to itsopposites, and by reflection, either direct or indirect, uponothers and upon ones self: hence such gladness as gives birthto laughter cannot exist, except in a subject capable of perceiv­ing such things, that is, in man; and more largely in men ofempty minds [mens], and in sucb as are possessed by tbe loveof tbemselves, &c. X. To pride, considered as appertaining tothe body, anawers haughtinesa and swelling of mind [animus];to this, ambition of mind [mens]; in the sapreme degree, eminentambition, or the ambition of ambition, which seeks to be aboveail; apurious, if it thus descends from what is higbest into thetbings of its own body; legitimate, if it ascends into the thingB
  • 93. -- AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 57 of the soul, an,d connecta itself with the soul for the sake of more univelsal and pelfect ends. XI. Ta avarice, considered as the possession of worldly goods, corresponds a lust for the goods to be possessed; to this, the replesentation by those goods of aIl possibilities in the world. Avarice does not ascend further, because it is destitute of the representation of universal ends; for it is conjoined with a tacit denial of divine providence and of a life aft.er deatb; wherefore it is the root and mother of vices. XII. Ta heroic action corresponds intrepidity of mind [animus] as its virtue j to tbis, Belf-preservation and the pres­ ervation of aIl tbat belongs to us, and lastly, both of these, with a view to tbe preservation of society. XIII. There is a gradation of enda, as being inferior and snperior, consequently more universal and more pelfect. The lowest and MOst entirely natural, common also to the brutes, is self-preservation j a supe­ rior end is self-preservation for the sake of society, as for the sake of a mans country, &c. j the end supeIior to this is self­ preservation and tbe preservation of earthly society for the sake of heavenly society, in wbich the soul exists as a mernber; and the highest, which is tbe end of ends, or the most universal of aIl, is the glory of the Deity. 80 likewise in aIl other cases in whicb ende are assumed as ultimate, though in reality tbey are intermediate. For tbere is nothing which does not admit of being elevated to higher degrees j wherefore, if we are incapable of conceiving of their elevation in a suitable manner, and ac­ cording to the nature of the thing considered, it is in vain to attempt to ascend to the causes of things. As was observed however above, there is need in these cases both of the knowl­ cdge of facts, and of skill in judging of them. For it is possible that into any infeIior thing several things may enter frOID divers other series, and sometimes in such numbers, that what forms in .it the generally and universally reigning principle May be altogether obliterated, nay, May even perish; thus an effect 60wing down from its genuine principles and purest fountain, is frequently 130 oyercharged with imperfection, and 130 Obsculed, that it is impossible to recognize it as an emanation from that fountain: to ascel"tain, therefole, its immediately superior degree, we must oRen rise above it to one superior still, that by its aid we may di800ver that which is intermediate.
  • 94. 68 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 650. Tia, at length, in tne supreme region of the animalkingàom, where the human 80ul Ï8, there i8 no corporeal lan­guage wMch can aàequately e:r::pres8 ies natu;e, and, much lu8,the nature of thing8 8till8uperior. (n.256, W7.) For when, inpropol1.ion to the degrees of elevation, the distinct notions ofthings pelish, the expressions of language ~ignificative of thesenotions must also perish with them; and the more 80 in propor­tion as we rise higher, or more remotely from the ()bjects of thesensations to which the words and phrases of language arcapproptiated; or where occur the universals of apparent uni­versaIs, and the things above the common ones of those whichare usually accounted common. This then is the case in théhuman soul, to which the most abstruse kind of terme, such as"the intuition of ends," "the representation of that which isuniversaI," "the determining tiret principle of reason," and thelike, are alone suited; and these are terms, of which, as theyare destitute of adjunctive, modal, ànd other forms of the sameuniversality, it is difficult to define the exact signification; andif we attempt to define it by phrases borrowed from lowerthingB, there still remains implied in them a notion similar tothat of matter, as was observed above (n. 638) concerning the firstaura and its force, so far as it conesponds to the gravity of lower .substances. Thus in vain does the intellcctual mind [mens]boast ()f its powere, and as it were seek for terms ta express itsmeaning, in terms which leave many things to be understoodwhich are not capable of being expressed; and is unable to findthe proper expressions when it aims at ascending above itself." We cannot," says Wolff, "represent to ourselves univereals,except so far as we perceiye singulars" (Psychol. Rat., § 429);and " if we point out by words •.. the generals of those singu­lars that enter a univcrsal notion, the words are not understood,except so far as therc is a perception of tbose generals in indi­ viduals." (Ibid., § 428.) 651. Wherlljène a mathematical philosophy of un~versals fIlmt be inventeà, wMeh, by characteristic mark8 and letter8, intheir general form not very unlike the algebraic analY8i8 of il/­ finites, may be capable of expressing those things which art. i~e88ible by ordinary language. On this subject wour observes: "Among the desiderata of learning, is a science
  • 95. .AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. 59which should deliver the general principles of the knowledgeof fioite things; a science from which the geometrician mightdraw hîs measures, when desirous usefuIly to exercise his calcu­lations in the mathematical knowledge of nature.... And thisscience would have a better title to the name of universalmathematics, thall the science of qllsntities in general, or ofindeterminate numbers, since it would deliver the first principlesof the mathematical knowledge of aIl things.... Tbus we mightat last obtain the true mathematical principles of natural philos­ophy and psychology, which might be of use to philosophera inglliding their further discoveries, and in general to ail fOr accu­rate practice. 1 wish the learned would turn their attention toit." (Ontol., § 755.) It was for this end that 1 was here dis­posed, as a preparatory step, to offer the doctrine of selies anddegrees, sinee without a previous knowledge of the general andparticular forro of natures government, in vain should wc exertthe POWeIB and labors of the mind in composillg such a philoso­phy, since it is no other than that of the soul itself. It is thatphilosophy alone which can put an end to the contest betweentruths and assumptions, and pave the way to the palace ofreason. For SUch a philosophy, if well digested, will be, in amanner, the one scùnce of all the natural sciences, because it isthe complex of aU. 652. 1 have now completed the first Part of my Economyof the Animal Kingdom. But 1 am not sure whether on everypoint 1 have pursued the truth, as 1 place no reliancc upon my­selt; but leave the candid reader to form his own judgment. If1 have anywhere been betrayed into mistake, the subsequentParts, in propOltion as they are based upon true science, willcorrect it. But what is truth? Will it be the work of ages todiscover it, or of ages to recognize it when discovered? TheBound and well-approved opinions of certain ancients, who livedin ages when the rational mind exercised its functions moreuniversaIly, more distinctly, and less overladen with accessoryconsiderations, are at this day, and after the lapse of thousandsof years, disputed by many; as was also, in later ages, the casefor a long time with the discovery by the illustrious Harvey ofthe circulation of the blood, &c. Still, bowever, that fashionof judging of a work cannot be eternal, which regulates the
  • 96. 60 THE EOONOlrIY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.approbation of the reader not so much by the truth of thewritel"s sentiments, as by the felicity of his language. Thelatter is an attainment easy and common among persons belong­ing to polite society: it is the former that presents the difficulty,which is to be sllimounted only by intense mental labor. But,as Seneca observes: "Falsehood is ffimsy; on careful inspectionit is easily seen thlough." (Epist. lxxix.)
  • 97. PART II.OF THE MOTION OF THE BRAIN, OF THE CORTICAL SUB· STANCE, AND OF THE HUMAN SOUL. CHAPTER 1.ON THE MOTION OF THE BRAIN; BBOWING TBAT ITB ANnlATION 18 COINCIDENT WITB THE RESPIRATION OF THE LUNG8. 1. BEFO&E we approach the subject of the moments or in­tervals of motion observed by the two brains and medullre,which motion we caU animation, it will be requisite as a foun­dation to prove the motion of this viBCus by experience. Wemust not treat of these moments before we have ascertainedtheir existence, nor inquire into quality before we are certainof actuality. For the ancients utterly denicd the existenceof this motion, as al80 do certain of the modems, though ithas at last been clearly detected by several great anatomists,snch as Ridley, Vieussens, Baglivi, Fantoni, Bellini, Pacchion~and others; and so clear is the evidence of its existence thatwhoever doubts it at the present day must doubt the senses ofsight and touch. In asserting the existence of this motion, itwill be reqnisite mercly to cite the experimental facts recordedby the above illustrious authors; these facts being worth innu­merable arguments. Thus Ridley says, that having openedthe head <Jf a living dog, "he observed a systaltic motion ofthe dura mater and longitudinal sinus, .•. analogous to the pul­sation of the heart, which was quicker than usual, Rnd exactlyeorresponding with it in point of time.... When one blade of VOL. II. 6 (81)
  • 98. 62 THE ECONOlrfY OF THE "jNIMAL KINGDOM.a blunt pair of scissors was cautiously introduced into an aper.ture made in the membrane, and the latter was slit open, thebrain covered with the pia mater protruded through the aper­ture, its motion"" still continuing strong to the touch.... Onafterwards gently smearing over the dura mater with a few dropsof oil of vitriol, no vibration of the membrane, or at least onlyan insignificant and obscure vibration, was perceived, .•• thoughon applying the finger, the pulse of the brain itself was verydistinct.••. When a probe was driven deeply into the brain,the animal manifested signs of great pain; and when the bladeof a knife was passed right through to the opposite side of theskull, horrible spasms were the result.... Lastly, not only theauthor himselt; but others who witnessed the experiment, onthrusting their fingers into the brain, observed that its systoleand diastole were carrieù on in spite of the great resistance thusopposed." (Philosophical Transactions, an. 1703, p. 1481­1483.) And Vieussens says, "We assert that the whole massof the brain, especially where it is at sorne distance fromthebones of the skull, has a natural motion of intumescence anddetumescence, and we prove it by the single fact, that when weopen the head of a dog, or of any other animal, traces of theseveral external convolutions of the brain are found accuratelyand deeply engraved upon the bones of the skull. Such tracesof the exterior figure of the convolutions of the brain couldnever be imprillted upon the inner surface of the skull, if thebrain were entirely destitute of motion; for no one, we presume,will affirm, that the dura mater, as it lies between the skull andthe brain, is capable of ploducing depressions in the skull."(Neurographia Vniversalis, cap. vi., p. 41; fol., Lyons, 1685.)Baglivi says, " Whosoever wishes to beassured upon this matter,has only to inspect and consider the anterior part of the craniumin a new-born child; for the bones being excecdingly soft., byplacing the palm of the hand upon them, we shall feel a strongand regular motion of systole and diastole.... But if we wishto perceive still more clearly the systole and diastole of the duramater in its whole extent, we may do so in wounds of the hèadwhich are accompa!lied by fracture of the skull, and penetrate • R1dley says, ln a passage omltted by Swedenborg, that he observed a motion ofthe braln also. - (Tr.)
