THE ECONOMY                            OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM                      CONSIDERED      ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY,...
THE ECONOMY                            OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM                      CON8IDERED      ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY,...
Paucis nat-us est.   Qui populum œtatis suœ cogitat: rf!ulta annol"ummillia, multa populorum sllpenenient: ail il/a -respi...
CON        T}~     NT S                OF      VOLUME                FIR8T.                               PART 1.         ...
THE ECONOMY                               OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.                          PART I.THE BLOOD, THE ARTERIES, ...
2      THE ECONOMY OF THE ~NIM~L KiNGDOM.exist in the body. Tt contains salts of every kind, both fixedand volatile, and o...
INTRODUCTION.                            3edge of those things that are known to be involved in it, andof those in which i...
4      THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINODOM. which, abiding in her intelligence, decrees that the way leading to her shaH thu...
INTRODUCTION.                             5 from experience. For in truth we are surrOllncled with illusi"e and fallacious...
6      THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.define a thing by occult qualities is to leave it as much in thedark as befOle. I...
INTRODUOTION.                            7authority for general conclusions, how often and how subtillydoes it deceive the...
8      THE ECONOltfY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.1ndeed there are some that seem born for experimental obser· vation, and endowe...
INTRODUOTION.                             9gies endowed with superhuman powers of memory; others withan extraordinary acti...
10     THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO};1.course of reasoning, they make a discovery of the truth, struight­way there is ...
INTROD UOTION.                         11suade themselves that there is no cultivated lauù beyond theborders of thei.r own...
12     THE EGONOMY OF THE ANIMAL K1NGDOM.objects themselves the image and glory of our own selfhood. Itis like ponring a l...
INTRODUCTION.                          13hands, let him be assured that he has made some little progr",ssin wisdom.    23....
14     THE EGONOilIY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO.lI.and a fmther progress; in fine, that various ages should culti.vate variuus k...
INTRODUCTION.                            15we are bounc1 1.0 attempt the abyss, though as }(t we must pro­ceed Iike young ...
16    THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.                       CHAPTER I.  TB]l: COMPOSITION AND GENUINll: ESSENCll: OF TB...
COMPOSITION AND ESSENCE OP THE BLOOD.                         17  when there was a pretty strong wind, he observed that th...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC.                     227Of this formative substance, therefore, scarcely anything canbe...
228     THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.how one always comes to the use of the nen succeeding; andhow aIl, individually ...
ON THE FORM.ATION OF THE CHIeK, ETC.                   229of the consequent (n. 252); but there would he nothing conform-a...
230    THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIM.4L KINGIJOM.enda) is enabled to rouse a11 the mUAc]p,s of thp, hody to palpa.ble motion, or...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE Cl1IOK, ETC.                     231the mere nod and breath of the will is sufficient, in less tha...
232    THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. during the state of fonnation these contingents do not present themselves in the...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC.                     233 emulge the blood: so that if only the contingent is provided, ...
234    THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIiIlAL KINGDOM.proper formative substance. This formative substance COll­structs the effigy in...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO.                     235brain j so that during the formation of the body of the embryoa...
236    THE EOONOMY OF THE .rfNIMAL KINGDOM. formative force or 8WJstance is the cause, tehose nature, andthe image of teho...
ON THE FORM~TION OF THE OHIOK, ETO.                     237flooded -with blood or fluid that is not snfficiently purified,...
238    THE EOONOMY OF THE .ANIMAL KINGDOM.the cerebellum to the cereb11lm; so that the greater part of theeconomical funct...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO.                                    239not clearly perceive that there is a soul proper...
240    THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.is a subordination and succession of things before there is anycoordination and c...
ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC.                      241From the whole process of the formation of the chick in theegg...
THE ECONOMY                                 OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM                          CONSIDERED       ANATOMICALLY, P...
THE ECONOMY                            OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM                      CON8IDERED      ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY,...
Paucù natus est.     Qui populum tZtatis sua cogitat: multa annorumm.7lia, multa populorum 6upervenient: ad .11a respice, ...
CONTENTS            OF VOLUME                     SEOOND.                      PAR TI. - Oofltinued.                      ...
THE ECONOMY                               011  THE ANIMAL KING DOM.                  PAR TI. - Oontinued.                 ...
6         THE ECONOMY OF THE nrIM..4.L KINGDOM.Subordination of things, and the Coordination of subordinates;wherefore, if...
,AN INTRODUOTION TO R,ATION,AL PSYOHOLOGY.                 1there be truth in what has been said, and what remains to besa...
8     THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.series of its own; so that there is nothing in the visible wo~which is not a serie...
.4N INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY.                      9taneous, or whether we call them subordinate and coordinate...