  • 99. THE MOTION OF THE BRAIN. 68to the brain, (such as we ourselves have seen in several of the Italian hospitallil,) and we shall then flnd that the entire portionof the dura mater laid bare by the wound, pulsates equably andforcibly, and not only in those· channels and funows that arebollowed out by the little arteries distributed through it: as would be the case if the motion of the dura mater depended upon these little arteries; supposing which, should convulsivemotions superyene from the wound, wc should be quite at aloss to account for the strong and evident pulsation discerniblethroughout the dura mater, and distinguished by its own properintervals and spacelil, so that one would really think it was thebeart that was pulsating. [This phenomenon the author haswitnessed ofien, and in the presence of others.J" (De FibraMotrice Specimen, lib. i., cap. iv.) And Fantoni says, "Noth·ing in the brain is more conspicuous, than its alternate swellingand subsiding, or dilatation and contraction: these motions arevisible in cases ofwounds of the head, and in the vivisectionof brutes..•. We flnd it recorded of Zoroaster, the celebratedKing of the Bactrians, .•• that on the very day that he was born,bis brain palpitated to such a degtee 3S to repel a hand whenplaced upon it.... It is weIl known by experiments, that inliving animaIs, when the brain is wounded, and the flnger thrustweil into it, a very strong diastole and systole of its substanceare perceptible. To state a genetaI opinion, not a particle ofthe brain is destitute of this motion: aIl the glands and aIl thelittle tubes enjoy an alternate aud regular compression." (Epist.ad PacchiQnum, in Pacch. Operibus, p. 171, 172; 4to. Rome,1741.) 1 say nothing of other observations to the same effect,drawn directly from living subjects, and recorded by a greatnumber of celebrated authors, as Pacchioni, Mayow, and par­ticu1arly Bellini in his Opusoula, [?J where he speaks of thesystaltic motion of the brain and the natural contractility of thespinal m8.lTOW. For fiom the citations already given it is suf­ficiently evident that the brain has an alternate motion of aninternaI kind; in other words, a motion arising out of its ownbosom; also that its entire surfàce, namely, the suTtoundingmembranes, the blood-vessels, and also the septa and sinuseB,depend upon the animatory vibration of the subjacent or inter­jacent brain, and in part also the dura mater, which is the
  • 100. THE HUMAN SOUL. 201 CHAPTER III. THE HUMAN SOUL. 208. IN Part I. l endeavorcd, by way of introduction ta a knowledge of tbe soul, ta expound a doctrine wbich l bave caUed the Doctrine of Séries and De~·ees. This I-d~s­ much as for a long terne l h-adbeen fed- ta consider, and with many ta doubt, whether the Hurnan Soul was accessible ta any reach of mind, that is ta say, whether it was capable of being thoroughly investigated; for certain it is that the soul is far removed from the external senses, and lies in the depths of knowledge; being the highest and last in arder of those things that successively reveal thernselves ta our inquiries. On a slight consideration of the subject, l could not but think with rnankind in general, that ail our knowledge of it was ta be at- tempted either by a bare reasoning philosophy, or more imme- diately by the anatomy of the human body. But upon making the attempt, l found myself as far from my abject as cver; for no sooner did l seem ta have mastcred the subject, than l found[ it again e!.!!.diDg~asp, though it ncver absolutely disap- peared fiom my view. Thus my hopes were not destroyed, but deferred; and l frequently reproached myself with stupidity in being ignorant of that which was yet everywherc most rcally present ta mc; sincc 1>,[ rcason of the soul it· that w~arÀ see, ~~J, perceive, remember, imagine, think, dcsire, will; or that we are, move, and live. The soul it is because of whieh, by which, and out or;-hich, the visible corporeal kingdom prin ci- pally exists; ta the soul it is that we arc ta ascribc whutever excites our admiration and astonishmellt in the anatomy of the body; the body bel~_g constructed aeeordin~ ta the image of the sours nature, or a.ccording ta the 10101 of its operations. Thus did l seem ta see, and yct not ta sec, the yery abject, wilL the desire of knowing which l was never at re5t. But at length
  • 101. 202 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. l awoke as from a deep sleep, when l discovered, that notbing 11 is farther removed from the human u~derstanding than ~àt) I~ the same time is really present to it; and that nothing1Binôre present to it than what is universal, prior, and tmperior; since ( this enters into every particular, and into everything posterior and inferior. What is more omnipresent than the Deity, - in ( him we live, and are, and move, - and yet what is more remote fiom the sphere of the understanding? In vain does the mind 8tretch its power8 ta attain ta any degree of kllowledge of the e88entials and attributes of ~his S~premeand Omnipotent Being, { beyond what it has pleased Him to reveal in proportion to each mans individual exertions. (Part II., n. 252.) 209. There is nothing, however, more common to the human race, than the wish to mount at once from the lowest sphere to the highest. Thus every scioIist and tyro aspires fiom the rudi­ ments of his science forthwith ta its loftiest summit; as from the rudiments of geometry to the quadrature of the circle; from the rudiments of mechanism to perpetuaI motion; from the rudiments of chemistry ta gold and alcahest; from the rudi­ ments of philosophy ta the sabstantia prima, or firet substance of the world; and from every science to the human souI. And if we tum from the love of the 8ciences ta the love of the world, who does not long for the highest station, and who does not strive for honor after honor, for estate upon estate, and wealth and redundance of goods? Can you point out any considerable Dumber in civil society who place a check or limit to efforts of this kind, beyond that which they receive from actual impossi­ bility or nece88ity ? Be their pursuits whatever they may, are not the diffident encouraged by hopes of attaining the highest possible summit of their wishes? Thus the ambition of Adam remains deeply rooted in the nature of his posterity, and every one as a son of earth still desires ta touch the heavens with his :linger. 210. But the more any one is pelfected in judgment, and the better he discerns the distinctions of things, the more clearly will he pcrceive, that there is an arder in things, that there are degrees of arder, and that it is by these alone he can progress, and this, 8tep by ster, from the lowest sphere to the highest, or from the outermost ta the innermost. For as often as nature
  • 102. THE HDMAN SOUL. 2038scends away from external phenomena, or betakes herself in·wards, Rhe seems to have separated from us, and to have left UBaltogether in the dark as to what direction she has taken; wehave need, therefore, of sorne science to serve as our guide intracing out her steps,. - to arrange aU things into series, - todistinguish these series into degrees, and to contemplate the orderof each thing in the order of the whole. The science whichdoes this 1 calI the DOCTRINE OF SERIES AND DEGREES, OR THEDOCTRINE OF ORDER; a science which it was necessary to pre­mise to enable us to follow closely in the steps of nature; sinceto attempt without it to approach and visit her in her sublimeabode, would be to attempt to climb heaven by the tower ofBabel; fol the highest step must be approached by the inter­mediate. They who know nothing of this ladder of nature,when they have made their leap, and think they are standingon the summit, are little aware that they are lying fiat uponthe earth, and will be found at lust by their friends, alter theyhave searched the globe for thern, in sorne obscure cavern; forinstance, in sorne occnlt position, of the nature of which theythemselves, and the wisest of men, are equally ignorant. 211. The Doctrine of Seri~~_and De~ees, however, onlyteaches the-distin(;tion and relation between things superior andinferior, or priaI and posterior j it is unable to express by anyadequate terlliS of its own, those things that transcend thesphere of familial things. If, therefore, we would ascend to ahigher altitude, we must use terms which are still more abstract,universal, and eminent, lest we confound with the corporealsenses things, of which we ought not only to have distinct per­ceptions, but which, in reality, are distinct. Hence it is neces­sary to have recourse to a MATHEMATICAL PHILOSOPHY OF UNI­VERSALS, which shall be enabled not only ta signi:fy higher ideasby letters proceeding in simple order, but also to reduce themto a certain philosophical calculus, in its form and in sorne of itsrules not unlike the analysis of infinites j for in higher ideas,much more in the highest, things occur too ineffable to be repre­sented by common - ideas. But, in truth, what an Herculeantask must it he to huild up a system of this kinù! What a * Or general, becausc an lnllnlte number of particulars arc percelved as one general.-(Tr.)
  • 103. 204 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIltfAL KINGDOM.stupendous exercise of inte11ectual power does it require t Forit deUlands the vigilance of the entire animal mind, and theassistance also of the superior mind or soul, to which science isproper and natural, and which represents nothing to itself bythe signs used in speech, takes nothing from the cornmon cata­logue of words, but by means of the primitive and universaidoctrine we have mentioned, - connate both with itself :tndwith the objects of nature, - abstracts out of a11 things theirnature and essence; and prepares and evolves each in the mutestsilence. To this universal science, therefore, a11 other sciencesand arts are subject;· and it advances through their innermostmysteries as it proceeds from its own principles to causes, andfrom causes to effects, by its own, that is, by the natura! order.This will be very manifest, if we contemplate the body of thesoul, the viscera of the body, the sensory and motory organs,and the other parts which are framed for dependence upon, andconnection and harmony with, each other; in fine, are fitted tothe modes of universal nature; and this so nicely, skilfully,and wonderfu11y, that there is nothing latent in the innermostand abstrusest principles of nature, science or art, but the soulhas the knowledge and power of evoking to its aid, accordingas its pUi-poses require.t 212. That such a science of sciences may be found, many ofthe learned have alleady suspected; nay, they have beheld it asit were afar off. (Part l., n. 651.) The illustrious Locke, in hisgolden Essay concerning the Human Understanding, neal theclose of the work, after his profound investigation of the powersof the mind, discovers at last, as if by divination, that there isyet another and profounder science. "Pelhaps," says he, speak.ing of UÎ,UElfJJW/1J, "if they [viz. idei.ls and words] were distinctlyweighed, and duly considered, they would afford us another sortof logic and critic, than what we have been hitherto acquaintedwith." (Book iv., chap. xxi., § iv.) And in another place heobserves: "The ideas that ethics are conversant about, bcing aIlleal essences, and such as l imagine have a discoverable connec·tion and agleement one with another; so far as we can findtheir habitudes and relations, so far we shaH be possessed of * See the Animal Kingdom, n. 461.-(7r.) t Seelbid"n.9~.9ô.-(7r.)