10     THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.verse, or the system of the world, which contains witbin itselfseveral series. Th...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientifi...
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Em swedenborg-the-economy-of-the-animal-kingdom-1740-1741-two-volumes-augustus-clissold-1845-1847-the-swedenborg-scientific-association-1955-first-pages

  1. 1. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONSIDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MEMBER OF THE ROUSE OF NOBLES IN THE ROYAL DIET OP8WEDEN; ASSESSOR OF THE ROYAL METALLIC COLLEGE OF SWEDEN;FELWW OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UPSALA, AND OFTHE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOLM; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN DY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME ONE SECOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INCOBPOBATBD Reproduced by Photo-offset, SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION, 1955
  2. 2. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CON8IDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE ME~IBER OF THE ROUSE OF NOBLES IN THE ROYAL DIET OP6WEDEN; ASSESSOR OF THE ROYAL METALLIC COLLEGE OF 6WEDEN;FELLOW OF THE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF UPSALA, AND OFTHE ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOL:I4; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE LATIN DY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME ONE SECOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INOOBPORATSD Reploduced by Photo-offset. SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  3. 3. Paucis nat-us est. Qui populum œtatis suœ cogitat: rf!ulta annol"ummillia, multa populorum sllpenenient: ail il/a -respice, etiamsi omnibustecum vivcntibus silentiurn . , . [aliqua causa] indixeril: tmienl, quisine offensa, sine gl"atia judicent. SENECA, Epist, lxxix.
  4. 4. CON T}~ NT S OF VOLUME FIR8T. PART 1. PAeB INTRODuc;TION, •Chapter 1. The Compo,ition und Gennine Essence of the Blood. 16 " II. The Arterie, anù Veins, their lunie", and the Cireu­ lation of the Blood. . 76 " nI. On the Formation of the Chiek in the Egg, and on the Arterics, V cil);;, and Rudiments of the Heart. 197 " IV. On the Circulation of the Blood in the Fœtus; and on the Foramen Ovale and Ductus Arteriosus belonging to the Heart in Embryos and Infants. 286 " V. The rIeart of the Turtlc. . 345 " VI. The leeulilr Arteries and Veins of the Heart, and the Coronary Vessels.. •••••••• 354 " VII. The Motion of the Adult Heart. • • • • • • • 4,18
  5. 5. THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. PART I.THE BLOOD, THE ARTERIES, THE VEINS, AND THE HEART, WITH AN INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. INTRODUCTION. 1. THE animal kingdom, the economy of which 1 am about toconsider anatomicaIly, physicaIly, and philosophicaIly, regardsthe blood as its common fountain and general plinciple. Inundertaking, therefore, to treat of this economy, the doctrineof the blood must be the first propounded, although it is thelast that is capable of being brought to completion. 2. In ordcr that aIl things may succeed each other in propcrorder, it is necessary to set out from general principles ; consc­quently, from the blood, in which, as a type, we discern theseveral parts of which we are to treat. For on the nature, con·stitution, detennination, continuity, and quantity of the blood,depend the fortunes and condition of the animal life. The ves­sels, namely, the arteries and veins, are only the determinationsof the blood; and such as is the form resulting from their coali­tion and complication, sucb" are the common forces and vitaleffects of the system, and such their particular qualifications. 3. The blood is as it were the complex of aIl things that ex­ist in the worM, and the storehouse and seminary of a11 that VOT.. 1. 1 (1)
  6. 6. 2 THE ECONOMY OF THE ~NIM~L KiNGDOM.exist in the body. Tt contains salts of every kind, both fixedand volatile, and oils, spirits, and aqueons elements; in fine,whatever is creatcd and produced by the three kingdoms of theworld, the animal, the vegetable, and the minera!. MQreover,it imbibes the treasures that the atmosphere carries in its bosom,and to this end exposes itself to the air through the medium ofthe lungs. 4. Since the blood then is an epitome of the riches of thewhole world and an its kingdoms, it would appear as if anthings were created for the purpose of administering to thecomposition and continued renewal of the blood. For if aUthings exist for the sake of man, and with a view to afford himthe conditions and means of living, then an things exist for thesake of the blood, which is the parent and nourisher of everypart of the body; for nothing exists in the body that has notpreviously existed in the blood. 5. So true is this, that if the texture of any muscle or gland,ofwhich almost all the viscera are composed, be divided into itsminutest parts, it will be found to consist wholly of vessels con-taining [red] blood, and of fibres containing spirit, or purerblood. And cven those parts that do not appear to consist ofvessels, such as the bony, cartilaginous, and tendinons textures,will nevertheless be found, in th~ first softness of their infancy,to have been similarly composed. Rence the blood is not onlya treasury and storehouse of aIl things in nature, and therebyministers to its offspring, the body, whatever is requisite to itsvarious necessities and uses, but it is actually all in aH; andcontains within itself the ground and the means by which everyman is enabled to live a distinctive life, in his own body, and inthe ultimate world. 6. This doctrine, however, is the last in the order of comple-tion, prcsupposing, as it does, a comprehensive knowledge ofthose things that enter into and constitute the blood, as men-tioned above (3), and furthermore, an examination of an theviscera, members, organs, and tunics, which the blood at oncepermeates and vivifies. If we are ignorant of the nature ofthese, and their mode of action, we are ignorant of the natureof the blood. The occult can give birth to nothing but theoccult; in short, our knowledge of it is limited by our knowl-