  • 104. THE HUMAN SOUL. 205certain, real, and general truths; and l doubt not, but if a rightmethod were taken, a great part of morality might be made outwith that clearness, that could leave, to a considering man, nomore reason to doubt, than he could have to doubt of the truthof propositions in mathematics, which have been demonstratedto him." (Book iv., chap. xii., § viü.) That to such a science,seen so obscurely, yet so desirable, any other way can lead thanthe doctrine of the order, or of the series and degrees, existingin the world and nature, l cannot be induced to believe; for aIlthe other sciences, like derivative streams, regard this as theirfountain head: and as it penetrates into abstract principles, andinto a field of ideas where a faculty resides that only thinks, buthas no speech, and whispers no word, but beholds the meaningsof words, represents them to itself, and distributes them into acertain quantity of quantities; so it can give in a short compass,the mode, rules, and form pertaining to a certain supremescience which by mute letters will nicely designate things thatcan scarcely be signified by words, without periphrasis and longand circuitous periods. This is the science which l just nowcaIled the Mathematical Doctrine of U niversals. The use ofeither we can scarcely anticipate by bare thought; but we shaIlflnd it out by their wonderful application to examples, for theyextend to everything. If judgment consist in the faculty ofdistinguishing one simple and compound idea from another, lestany apparent similarity or affinity lead us to mistake between thetwo, then we are assuredly so far destitute of judgment, as wecannot in due order separate from things simultaneous, thosethings that are successively involved in them, and have succes­sively entered into them: or as we cannot abstract causes, andcauses of causes, from the effects in which these causes appear,although they appear obscurely, and never distinctly, andscarcely at aIl, without our having recourse ta the higher in­tellectual powers. 213. But even were it granted, that the Doctrine of Orderand the Science of Universals were carrled by the human mind to the acme of perfection; nevertheless it does not foIlow that we should, by these means alone, be brought into a knowledge of aU that can be known; for these sciences are but subsidiary, serving only, by a compendious method and mathematical VOL. IL 18
  • 105. 206 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KIN GD OM.certainty, to lead us, by continued abstractions and elevations ofthought, from the posterior to the prior sphere; or fiom theworld of effects, which is the visible, to the world of causes andprinciples, which is the invisible. Renee, in Qider that thesesciences may be available, we must have recourse to experiment,and to the phenomena of the senses; without which they wouldremain in a state of bare theory and bare capability of aidingus. Algebraical analysis, for example, without lines, figures,and numbers, applied to the objects of natural philosophy andgeneral economy, would be only a beautifnl calculus, destituteof any practical application to the uses of life. The foregoingsciences, consequently, show their real value only in proportionto the abundance of our experience. They imitate the veryorder of animal nature, which is, that the rational mind shaHreceive instruction successively fiom phenomena, through themedium of the fivefold organism of the extelllal senses; butwhen it has matured its principles, it may begin to look roundand enlarge the sphere of its rational vision, so as, from a fewcauses slightly modified, to be enabled to extend its view toan infinity of effects. For these reasons, 1 am strongly per­suaded, that the essence and nature of the soul, its influx intothe body, and the reciprocal action of the body, can never cometo demonstration, without these doctrines, combined with aknowledge of anatomy, pathology, and psychology; nay, evenof physics, and especiaHy of the auras of the world; and that,unless our labors take this direction, and mount from phenom­ena thus, we shaH in every new age have to build new systems,which in their turn will tumble to the ground, without the pos­sibility of being rebuilt. 214. This, and no other, is the reason that, with diligentstudy and intense application, 1 have investigated the anatomyof the body, and principaHy the human, so far as it is knownfiom experience; and that 1 have foHowed the anatomy of aHits parts, in the same manner as 1 have here investigated thecortical substance. In doing this, 1 may perhaps have gone be­yond the ordinary limits of inquiry, so that but few of myreaders may be able distinctly to understand me. But thus far1 have felt bound to venture, for 1 have resolved, cost what itmay, to trace out the nature of the human sou1. Re therefore
  • 106. THE lIUMAN BOUL. 207who desires the end, ought also to (1csile the llllans. 1 freelyacknowledge, that 1 have made use of the htbors nnd elaboratedexperience of the best inquirers; and b:1e i>ekcted but fewfacts fiom my own experience. But J woulcl rather learn thesematters from sight than touch; for J have found that those whoare furnished, nay, loaded, with particular and private experi­ence, are apt to be carried away into untoward views and per­verse notions of causes, more easily than those who derive theirinformation not from private, but from general experience,­not from their own, but from the experience of othels. (Part J.,n. 18.) For not only does the former class both study andfavor the external senses more than the mind in the senses,and hastily judge of everything that cornes before them fromtheir own partial information; but they are smitten with thelove of their own discoveries and imaginations, in which theycontemplate their own image as a parent does in his offspring.Hence it i.s that they not unfrequently look down, with royalsuperciliousness, uponall who pay no homage to their favoritetheories, which they themselves adore to distraction. But asSeneca observes: "He is born for a limited sphere, who thinksof the people of his own time; ... others will come afrer him,who can judge without offence, and without favol." (Epist. 79.)See Part 1., n. 13-24. 215. But there is no reason to disparage the living, or towrong the present age; for few, indeed, are there now who con­tend for any system or hypothesis as a matter of faith or love.The motives are various and innumerable, that prevail upon mento profess with the lips that they believe what they do not be­lieve; the roere enumeration of them would occupy a largeBpace in our pages. ::-Who is there, if he be free to confess it,)that does not regard the known as unknown, tEe true as proba­ble, and the pro15able as taIse? ~ OTWIîo, if he has not sufficienttime or talent fOl discussing the several arguments, does nottacitly, in his own mind, come to neithel affirmation nor nega­tion upon the sulJject? Jndeed, we may form a judgment ofthe state of the human mind from this circumstance, that it isa maxim never to [live credence, or implicit assent, to anythingbut actual demonstration / and should any one set himself to work in furnishing the demonstration, the opinion then is, they
  • 107. 208 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KING1)OM.must next hear the other side. For expelience teachcs that thcleis nothing_that an orator may not establish, as un aliquot pai:tôfmany differeot series of ratiocinations, and a philosopher, ofmany series of facts; just as one syllable, word, or phrase, mayoccur in a never-ending series of sentences and discourses, 01one color in an infinite number of pictures. The mind indeedmay, at the time of its formation, be imbued also with princi­pIes derived fiom sophistical arguments, but these are not sodeeply rooted as perhaps we may think; for the intellect, in itsmaturer age, feels that it is flee, and in a state for judging fromthe principles received in infancy, fiom those since superinduced,and from others traced out by its own individual experience;the consequence of which is, it accedes ooly to those that dis­play to it the grcatest light of truth. For so far as we placeourselves in bondage to the judgments of others, we limit ourfaculties, and consign ourselves to slavery; wherefore there isno rational mind that does not aspire to the enjoyment of itsown golden libelty, and with this view ranges in thought overuniversal nature, in order to flnd out the truth, and, whereverit lies, to receive it with open embrace, In things divine thecase is different; since they are ever speciously inculcated ac­cOlding to different religious creeds, in regard to which the mind is commanded to abdicate the use of reason; so that the im­ pressions the mind receives on these subjects remain permanently sacred and inviolate, from the dawn of intelligence to its great­ est development. 216. Meanwhile, those disputes that take place among the leaders of the learned and the lights of the world, concerning the soul, to which we are eternally to transfer the happiness we enjoy in the body, and which disputes never can be settled by controversy or contention, cannot but have the effect of unhin­ ging mens minds, and contracting their faith to a narrow com­ pass. For it is but natural to a man not to assent to anything unknown before he has consulted his reason; and in things altogether unseeo, not to believe that a thing is, unless in sorne measure he knows what it is, - a habit more common to the learned than to the unlearned; because as the former conflde more in themselves, they presume less upon the impossibility of coming to perfect knowledge. If, therefore, we deprive the soul
  • 108. THE HUMAN BaUL. 209 of every predicate that belongs to material things, as of exten­ sion, figure, space, magnitude, and motion, we deprive the mind of everything to which, as to an anchor, it can attach its ideas; the consequence is, that every one is left in doubt whether, aiter all, the soul be anything distinct fiom an ens rationis~ and whether there can possibly be an intercourl;e between two en­ tities, to one of which is ascribed the privative of the other, or of one extreme of which there is no assignable notion. But 1 know that human minds (which are more capable of under­ standing than of wil1ing the truer aspects of things, that is, are more intelligent than we think in guessing truths out of the collision of probabilities and appearances), do not suffer them­ selves to be deceived by outward shows, or yield their faith, unless common experience persuade them to it; or unless they see that the last things are demonstratively connected and con­ firmed with the first by intermediates. 217. We may consider it as an established fact, that when any one attains the truth, aIl experience, both general and par­ ticular, will be in his favor, and give him its suffrage; and that aIl the rules and decisions of rational philosophy will natu­ rally and spontaneously do the same; and that varions systems will so come into agreement and unity with each other, that each will be confirmed thereby; for there is no system but isbuilt upon ascertained phenomena, and upon such principles aswill enable us to reconcile the higher sphere with the lower, and the spiritual with the corporeal. When truth herself walksforth to the light, and comes upon the stage, then conjecturesdisappear, and the spectres seen and imagined in the dark aredissipated. There is no difficulty that she does not remove; nomortal that she fears; no rock on which she founders. To her itis given to look into the holy of holies, though not to enter it;for the truth of nature, and the trnth of revelation, howeverseparate, are never at variance. But in order that the truthmay be brought to light, - a consummation which we aIl de­voudy wish,-1 would observe that its habitation is so inwardand exalted, that it will not permit itself to be revealed to anywho are still lingeling in the last and lowest sphere, but tothose only who have brought their minds into the habit ofthinking, who can extend, and apply, their mental vision 18*
  • 109. 210 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. throughout the whole order of eonfirmatory faets; and, in the perception of consequences, remove it far from the senses and the lower affections. But this power is not granted to aIl, for Cicero says: "The divine mind ... has taken aceount for thoseonly whom it has endowed with right reason" (De Ratura Deorum, lib. m., § 27); and its exercise would at once deprivethe lower faculties of their pleasant and desirable ease; - andhence many stubbornly refuse to stir a step beyond visible phe­nomena for the sake of the truth; and others prefer to drowntheir ideas in the occult at the very outset. To these two classesour demonstration may not be acceptable. For, in regard tothe former, it asserts, that the truth is to be sought far beyondthe range of the eye; and, in regard to the latter, that in aIl thenature of things there is no such thing as an occuIt quality; infact that there is nothing but is either already the subject ofdemonstration, or capable of becoming so. 218. These remarks are not made with a view ta derogatefrom the authority or credit due to the lucubrations of others,adorned, as they are, with genius and the sciences; for everyone, in proportion as he approaches the truth, deserves his ownlaure!. Of what consequence is it to me that I should persuadeanyone to embrace my opinions? Let his own reason persuadehim. I do not undertake this work for the sake of honor oremolument; both of which I shun rather than seek, becausethey disquiet the mind, and because I am content with my lot:but for the sake of the truth, which alone is immortal, and hasits portion in the most perfeet order of nature; hence in theseries only of the ends of the universe from the first to the last,which is the glory of God; which ends He promotes: thus Isurely know Who it is that must reward me. I will nowarrange these first fruits of my psychologieal labors into chap­ters, according ta the method hitherto adopted. I. 219. From the anatomy of the animal body we clearly per­ceive, that a certain most pure f1.uid glances through the sub­tlest fibres, remote from even the acutest sense; that it reigusuniversally in the whole and in every part of its own limited
  • 110. THE HUMAN SOUL. 211universe or body, and continues, irrigntes, nourishes, actuates,modifies, forros, and renovates everything therein. This fluid isin the third degree above the blood, which it enters as the first,supreme, inmost, remotest, and most perfect substance and forceof itB body, as the sole and proper animal force, and as the de­termining principle of all things. Wherefore, if the soul of thebody is to be the subject of inquiry, and the com_municationbetween the soul and the body to be investigated, we must firetexamine this fluid, and ascertain whether it agrees with ourpredicates. But as this fluid lies so deeply in nature, nothought can enter into it, except by the doctrine of series anddegrees joined to experience; nor can it be described, exceptby recourse to a mathematical philosophy of universals. 220. From the anatomy of the animal body we clearly per­ceive, that a certain most pure jluid glances through the subtlestfibres, remote from even the acutest sense. Of this fluid we havealreOOy discoursed at length in the present and in the formerPart; in the sequel aIso it will continue to occupy our atten­tion; for there is nothing in the body that does not confirm itsexistence; so that we can by no means doubt of its actuality, orof itB efficient power, whenever an effect appears. Jt is for thesake of investigating and becoming acquainted with this fluid,that J have applied myself with a11 possible diligence to thestudy of the eCCinomy of the animal kingdom; therefore, to avoidtravelling over the same ground again, it will be sufficient torefer my readers to the Parts themselves. (Part II., n. 122,123, &c.) 221. That it reigns universally in the whole and in everypart of its Q/1)n limited universe 01 body. For the sake of thisfluid it is, principally, that the auimal body is ca11ed a kingdom.And continues everything therein,. for it is educed where it isconceived, out of the cerebrum, the two medulllll, and their per­petuaI origins or cortical substances, and transmitted by con­tinuity into the entire body as their subject and adject, so thatwhatever does not exist .and subsist from it, is no part in theunanimous system. Jt irrigates; for it is most perfectly fiuid,80 that the greater and more excellent is the portion of it thatthe blood possesses, the more fluid is the blood to be accounted. (See Parts J. and II.) Jt nourishes and forms; whence it is
  • 111. 212 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.caIled the formative substance (Part l., n. 253, seqq., n. 271)the mother and nurse of aIl the others, present in the minutestparticulars of the body (part l., n. 258, 259), capable of adap­tation to every little pore, passage, and form. Wherefore alsoit renovate8 and repairs every deficiency in the connecting parts,and thus perpetua11y contlnues and pursues its work of forma­tion. It actuate8 and modifies i for by its action we live, andby its life we act: it is present in a moment in the motive fibreof every muscle at the intimation of its brain, and in a momenttransfers the forms of forces, and the images, from the partie­ular sensoria to the general sensorium: and wherever it glancesihrough its fibre, it is analogous in its nature to the auras. (SeePart l., Chapter III.; Part II., Chapter II.) 222. Thi8 ftuid is in the third degree above the blood i or tospeak more clearly, it is in the first degree, since the red bloodis in the third, as we have alrcady ascertained from experience.But it il:l of great importance to have a clear idea of order, or ofa series, and of the degrees in a series; for which purpose BeePart 1., Chapter VIII. But since we are so often repeatingthat this, or the other thing, is in a superior or inferior, in aprior or posterïor degree; or what amounts to the same, is moresimple, more universal, more internaI, more remote, more per­fect, &c.; and since thesc things imply a distinct notion of di­vision, it may not be amiss again to explain the relative termssuperior and inferior. Let the idea be taken from the subjectbefore us, or the blood. The blood is called an animal lluid ofthe third degree, and whether it be a large volume, as in theheart, aorts, vena cava, or sinus of the brain; or whether it be·a sma11er, as in the minute vessels; or whether it be only partof a volume, as in the capillary arteries and veins, it never ceasesto be blood of its own degree. Thus in whatever manner itsvoll,lme be divided, whether it be into a part, or whether theparts be multiplied into a larger volume, it is still blood of itsown degree, and retains the nature of its parts, which is theleast image of a volume; for it is its unit, whose numbers areaggregates of several units." But if we divide this part orglobule ofblood into its primordial or constituent particles, then • Bee the doctrine of unite or IlIlltieB U1uBtrated ln the caBe or the vealclel or $heIDDgI, lu the .."Omal Kingdom, n. 632, note (P).-(7V.)
  • 112. THE HUMAN SOUL. 213the result and oifspring of this division is a diifetent kind ofblood, namely, apurer, prior, superior, simpler, more uuiversal,internaI, remote, and perfect blood; for the red blood does notderive its nature from itself, but from other bloods prior to itself;into which it again returns; or as we term it, ascends, since theblood, as a compound, dies. That the red blood suifers itself tobe divided into peIlucid spherules, which continue their flowthrough the vessels, or the stamina and fibres of the vessels, is afact which may be so distinctly ascertained by the microscopeas to leave no room for doubt. These pellucid spherules of thedivided red blood, whether they constitute a volume, or a finestreamlet, or only a part, nevertheless do not cease to be thepurer blood, or blood of the superior degree. And that eachspherule is again divisible into others immensely smaller, mayagain be verified by the microscope. (See parts 1. and Il,passim.) Wherefore there are units of it also, the number ofwhich probably surpasses, beyond aIl imagination, those pel­ceived by the highest microscopical powers. In order, therefore,to alTive by this purer or mediate blood, at the next higher blood,let us divide a part of it, in thought, since we cannot divide itby sight, into its prior, that is, its constituent or primative ele­ments; and we shall then come ta that purest fluid, which issaid to be in the third degree above the blood; or in the firstwhen the red blood is put in the third. A similar law prevailsin aIl other things; since there is nothing in nature but is aseries, and in a series. (Part 1., n. 584, 586.) U nless this ideaof division and composition be familiarized to the mind, we shallperceive nothing distinctly in the various objects of nature, butconfound with sense those things that nature successively anddistinctly involves, and successively and distinctlyevolves. (SeePart 1., n. 37, 38,40,41,91,97, 100,150, 360,370, 503, 556, 630,634, 637; PartH., n. 117-132,153-162,165,167-172,204--207.) A series, therefore, is whatever contains substances, or what i~the same, the forces of substances, thus disposed or flowing forthaccording to degrees: thus there are series of two, three, four,or more degrees. According as these series are mutually con­loined anà corumunicate, so are they the series of an order.Properly speaking, these are series and orders of successivethings. But there is also a series and order of simultaneous
  • 113. 214 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.things, or of substances or forces of one and the same degree, a@between a largest and least volume; which are of the same kindas that existing between numbers greater and less, down to theunit with which the numbers are homogeneous. (part 1., o. 629.)But we must beware lest we confound the degrees of theseseries with those of things successive, of which we have alreadytreated. We are thus supplied with an explanation of the sub·sequent clause, namely, that this jluid is in the third degreea1Jove the blood, which it enters as the jirst, supreme, inmost,remotest, and most perfect substance and force of its body, asthe sole and proper animal force, and as the determining prin­ciple of aU things. See the articles cited above from bothParts. 223. It only remains for us to consider what is signified bythe force that is attributed to this fluid; for it is caIled the sub­stance and force of its body. The term force is used in a verywide sense, and for this reason perhaps with the less degree ofprecision. It has been employed to signifJ whatever producesany visible and perceptible effect. Rence the expressions, forceof soul, force of thought, force of imagination, force of memory,force of sensation, force of action, force of motion, force of elae­tic and non-elastic bodies; and also the tenns active and passiveforce, &c. It is a word, therefore, associated with everythingin which we perceive any active state, and the judgment rarelydiscerns whether it be itself a substance, or whether it onlybelongs to a substance. But a substance is the subject of aIl itsaccidents, and consequently also of aIl its forces. Before a forcecan result from a substance, an acting cause must precede, inso far as the substances are kept in equilibrium; and no forcecan exist except by mutation, without which it is a nonentity;nor can it be abstracted, except in thought. From mutation,modification or motion flows ;wherefore there are as manyspecies of forces, as there are of mutations, and of modificationsor motions thence resulting; and there are as many series anddegrees of forces as Of substances. Respecting the order inwhich efforts, motions, and modifications succeed each other,see Part 1., n. 169-175, 304-306. Meanwhile, fluids are whatrepresent the forces of nature, because they produce them; forfluide are the things that cao make effort, and undergo modo
  • 114. THE HWfAN SaUL. 215ification and motion; each fluid perfectly or imperfectly~ ac­cording to its essence and form; for the quality of forces isrelative ta the state of the substance. Thus the fluids of theearth, as water, oil, spirits, and mercury, represent forces in onemanner; the fluids of the world, as air, ether, or the auras,represent them in another manner; and the animal fluids, asthe red blood, and the purer, and the purest blood, again repre.sent them in another manner, &c. In general, fluids are in·trinsically more peIfect the higher they are in their series (Part1., n. 615, 616), and the more their parts are by nature accommo­dated to the variety of al! mutations; also the more expansileand compressible they are, and the less coherent; hence themore modifiable; the less tlley suffer any loss of the forces im·pressed; thus the more fully they represent at one extreme of aseries the images and differences of the other; the more theyact by elasticity rather than by non-elastic force or gravity ; themore equaUy they press in every direction, namely, from thecentre to the circumferences, and from the circumferences tothe centre; so that one and the same part may seem to be atonce in the centre, in any radius, in any circumference, and in athousand of these successively and Bimultaneously; whence theyare found, each according to its nature, touching, pressing upon,and actuating every point in the most perfect manner. Suchare the forces of the auras of the world; and such are those ofthe purest animal fluid. Rence the fluid substances which pro­duce these results, may justly be caUed the forms of naturesforces, which never exhibit themselves to view, either in part,or as sometimes is the case, even in volume, except by theireffects. Common modification perceived by a sensory organmanifests the form, and hence the nature of a part; inasmuch asa part is the smallest volume of its whole (Part 1., n. 629-633),and the forces are the numbers or amounts of parts, that affectthe organ of sense. Thus the forms Bpoken of by the ancientscoincide with the forms of substances; for unless they resultedfrom substances, they would be mere entia rationis. In thisrespect the purest fluid in the animal body is the substance andforce, and the most pelfect nature of its little world. But thesubject of forces is so extensive, that it cannot be distinctlyunderstood withont traversillg universal nature generally and
  • 115. 216 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.particularly; and whoever will undertake this task, may tindthis rule of service, that substances discover what they are bythe mode of their forces. Respecting the force of the presentfIuid, see below, Part II., n. 338-341. 224. Wherefore, if the som of the body i8 to be the aubjectof inquiry, and the communication between the soul and thebody to be inve8tigated, we must jirst examine this fluid, andascertain whether it agree8 with our predicate8; that is to say,whether its attributes agree with those of the sou1. Bence ifwe grant that the souI, as ours, is to be sought in ourselves,anatomical experience by its evolution presents this fIuid as thehighest and most inward to the mind of the anatomist; andthen hands it over to the philosopher to be discussed, and forhim to settle whether what he knows from his own axioms, andfrom the lUles of analyticlli order, should be attributed to thesoul, be predicable of this fIuid. For the anatomist proceeds nofalther than the above step, unless he at the same time assumethe character of a philosopher. Something of this kind seemsto be taken as the fixed boundary of their ideas by Aristotleand his followers; the former of whom treated systematicallyof the parts of the soul, and the latter, of its physical influx.Wherefore, if the animal fIuid and the soul agree in their predi­cates, no sound reason will reject the fluid as disagreeing; ifotherwise, no sound reason will embrace it. 225. But a8 thi8 fluid lie8 80 deeply in nature, no thoughtcan enter into it. We may indeed approach it so far as to knowthat it exists, but not as to know how it corresponds with theblood to which it is adjoined, and with the body over which itpresides, much less to know what it is in itself; without auxiliarysciences, which may serve as our clew to assist us in threadingthe mazes ofthis most intricate labyrinth; th3t is to say, exceptby the doctrine of series and degrees joined to experience. (PartII., n. 210, 213; and Pait I, Chap. VIII.) - Nor can it be de­scribed, or dejined, genetically, except by recourse to a mathe­matical philosophy of universals. (Part II., n. 206, 207, 211,212; Part 1., n. 256, 297,650, 651.) Towards this 1 have wadesorne progress though as yet 1 have not advanced far beyondthe first and fundamental principles. (Part II., n. 207.)