  7. 7. INTRODUCTION. 3edge of those things that are known to be involved in it, andof those in which itself is known to he involved. 7. From these remarks we may readily perceive how manysciences are incIuded in that of the blood, namely, the wholecircle of anatomy, medicine, chemistry, and physics; and evenof physiology; for the passions of the mind vary according tothe states of the blood, and the states of the blood accordingto the passions of the mind. In a word, the science of theblood incIudes aIl the sciences that treat of the substances ofthe world, and of the forces of nature. For this reason we flndthat man did not begin to exist till the kingdoms were com·pleted; and that the world and nature concentrated themselvesin him: in order that in the human microcosm the entire uni­verse might be exhibited for contemplation, from its last end toits first. 8. In the present Part, therefore, in which l have investigatedthe blood, blood-vessels, and heart, and not attempted to launchout far beyond the particular experience belonging to thosesubjects, l could not venture to frame any other than generalprinciples and deductions, or to propound any other than ob­scure notions of things. There is need both of time and offurther progress, in order that what here seems obscure may bemade cIear and be distinctly explained. On aIl occasions it isdesirable to take experience as our guide, and to follow theorder of nature, according to which an obscure notion precedesa distinct one, and a common notion precedes a palticular one.We never have a distinct perception of anything, unless weeither deduce it from, or refer it to, a common fountain and universal principle. This mode of proceeding indeed accordswith the original and natural conditi{)ll of the senses, and of the animal and rational mind. For we are barn in dense ignorance and insensibility. Our organs are opened only by degrees; the images and notions at first received are obscure, and, if l may so speak, the whole universe is represented to the eye as a sin­ gle indistinct thing, a fonnless chaos. In the course of time, how­ ever, its various parts become comparatively distinct, and at length are presented to the tribunal of the rational mind; whence it is nat till late in life that we become rational beings. In this manner, by degrees, a passage is effected to the soul,
  8. 8. 4 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINODOM. which, abiding in her intelligence, decrees that the way leading to her shaH thus be opened, in order that aH actions, and the reasons for all, may be refe11ed to her as their genuine principle. 9. Being unable as yet to deliver any other than generals and universals, l foresee that many of the remarks l shaH have to offel, will appear to be mere conjectures or paradoxes. Theywill so appenr, however, to none but those who have not gonethrough a complete course of anatomy, physics, chemistry, andthe other arts and sciences; or to those with whom precon­ception and prejudice forestall their judgment, and who makesorne one particular govern aU the lest; or again, to those who·have no capacity for comprehending distinctly the sedes andconnection of the subject. Still, as l before remarked, there isneed of time and of further progress to render the subject clear;and moreover the doctrine of the blood, although it is the firstwe have to propound, is nevertheless the last that can be com­pleted. The result, then, must show, whether or not thosestatements, which at first perhaps appear ·like obscure guess­work, are in the end so abundantly attested by effects, as toprove that they are indeed the oracular responses of the truth. 10. Whether a statement be true or not, is easily asceltained.If it be true, all experience spontaneously evidences and favorsit, and likewise aIl the rules of true philosophYj and what lhave often wondered at, various hypotheses, in propOltion asthcy are founded on sorne common notion, either coincide withit, or else indicate pmticular points of contact or approximation;much as the shadowy appearances of the morning are shown intheir connection with real objects by the rising sun. When thetruth is present everything yields a suffiage in its favor j andtherefore it immediately declares itself and wins bcliefj or, asthe saying is, displays itself naked. 11. To a knowledge of the causes of things, - in other. words,to truths, - nothing but expedence can guide us. For whenthe mind, with aU the speculative force that belonga to it, isleft to love abroad without this guide, how prone is it to fallinto error, nay, into e110rs, and errors of enors! How futile isit atter this, or at any rate how precarious, to seek con1hmationand SUPPOIt from experience! We are not to deduce experiencefiom assumed principles, but to deduce principles themselvcs