  • 116. THE HUMAN BOUL. 217 II. 226. Yet this does not prevent us from perceiving, solely bythe intuitive faculty of the mind, that such a fluid, although itbe the tirst substance of the body, nevertheless derives its beingfrom a still higher substance, and proximately from those thingsin the universe on which the principles of natural things areimpressed by the Deity, and in which, at the same time, themost perfect forces of nature are involved. Renee that it isthe form of forms in the body, and the formative substance, thatdraws the thread fiom the tirst living point, and continues itafterwards to the last point of life; and so connects one thingwith another, and so conserves and governs it afterwards, thataIl things mutually follow each other, and the posterior referthemselves to the prior, and the whole with the parts, the uni­versaI with the singulars, by a wonderful subordination andcoordination, refers itself to this prime form and substance,upon which aIl things depend, and by which, and for which,each thing exists in its own distinctive manner. 227. Yet this àoes not prevent us from perceiving, solely bythe intuitive faculty of the mind, that such a fluid, although it!Je the jirst substance of the body, nevertheless derives its beingfrom a 8till higher ,çubstance, and proximately from thosethings in the universe on which the principles of natural thingsare impressed by the neity, and in which, at the 8ame time, themost perfect forces of nature are involved. The intuition ofthe soul, which is like a light in the rational mind (Part II., n.289-291), infuses into us many things happily without the aidof auxiliary sciences, or so enlightens us with its beams, that wecan immediately tell whether those things that come from the judgments of others are true or not. This is the rea80n thatthe truth often manifests itself spontaneously, and assures us ofits presence, and this, without any help from far-fetched argu­ments. The cause of this is, that the doctrine of order, and thescience,of universals, are sciences of the soul herselt; according to which she views her objects altogether apart from a posteri­ ori" demonstration. (Part II., n. 270.) If it be a question, for example, whether the spirituous fluid be the tirst of aIl sub- VOL. n. 19
  • 117. 218 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.stances; whether, therefore, it be immediately infused, andwhether it act without any communication with the first sub­stance of the world (with other questions touching its actuality),enlightened reason leads us to believe that it is not the first of aIlsubstances, although it be the first in its own animal series. Thisthe reader may see further explained above, where it is stated,that each series has its own first and proper substance (Part 1.,n. 592); but which depends for its existence on the first sub­stance of the world (1 bid.), for that there is only one firstsubstance of aIl things in the created universe, from which theothers 60w (Part 1., n. 590), on which, as a principle, the prin.ciples of natural things are impressed by the Deity. (Part 1.,n. 591.) If the universe embrace singulars, it follows that itcontains them under itself as if in itself; from this the order ofthings is derived, and the rules of that order. The case wouldbe otherwise, if we could suppose the universe to be an assem­blage of universals; that is to say, if we could suppose its sub­stances and successive series of substances, independent in theirexistence and subsistence of the first substance of the world;for then the conftict, discordance, and strife among so many in·dependent u.niversals, would oblige us, in order to reconcile them,to he perpetually resorting beyond the bounds of nature, to sornemiraculous interposition of Omnipotence. In these views themind i.s confirmed by various arguments of probability whichoccur to it. lt finds, for instance, that this fluid is enclosedwithin the body, and circumscribed by the spaces of the body;that it keeps within fibres, which are in general the essentialdeterminations of its volume; whence the farm of the whole;that a large volume of it may be seen by the aid of the micro­scope; that it excites the motive fibres and general muscle ofits body into palpable motions; that it suffers itself to be modi­fied just like the auras of the world; and to copulate with cor­puscules of another kind, and thus to enter the blood and thevessels (Part 1., fi. 37-102); that by a high process it is con­ceived within, and excluded from, the exquisitely fine wombs ofthe cortical substance (Part II., n. 165-168); that the mutabil­ity of its state is the pelfection of its nature (n. 312-316); withmany other particulars noticed in both our Parts, and the nlti­mate causes of which are to be sought in this substance. Rence,
  • 118. THE HUMAN SOUL. 219in relation to its body, it is a substance which forms; but inrelation to the prior universe, it is a substance whic:h is formed;and this, by the substance in which there are the most perfectforces of nature; consequentl), by that better ether which theallcients called the celestial aura. (Part 1., n. 635; Part Il, n.206.) Thus this fluid may be approached by anatomy, but notentered without auxiliary sciences. 228. Henee that it is the form of forms in the body. ThefOlm of the parts of this fluid results, as we have just shown,from the essential determinations of the first aura; hence thehigh powers involved in the aura, are transferred into this fluidas its offspring: also this, that it can play the first part in anyseries of organic substances of any body, just as the aura playathe first part in its own world, or great system: wherefore,the former acts in the microcosm in the same manner as thelatter acts in the macrocosm: thus it follows, that both the oneand the other is a formaI, forming, or informing cause, as it iavariously caUed; that is to say, it is the formative substance ofaIl the postelÏor or inferior things in its universe or kingdom.(Part L, Chap III.) This seconda!y little world of the animalbody, is BQ composed of organic forma, mutuaIly subordinatedand adjoined to each othe l, that there is not a single part which,when surveyed either in a particular or general point of view,does not strike with silent astonishment the most cultivatedmind; for so annexed is one palt to its associate, and so sub­ jected to its prior, as to appear to be bom not for itself, but per­petually for something else, for the advantage and use of whichit develops itself not simu1taneously, but by successive intervala.Thus the lungs arise uiter the heart, the healt aiter the spinalmarrow, the spinal marrow aiter the brain, the brain aiter theindividual substance of the cortex, and the cortex aiter its ownparent, and the common parent of aIl, or that purest fluid whichis the first in the order of things successive; for there is no realeffigy of the greatest in the least, and in the germ no type ofthe future body, ~ no type which is siroply expanded. (Part 1., n. 249-252.) That which informs and conforms every particu­lar is, therefore, 1 think you will admit, that which acts in theminutest fibrils. If so, it must he a most pure fluid, which, pro­ ducing as it does such wonderful effects, must involve a nature,
  • 119. 220 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.that is to say, a power and force of acting in one peculiar anddistinctive manner. If it be said that it is some higher natureimplanted in the lluid, to which, as to its first principle, thisauid is subservient as an instrumental cause j still, whichever itbe, it is manifest that we must search for it in this lluid, andconsequently in the form of this lluid. Thus it follows thatsuch a lluid is the form of the organic forms of its body.(Part II., n. 191-196.) This fonn, 1l0wing from the determi­nations of its matter, or from essentials, is a substantial form jfrom this, results the form of its fOlceS and modifications, or,to speak more universally, of its accidents. (Part II., n. 223;1., n. 619-623.) Thus this lluid, in relation to the organic sub­stances of its body, and to the modifications of its substances, isthe fonn of fonns. But, not to dwell upon tenns too universalperhaps for ordinary comprehension, we shaH proceed to demon­strate in what follows the manner in which this lluid assignstheir form to the organic parts, and to the modes of the animalbody proceeding from them. 229. And the formative substance, that dra1lJs the thread from the jirst living point, and continues it ajteruJards to. thelast point of life (Part J., n. 253); and so connects one thing1lJith another, and so conserves and governs it afterwards, thatail things mutually fOl101lJ each other, and the posterïor referthemselve& to the prior, and the 1lJhole with the parts, the uni­versal with the singulars, by a 1lJonderful subordination andcoiirdination, refers itself to this prime form and substance,upon 1lJhich aU things depend (Palt II., n. 160, 161, 204, 207,&c. j 1., n. 252, 260, 261, 265-273, 594-612, 636, &c.), and by1lJhich, and for 1lJhich, each thing e:cist& in its O1lJn distinctivemanner. The first substance of every series is its most simplesubstance, which reigns through the elltire individual series.(Part J., n. 594.) And from..this first substance, and accordingto its nature, proceed ail things that are seen detel"mined in the entire series. (Ibid., n. 595.) And fi"om this substance, by orderof succession, through conjoining mediates, mOle compoundsubstances are derived, that act as its vicegerents in the ulti­mates of the series. (Ibid., n. 596.) And in this way the bodilysystem is constructed, in which one thing is BO Imbordinated to and coordinated with another, that ail things are mutual cor·
  • 120. THE HDMAN SOU/. 221relatives and interdependents (Ibid., n. 608); so that whateverof mutability there be in compound series and substances, thesimpler substances are rendered conscious of it. (Ibid., n. 609.)And whatever is determined into act, is effected by the simplersubstances either determining, or concurring, or consenting(Ibid., n. 610); and this according to a natural order, from thelower to the proximately higher, or from the higher to the prox­imately lower; but not from the highest to the lowest, exceptthrough the intermediates. (Ibid., n. 611.) If aIl these positionshe correct, the inevitable consequence will be, that this tirst sub­stance is that through which, and for which, posterior thingsexist in their own peculiar and distinctive manner. 230. ThUR we deduce the fact, that the corporeal system isderived continuously, as it were by the regular descent of thisfluid into its series and forms. But that the system itself existafor the sake of this fluid, this, as it is a matter pertaining to awider field of use, cannot so weIl be obtained in the way ofconclusion from a concatenated series of arguments. For everyone will not think that it can be so, although he admits theaboye chain of reasoning: wherefore arguments, arranged inthe form of a series, will either diffuse the mind over the wholeof possible knowledge, or else involve it in a dilemma, fromwhich it will not know how to extricate itself but by giving ablind assent to aIl palticulars. But that the inferior organictextures exist solelv for the sake of their tirst substance orspirituous fluid, is .nore manifest from examples than ftomprinciples. Thus the ear is not formed merely for the pur­pose of hearing, but for refetring what it hears to an ulteriorfaculty, whose office it is to perceive and imagine; nor is thisfaculty merely for the purpose of perceiving and imagining, butfor the sake of a higher and intellectual faculty, from which themind may think and judge j and finally the soul represents toitself what conduces to its own and the public weal. Thus theear and hearing are for the sake of the soul i and so also aretouch, taste, smell, and sight. A muscle does not exist merelyfor the sake of being put in motion, but to refer itself to thewill, whose servant it is i thus also the will, which is the con­clusion of the judgment, refers itself to the intellect, and theintellect to the soul; wherefore action is regarded from the will, 19 *
  • 121. 222 THE ECONOlllY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.the will from rational reflection, and finaUy from the determiningprinciple of reason. Thus the soul is the principal cause, andaU things that follow in order to the ultimate effect are its vice­gerents and instrumentaIs. Thus then all things in the organicbody are formed in relation to this fluid, and are so fashionedto the image of its operations, as to take on themselves modes,and operate forces, in a manner adapted to the forms of thenature of the universe. Whatever is prior, and capable of ex­isting and subsisting without the posterior, does not exist and8ubsist for the sake of its posterior; but if the prior produce theposterior, it is for the sake of a use, which it applies to itself bythe mediation of the posterior. A similar law prevails in allthings; for we everywhere else find a like chain of 8ubordina­tion; nay, even in the forms of governments, for the king is aking, for the sake of law and order in society, which are priorin right, although not always in facto Thus ends always lUcendtlJhen nature descends. III. 231. But as this most pure fluid, or supereminent blood, hasacquired its form from the first substances of the world, it canby no means be said to live, much less to feel, perceive, under­stand, or regard ends; for nature, considered in itself, is dead,and only serves life as an instrumental cause; thus is altogethersubject to the will of an intelligent being, who uses it to promoteends by effects. Renee we must look higher for its principle oflife, and seek it from the First Esse or Deity of the universe,who is essential lue, and e88ential perfection of lue or wisdom.Unless this First Esse were lue and wisdom, nothing whateverin nature could live, much less have wisdom; nor yet be capableof motion. 232. But lU this most pure fluid, or supereminent blood, hasacquired its form from the ./irst substances of the world, it canby no means be said to live. (See Part l., n. 635.) The auras ofthe world do not manifest lue, but force and motion. They arenot susceptible of sensation, but only moduy and are modified;they belong to physics, which, according to the philosopher, con­templates nothing abstracted from matter. It is a self-evidenttruth, needing no argument derived from probabilities, that mat­
  • 122. 7HE HUMAN SOUL. 223ter, or any part or extense of matter, cannot think; althougheven this truth, by the lengthiness of arguments derived frompartial and disconnected facts adduced in support of it, is fre­quently darkened, rendered doubtful, and finally denied. Ifmatter cannot think, neither can it feel, hear, see, taste, or smell ;for aIl these are properties of the souI. The eye, merely as aneye, is but a piece of workmanship, or optical camera, accommo­dated to the forms of the modifications of the ether; that whichgives it its visual lüe must in fact be added to it, or exist aboveit and within it. And the same kind of observation applies toaIl the other sensories. 233. Much less to feel, perceive, understand, orregarà enàs.As this follows from the foregoing remarks, we shall proceed tothe next clause. 234. For nature, considered in itself, is deaà, and orny serveslife as an instrumental cause,. thus is altogether sul{ject to thewill of an intelligent being, who uses it to promote enàs byejfectfl. Let us consider the subjects of this article separately,and show, 1. That life is one thing, and nature another. 2.That nature, in respect to life, is dead. 3. That life is whatregards ends, but nature what promotes ends by effects. 4.Rence that there is an Intelligent Being who governs naturesuitably to ends. 235. 1. Life is one thing, and nature another. - Since themind is in a natural subject, and partakes both of life andnature, it can hardly see either the one or the other in itself; ordisjunctively. But if it descends a little into the phenomena ofits body, or Ü it expatiates upon the objects of the earth, itimmediately perceives, by means of the senses, that the two areperfectly distinct; for we often know the eye to be either whollyor partly deprlved of sight, the ear of hearing, the tongue oftaste, the brain of sense, and the mind of understanding, just asorgans are deprived of their forms, mutual connections, andthe determination of their fluids. AlI pathology, aIl medicalart, whether relating to the body or mind, - an art which is noother than that of restoring to the several natures of both theirdeclining life, and of uniting those things that begin to sepa.rate, - bears witness to the truth of this observation; for it bothteaches us the means between the two, and applies them. Every
  • 123. 224 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANI1tfAL KINGDOM.person who has once seen the organic body a corpse, at onceacknowledges that life has departed from it. The objects onthe earth, as minerais, waters, vegetables, &C., demonstrate thesame truth to the sight. The air and ether, or the circumam­bient world, with aU its modified sounds and images, do not inthe least partake of life, before they flow into the organic world,or into an animated system. (Part II., n. 199, 200.) But whenthey do this, modifications at once become sensations, and im­ages ideas, which for the sake of distinction fiom intellectualimages, or those of a higher life, are generally called materialideas. Therefore, life is one distinct thing, and nature isanother. 2. Nature, in respect to life, is dead. - This foUows from whatwe have already stated. But let us ascend still higher. Ifnature lived, it would live either fiom itsel~ or from sorne otherthing, or by sorne other thing. If it lÏ1Jed from itself, then thatwould live, which we clearly see does not live; and naturewould destroy itsel~ whenever it destroys its forms, in which,and according to which, life exists. So also it would not onlybe the principle of its own causes and effects, but also the prin­ciple of its principle; or else this principle would convert itselfinto nature, in order that it might be enabled to be what it isnot; which every one sees to he opposite to common sense.But nature itself, by its degrees and moment!!, in every motion,form, and time, more particlliarly by its mutations, inconstancies,relatives, opposites, and contraries, manifestly declares that itdoes not live of itsel~ but is so emprincipled as in a manner tomove of itself: Nature, says the philosopher, is that, by theprimary inexistence of which anything is generated; also themateria prima [?]; it likewise expresses the substance of thosethings that exist in nature. (Metaph., lib. v., cap. iv.; Natur.Auscult., lib. iL, cap. L) It is a principle and cause of motionand lest in that thing in which it is ... per se. (Natur. Aus­cult., lib. iL, cap. i.; lib. viii., cap. iiL) And Wolff says: "Byuniversal nature, or nature simply so caUed, we mean the prin­ciple of mutations in the world, - the principle intrinsic to theworld. - Since nature is intrinsic to the world, it cannot be adistinct entity from the worlel - U niversal nature is an ag­gregate of ail the motive forces that there are in the bodies
  • 124. THE HUMAN SOUL. 225coexisting in the world taken collectivcly." (Gosmologia, § 503,504,507.) If nature does not live of it>elf; it does not followfrom this that it so lives from another as not to be relativelydead; but this will be discussed below in sec. V. For it isapparent from visible phenomena, that life corresponds as aprincipal cause to nature as an instrumental cause. For whatis motion in.nature is action in a living subject; what is modifi-cation in nature is sensation in a living subject; what is effort innature is will in a living subject; what is light in nature is lifein a living subject; what is distinction of light in nature isintellect of life in a living subject; what is cause and effect iunature is end in a living subject; and so on with other things.See Part II., n. 200. Thus the natural esse respects the vitalesse as an instrument respects its principal cause extrinsic toitself. We have remarked that the human mind can harclly see thesetwo in itself, or disjunctively; fol the faculty of feeling appearsinherent in the organs: therefole we represent it to onrselvesas like a light that disappears with the setting snll, like a flamethat is extinguished when deplived of its fuel, or like a fine ex-halation that vanishes when its soulce is withdruwn. But, O!how cunningly are we deluded by the servants anJ messengersof the intellect, which is 80 dependent upon the senses as to beobliged to form its judgments only accorJing to what they firstperceive. So hidden under ashes lies the intellectual spark, thatwe believe nothing without first consulting the inferior organs,and if the mind cannot form an abstraction flom them, it isburied in theit, shadows, iuto which it has so far descended thatit cannot any more ascend. 236. 3. Life is what regards ends, but nature, what pro-motes ends by effects. - On a slight rcflection upon the opera-tions of the mind, it may be seen, that we regard ends in eftècts;not that they are inherent in these effccts, but still that theyappear to be in them. For in the mind we embrace an endfirst abstractedly from means, then we form and as it werecreate means, that the end may be proviJed and obtained byphysical effects or instrumental causes. Thus the same end,taken abstractedly 01 disjunctively, continuously follows the pro-gression of means, or the ordination of effects. In this we seC
  • 125. 226 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.a certain representative of creation, in that the end is prior andnature posterior, through which [nature] effects are produced,and in these as means the end is regarded, and a certain orderof them is required that the end may be obtained. Hence itfollows, that whatever is natural is also finite; and that only theend out of nature is not finite. It follows, also, that we can beBaid to live ortly in so far as we regard ends out of ourselves;and thll.t aU animaIs live only in so far as they provide as it wereintelligently, howbeit unconsCÎously, that illtermediate ends maybe carried to a higher end. Thus, in human subjects, there isa more excellent and greater life, according to the degree ofintellect that is brought into play in the regard of the moreuniversal ends. 237. 4. Rence, there is an Intelligent Being who governsnature suitably to ends. - "To act for the sake of an end," saysGrotius, "is the distinctive mark of an intelligent nature. Nor,indeed, is anything ordered with a view only to its own par­ticular end, but also with a view to the common end of theuniverse.... But this universal end could not be intended, orthe power to carry it out communicated to things, except by anintellect, to which this universe is subject." (De Veritate Re­ligionis Ohristianœ, lib. i., § 7.) Who, as He is Wisdom itsel~is, for that reason, the End itsel~ whose means He embraceswhen He regards the end. 0, how does the mind degrade itsel~ when dimly illuminedby a few scanty rays of life, it thinks from blind nature, andcontemplates the order of nature as not order! Tell me whatil> the order of nature, what is contrary to that order, and whatÎs above it ? Nature flows in perfect accordance to its owntrue order, when according to the will of God, who is essentialLife and Wisdom, aod whose order is, that effects should flowconformably to eods foreseen and provided from eternity. Wesee this dearly in ourselves, who are little worlds, involving theorder of nature; for whatever the soul intends from the verygerm of existence, the nature of the universe spontaneouslyadvances into effect. Thus the soul intends to proceed from the prior world ioto the posterior, and in this case the wholemacrocosm miDÎsters to it as a servant; for whether the elements that will serve fol the connection of forms, be floating and scat­
  • 126. THE HUMAN SOUL. 227tered in the air or in the ether, or whether they be fixed in thethree kingdoms of the earth, they are present in the ovum insuch coordination, that they are ready for supply at the slightestintimation of a want. And when we are born, the ways bywhich the elements can penetrate into the blood, are so wonder­fully constructed by the formation of appropriate ducts, that ifone will but wisely consider them, one must marvel at ones self,as a mass of miracles. (Part 1., Chap. III.) Moreover the soul in­tends that the circumambient universe should serve it as a meansfor obtaining wisdom; and for this end caUs inta play the mostrecondite Jaws of the arts and sciences of nature, and thus sees,hears, tastes, and feels; and also builds a brain, in order thatthe things perceived by the senses may penetrate even to itself,the souI. And why may we not presume the same in regard toa11 the other particulars of the hwnan body, any one of which,or any part of any one, or any part of that part, if viewed by therational vision, will lead us to see, that the order of particulaInature in ourselves is so formed in the universal order, that aUthings flow ta ends through effects, at the pleasure of an intel­ligent sou1. So also does the universe at the command of thewise Creator; the heavens, for instance, with their mightybodies and spheres; as the sun, stars, planeta, moons, and vor­tices, aIl of which move in their proper order, when they con­spire to their proper end. Consider then what is life and whatis nature, what is order and not order, and what are miracles."It foIlows,» says Grotius, "that there is an eminent mind,by whose command the celestial bodies and luminaries ministerunweariedly ta man, placed though he be so far below them.And this mind is no other than the architect of the stars andthe uI1iverse.... AlI ofwhich loudly declare that they came nottagether by chance, but were formed by an understanding, andthis, of the most transcendent order. Who can be so great anidiot as to expect anything BQ accurate from chance? As weIlmight we believe, that stones and timbers come together bychance into the form of a house, or that an accidentaI concourseof letters produces a poem." (Op. Cit., lib. i., § 7.) 238. Hence we must look higlu:r for its principle of life, andseek it from the First Esse or IJeity of the universe, who is68sentiallife, and eBsential perfection of life, or wisclom. Unless
  • 127. 228 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.this First Esse were life and wisaom, nothing whatever innature coula live, much less have wisaom j nor yet be capableof motion. God is the Fountain of Life, the Sun of Wisdom,the Spiritual Light, the very Esse, and l AM; in whom welive, and move, and have our being; from whom, by whom,unto whom, or for the sake of whom, are aIl things; who is theFirst and the Laat, This we are forbidden by Holy Scriptureto doubt; we are forbidden also by sound reason; for the ancientphilosophers acknowledged it out of the mere light of theirown understandings. "AlI men," says Aristotle, "have sornenotions respecting the gods, and aIl who believe in the gods, ...assign them the supremacy." (ne Oœlo, lib. i., cap. iii.) Lifebelongs to God, and the action of God is life. (Métaph" lib.xiv., cap. vii,) "The operation of God is immortality, that ie,perpetuallife." (ne (Jœlo, lib. ii., cap. iii.) 239. In showing what are the dictates of sound reason uponthis subject, it is incumbent on me to cite the words of this dis­tinguished philosopher, as of one, wbose mind was supportedupon no other basis than right reason; not that l mean toderogate from the just melit of Christian philosophera, highlyinstructed as they ale out of the Holy Scriptures; but that inconsulting pure reason, we muy consult that philosophy whichdoes not appeal mixed, nOl says othel than it thinks. Not tomention that sorne, although stOled with the right information,yet dare to rebel against the dictates of God as weIl as ofreason; but these are not the persons intended by the philoso­pher, when he says, "God has adorned prophets and philoso­phers with the spirit of divine wisdom."" IV. 240. This life and intelligence flow with vivifying virtue intono substances but those that are accommodated at once to thebeginning of motion, and to the reception of life; consequently,into the most simple, universal, and p6lfect substances of theanimal body; that is, into its purest fluid; and through thismedium, into the less simple, universal, and peIfect substances,or into the posterior and compound; aIl of which manifest theforce and lend the life of their first substance, according to their
  • 128. THE HUllfAN SOUL. 229degree of composition, and according to their form, whichmakes them such as we tind them to be. On account of theinflux of this life, which is the principal cause in the animatekingdom, this purest fluid, which is the instrumental cause, is tohe caUed the spirit and soul of its body. 241. This life and intelligence jlow with vivifying virtueinto no substances but those that are accommodated at once to the beginning of motion, and to the reception of life. By a thorough investigation of nature, we may tind out how sub­stances can be accommoc1ated to the beginning of motion. The sun is the beginning of motion in its universe, and there are mediant and determinant auras to enable it to flow with its virtue and light into the objects and subjects of its worlel; and hence, by the mediation of the tirst aura, into this fluiel; and by the intervention of successive auras, into the whole animal sys­ tem produced by the determinations of this fluiel. But before we can explore this subject intimately, we. must know the prin­ ciple of action in the sun, and the principle of reception and transference in the auras. This we may comprehend if we diligently evolve causes from the phenomena of effects. See Part 1., n. 66-68, 169-174; and my Principia. But how thesefluid substances can be accommodateel at the same time to the reception of life, see Pmt II., n. 252, which will in some degree prevent obscurity. For whatever is in God, and whatever law God acts by, is God (Ibid., n. 253). If we adjoin anything to God, it must be borrowed from nature, and addeel to Him whois above nature. He is the wisest of mOltals, who comprehends this alone with certainty, that he can know nothing of God from himself. 242. Oonsequently into the most simple, universal, and per­lect substances of the animal body; that is, into its purestftuid. In the subsequent pages we shaU institute a comparison (as far as we may) between the principle * of motion and the principle of life; and therefore we will here also speak by com­ paratives. For the sun, which is the universal principle of motion, or that from which aU motion or mutation in the worId naturaUy begins, flows into, and is received by, nothing more• The words principle and beginning are convertible terms ln the translation.- (1r.) VOL.n. 20
  • 129. 230 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.pelfectly than the simpler substances, such aB the auras andother most minute forms; for which reason nearly aIl theseforms are pellucid; for the simpler they are, the more ordinatelydo they dispose themselves for its influx or operations. As thephilosopher says: "The nearer anything Î8 to the first cause, themore simple it is."" See Part 1., n. 615,616. But the lesssimple substances are, the more imperfect they are, and themore remote as it were from the real truth of nature; that isto say, below the causes of real rules, and within the relativelycontracted sphere of unequal and inconstant forces. This is thereason that in the less simple substances the light is variegated,reflected, infracted, and even confounded in aIl sorts of differentways. How these things befall substances in their successivederivation, cannot be understood except by the doctrine ofseries and degrees. To speak by compalison, something similarought, it seems, to he understood respecting the influx of lifeinto substances, which according to their priority and elevation,or their accommodation to natural trutb, are also capable ofaccommodation to the reception of life; for natural truth andspiritual truth, distant from each other although they be, yetare never at variance. (Part II., n. 217.) 243. And through tMs medium, into the less simple, univer­sal, and perfect substances, or into the posterïor and compound;ail of which manifest the force and lead the life of their jîrstsubstance. For in respect to the beginning of motion, theyexercise force; and in respect to the reception and application oflife, they exercise life. Anatomy plainly shows that the firstsubstance of the animal system, or the spirituous fluid, flowsinto aIl the other substances; for it enters aIl things as the firstsubstance of its body, the only and proper animal substance,and the determining principle (Part II., n. 222): it is the formof forms of its body (Ibid., n. 228), by which and for whichother substances exist in their own distinctive manner (Ibid.,n. 229) : the intermediate organisms are only its determinations(Ibid., n. 283), aB the reader may see in the course of our Parts.It may therefore be defined as a substance, which has principlesimprinted upon it, as being itsclf the principle of aIl things ofthe body. 244. AccOrding to their degree of composition, and according
  • 130. THE HUM.AN SOUL. 231to thcir form, which maJces them such as we find them to oe.Both ancient and modern philosophers subscribe to the axiom,that everything derives from its form its peculiar anù distinctivecharacter or quality. "Each thing," says the philosopher, "iscalled a thing in virtue of its form." x "By means of the formof an entity," says Wolff, "we understand why that entity is ofone particular genus or species, or of one qnality rather thananother; and why it is adapted to act in one palticular manner :consequently the law of these predicates is contained in theform. The form, therefore, is the principle of the entity, uponwhich its peculiar existence depends; consequently, it is thecause of the entity." (Ontologia, § 947.) But what is form?­This as well as other terms is distinctly explained by the doctrineof order, which as it ascends through degrees, so it an-ives athigher abstractions. In the lowest degree, form means thestructure of a body, both internaI and external. "The form ofeverything," says the philosopher, " is perceived by the sense ofsight." x The fonu also means the structure of other things;and thus we speak of forms of governrnent, fonus of motion,fOlms of words, or forms of speech, &c. In a higher degreefonn means image, for such as it is successively represented tathe ear or the eye, such is it simultaneously represented ta theanimal mind abstractedly from matter. In a still higher degreeit means barely form, or according to sorne idea; fol figure,magnitude, situation, motion, or the limit of these, are abstract­ed from it. In a still higher degree it means the universe, a8the complex of an and singular things, and in this respect indeedit is the form of natural forms. To ascend beyond this to formsstill higher would be to climb both above and beyond the uni­verse, where the minds intuitive power perishes, and langnagewith it; so that to discourse of snch forms would be to utterempty terms. When therefore the purest animal fluiù is caUedthe fonu of forms (Part lI., n. 228), we are to conceive of it inthis respect as being a representation of the universe ; and thusas involving things which we cannot bring to mental represen­tation; for there is nothing in the universal body that has notrelation to sorne higher correspondent in the universe and aU itsparts; of which we see a very imperfect idea in its fif8t deter.mination, or in the cortical substance. (Part II., n. 176--195,204-207; Part 1, Chapter III.)
  • 131. 232 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. 245. On account of the injlux of this life, which is the prin­cipal cause in the animate kingdom, this purest fluid, which isthe instrumental cause, is to be called the spirit and soul of itsbody. It is weIl known, that when we examine effects, and evencauses, we do Dot abstract the principal canse from the instru·mental, but representthe two together to our minds as a singlecause. The instrument indeed is considered by itself, apartfrom force of acting, although not apart fiom power of acting;and when it is acted upon, it is as though it acted, and it iscaUed the instrumental cause. In conversation we constantlyattribute to the instrumental cause what should be attributed tothe principal; for we speak according to the senses, which havenot power to separate the one fl"Om the other. In living bodies,this instrument we speak of is no longer termed an instrument,but an organ (Part II., n. 199-202): thus the tongue is theorgan of taste, the ear is the organ of hearing, and the eye isthe organ of sight. Although these organs enjoy the power offeeling [sentiendi], yet they are destitute in themselves of theprincipal force that produces action. N ow as this celestialburoan fluid cannot possibly be said to live, much less can it besaid to feel, pelceive, or understand. "10 live," says thephilosopher, "is to feel and understand." (De Moribus, lib. ix.,cap. ix.) For nature in herself isdead, and only serves life asan instrumental cause. (Part IL, n. 234.) But if this fluid be regarded as the purest of the organs of its body, and the mostexquisitely adapted for the reception of life, then it lives notfrom itself, but from Him who is self-living, that is from theGod of the universe, without Whom nothing whatever innature could live, much less he wise. (Ibid., n. 238.) This.tluid, in this light, is to be denominated the spirit and soul ofits body; and therefore in what follows, we shall calI it the spirituous jluid. 246. Out of a ccrtain general consent ofhuman minds, naked truths como otten forth to light, which are afterwards destiDed to be confirmed by a long series and elaborated chain of causes and effects; and such is the case with the present truth, that this fluid is the spirit and soul of its body. For the learned in general, and anatomists in palticular, calI it by common consent the animal spirit, and describe it as running through the finest
  • 132. THE I:lUilfAN SOUL. 233 threads of the nerves; as calling out the forces of the muscles; as being sublimated from the blood; and as having its birth in the brai n, which they term the mart and emporium of the spirits. Nay, very many of them go so far as to asseri that it is conceived and born in the cortical substance of the brain. What is more usual than to say that these spirits are the emis­ saries and ambassadors of the soul, and that without their ministrations the soul would in vain attempt to exert her forces; which shows that every one who touches upon this fluid, also in thought more 01 less touches upon the souI. But it would seem that they have none of them dared to call it thesoul; for fear they should come unawares into sorne dangerousquicksand, or philosophical dogma., from which they are con­scious that no powers of theirs would suffice ta extricate them:for properly speaking, the nature [or indwelling power] of thisf1uid is the souI. Meanwhile, the general opinion is, that thewill is determined into act by this animal spirit; and if it heasked by what spirit the will itself is determined, before itbecomes the will, we still neecl not go far from this f1uid, forwhat is called the will is really a conclusion of the judgment,as we shall see presentiy. N ow the will so concurs with itsdeterminant [f1uid], that it must be sought for either in itsnature, or without it. If in it, the detcrminant concurs withthe will, hence with the judgment and intellect, and so ofcourse with every sense; for volition and sensation constitutenot two souls, but one. If it has ta be sOllght witlwut it, thoughtwill altogether diffuse itself into some non-permanent accident,or perhaps into sorne essence for which we have ta search fhrand wide in the uni verse, when ail the time we ought to seek inOl1rsel"es. But not to obscure what is clear by reasons brollghtfrom tao high a sphcre, we muy tuke it for certain, that if thisfluid and the soul agree with each other in their predicates, thefluid must be acceptcd as the soul; and jf otherwise, rejected(Part II., n. 224); in fact, the more any one loves the truth, themore forward will he be under the latter circumstances to rejectit as repugnant. 247. Hence it follows that every one has his own individualand proper soul; circumscribed in regard to substance, by thesamc limits a~ the body; in regard to intuitions and represcnta­ 20·
  • 133. 234 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.tions, by the same limits as the universe. Bence that habita­tion and place, also part, magnitude, force, and form, are predi­cates that suit the soul as a substance, provided only that theproperties be abstracted that are genelated in compounds, bothin so far as they are compounded, and in so far as they bOlTowflom other series many things that necessarily enter them forthe sake of composition. But that still the soul appears incom­prehensible, and in a manner continuous, to the eye of thebody, however assisted by a11 the powels of art, and in short toevery one of the inferior sensories. (Part 1., n. 623.) 248. That sound reason dictates that the soul is such as wehave described it, we are confirmed by our philosopher, whohas alTived at the same conclusion as the result of his thought­fuI meditations. "The soul," says he, "is that by which wefirst live, feel, and understand." (ne Animâ, lib. ii., cap. ii.)"The substance of each body is its sou!." (ne Generat. Animal.,lib. ii., cap. iv.) "The soul exista in our innm part." (ne Sensu.,cap. ii.) "The soul is the part of man in which life is firstcontainec1." (Metaph., lib. V., cap. xviii.) "The soul, inasmuchas it is a part of man, is an object of physics; man being madeup of the connection of the body and sou!."" As he here de­cIares that the soul is an object of physics, and is a part, it willbe we11 to ascertain fiom him what he understands by pltY8ic8,and what by part. Physics, he says, contemplates nothing ab­stracted from matter. (ne Animâ, lib. L, cap. i.) "Physicstreats of things that are separable in form, but yet exist in mat­ter." (Natur. AU8cult., lib. iL, cap. ii.) To unfold the law ofthe form from matter, belongs to the province of metaphysics.(Ibid. [?]) "Physical relations are seen in those things thatcontain within them the beginning of, motion and state." ""Wherefore it belongs to the physical philosopher to treat ofthe sou!." (ne Animâ, lib. i., cap. i.) With respect to part, hesays: "A part is what is taken separately in place." (Natur.AU8C1dt., lib. iv., cap. iv. and vii. [?]) "Upwards, downwards,&c., are the palts and specieB of place." (Ibid., lib. iv., cap. iL)Be even suspected that a certain pure fluid enters the organism,and produces sensation. "Sense," he says, "must be completedby exquisitely fine parts supplied with a very pure blood" (nePartib. Animal., lib. ii., cap. x.): by which he not obscurely
  • 134. THE HUMAN SOUL. 235intimates, that the blood may be exalted to the purest degree jand 1 am disp08ed to think, that had not our philosopher falleninto the opinion that the fibres were "solid and earthy" (1 Ud.,lib. ii., cap. iv.), but had first adopted that of Hippocrates, that" everything in the animal body is conspirable and transpirable,"he would also have openly acknowledged the existence of apure fi uid in the simplest fibres; for he says, that "the fibreslun from the nervfls to the veins, and back again to the nerves"(De Histor. Animal., lib. m., cap. vi.); just as we have statedabove, Part II., n.168-172, and Part 1., passim. 249. But he distinguishes the animus from the anima orsoul, and acknowledges the former as the principle by which welive, and as the fonn aceording to which we are found to live."AlI natural bodies," says he, "are the instruments of theanimus." (De Animâ, lib. iL, cap. iv. See above, Part II., n.245.) The animus is not the body, but is the first perfection ofthe Datural body, having life in potency. (Ibid., lib. iL, cap. L)"The animus is the cause and principle of the living body."(I Md., lib. ü., cap. iv.) "lt is the spring and principle of liv­ing things." (I Ud.) "It is the form of the body, that is, it iswhat animates it, and gives being [esse] to a compound sub­ ject." " " The animus does not undergo motion in place." (DeAnima, lib. i., cap. iü. iv.);1< 250. But the mind or mens he describes as a higher animus.Thus he says, "the mind for us is the pelfection of nature." "It alone is divine and a divine principle. (De Generat. Animal.,lib. ii., cap. iii.; De secret. part. ])ivin. Sapient., etc., lib. i., cap.iv.; ])e Moribus, lib. x., cap. vü.) "lt alone is immortal andeternal, alld the form of forms." (])e Gene1·at. Animal., lib. ii.,cap. iü.; ])e Anima, lib. iii., cap. ix.) "True life is the actionof miml." (])e Moribus, lib. X., cap. vii.) Those things live inwhich there is mind, sense, local motion, order, accession, orrecessioD. (])e Animâ, lib. ii., cap. ii.) "To live is to feel and understand." (part II., n. 245.) .. In ail the Instllnces ln n. 249 to whlch a rcference lB Ilppcnded, the word tranBlatetlanimus by Swcdenborg, 18 the Greek ""xq, anima.-(Tr.)
  • 135. 236 THE ECONOMY OF THE ÂNIM.ilJ KINGDOM. v. 251. But to know the manner in which this life and wisdomflow in, is infinitely above the sphere of the human mind;there is no analysis and no abstraction that can reach so high:for whatever is in God, and whatever law God acts by, is God.The only representation we can have of it is in the way of com­parison with light. For as the sun is the fountain of light andthe distinctions thereof in its universe, so the Deity is the sunof life and of aIl wisdom. As the sun of the world flows in olleonly manner, and without unition, into the subjects and objectsof its universe, so also does the sun of life and of wisdom. Asthe sun of the world flows in by mediating auras, so the sun oflife and of wisdom flows in by the mediation of his spirit. Butas the sun of the wol1d flows into subjects and objects accord­ing to the modified character of each, so also does the sun oflife and of wisdom. But we are not at liberty to go furtherthan this into the details of the comparison, inasmuch as theone sun is within nature, the other is above it: the one is phys­ical, the other is purely moral; and the one falls ullder the phi­losophy of the mind, while the other lies withdritwn among thesacred mysteries of theology; between which two there areboundalies that it is impossible for human faculties to transcend.Furthermore, by the omnipresence and universal influx of thislife into created matters, aIl things flow constantly in a provi­dent order from an end, through ends, to an end. 252. But to know the manner in which tItis life and wisdomfloU) in, is inflnitely above the sphere 01 the Intman mind:there is no analysis and no abstraction that can reach so high.The doctrine of abstracts does not extend beyond its ownseries, in which there are degrees; in short, it cannot ascendbeyond nature to a Being that cannot be finited in thought, andstill less can be circumscribed by ontological terms or vocalformulas. Our human thought seizes upon sorne fixecl object innature, and when it takes sublimer wing, it contemplates theuniverse as the ultimate oqject, yet with a bounc1ary, end, orlimit; and it is overpowered when it asks itself what tliere isbeyond the universe, and tinds that it cannot separate even this
  • 136. THE HUMAN SOUL. 237 fUlther goal from ideas of space. And the case is the same in ail other instances, such as in things of the pUlest nature; for when the mind concentrates itself in the contemplation of any exqui~itely minute object, it breaks the thread of its own accord, and knows no better what is beyond or within that object than what is beyond the universe. For the mind, as we before said, cannot understand anything, except so far as it is attached to sorne natural thing, as the subject of its thought when thinking is natural, and it derives its state from ideas that come from the phenomena of the world and its nature through an a posteriori channel, or by way of the external senses: wherefore to go to the Deity is above its powers. No one can enter ioto God except God himself, whose will it is that our thoughts should terminate in a certain infioity and abyss of things, which shouldthrow us into a state of holy amazement, and so give lise to aprofound adoration ofhis being and a sacred unbounded ascrip­tion ofhonor to his name. Then it is that he reeeives us, takesus into his confidence, and stretches forth his hand to save us,lest we perish in the deep. It will, however, be weil by a fewreflections to confinn OUI ideas that whatever is in God is in­finite and