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION. 5 from experience. For in truth we are surrOllncled with illusi"e and fallacious lights, and are the more likely to fall because our very darkness thus counterfeits the day. When we are carried away by ratiocination alone, we are somewhat like blindfolded children in their play, who, though they imagine that they are waIking straight forward, yet when their eyes are unbound, plainly perceive that they have been following some roundabout path, which, if pursued, must have led them to the place the very opposite to the one intended. 12. But it may be asked whether at the present day we are in possession of such a number of facts as from these alone to be able to trace out the operations of nature, without being obliged to wander beyond experience into the regions of conjecture. In answer to this we are bound to admit, that particular e~eri­ ence, or that which strictly comprehends or immediately refers-to one and the same object, however rich in detail such experi­ ence may be, and however enlarged by the accumulated obser­ vations of ages, can never be sufficiently ample fol the explora­ tion of nature in the sphere of causes: but if; on the other hand, in exploring each partioular object, we avail ourselves of the assistance of general ~erience, that is ta say, of aIl that is known in anatomy, medicine, chemistry, physics, and the other natural sciences, then, even at the present day, we appear to be abundantly supplied with means for the undmtaking. 13. Particular experience, or that which concerns but one object, can never be so luxut1antly productive of phenomena as to exhaust and exhibit thoroughly aIl the hidden qualitics of that object. Take for example the experiments that have been made upon the blood. These inform us merely that it is of various degrees of redness; that it is heavier than water; that it sinks to the bottom of its serum; that it is of a certain tem­ perature; that it contains salta of both kinds [fixed and volatile], and -so forth. But they do not show us the origin of that red­ ness, gravity, and heat; nor in what part of the blood the phlegm, the volatile-Ulinous, oily, and spirituous substances re· side. N evertheless these questions belong ta the subject either as accidents or essentials, and can be answered and investigated only by general experience, that is, by experience in its widest meaning, or in its whole course and compass. To determine or 14
  10. 10. 6 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.define a thing by occult qualities is to leave it as much in thedark as befOle. In further illustration, we do but stop at thevery threshold of the science of Angiology, unless we learn theanatomy of the body and of all the viscera, that is, diligentlytrace the blood through aIl the diversified mazes in which itflows. The same observation applies in every other instance,whether of anatomy or physics. Thus in investigating thecauses of musculal action, or the qualities of the motive fibre,unless we combine the particular experience of one individual,vith aIl the experience of others; and unless, in addition tothis, we take into account the experience recorded concerningthe blood, the arteries, the heart, the nerves, the nervous gan­glia, the glands, the medulla spinalis, the meduIla oblongata, thecerebeIlum, the cerebrum, and aIl the other members, organs,and tunics, endowed with the power of muscular motion; andfurthermore, unless we avail ourselves of the facts that havebeen brought to light in physics and mechanics, respectingforces, elasticity, motion, and many other subjects, - unless wedo ail this, we shaH assuredly be disappointed of the result forwillch we are striving. 14. From particular experience, as wa before observed, onlyobscure notions are derived, but willch are developed, and ren­dered more distinct, in the course of time and study, by generalexperience. There is a connection, communion, and mutualrelation of all things in the world and in nature, beginningfrom the first substance and force; one science meets and en­larges another, and each successive discovery throws new lightupon the preceding. Out of a number and variety of objects,judiciously arranged and compared, an idea gathers illustration,and reason enlightenment, but still it is only in succession thatits clouds are cussipated and its light emerges. Renee, in thisarena of literature, if any one wouId attempt aught that is worthyof immortality, he must not tany at the starting post, butmeasure the entire course. N ow, if we proceed in tills manner,we shaH find that at the present day we are possessed of a suffi­cient store of facts, and that it will not be necessary to wanderbeyond experience into the field of conjecture. 15. When particular experience is extended beyond its prop­el limits, as is fiequently done, and when it is erected into an
  11. 11. INTRODUOTION. 7authority for general conclusions, how often and how subtillydoes it deceive the mind, which indeed lends its own reveriesto the delusion! how strenuously does it seem to fight on thesame side as ourselves! The ground of this is, that any factmay form a part in djjferent series of reasonings, precisely asone syllable, word, or phrase, may be a constituent in an infinityof sentences and discourses; one idea in Infinite series ofthoughts; one particIe or globule of an atmosphere in an Infinitenumber of modulations ; one corpuscule of salt in an infinity offlavors; and one color in an infinity of pictures. One thingmay be grafted upon another as one tree upon another, and theapurious be made to thrive upon the legitimate. 16. To avoid therefore being misled by appearances, weahould never give assent to propositions unless general experi­ence sanctions them, or unless they are decIared to be true bythe unanimous suffrage of nature; that is to say, unless theyform necessary links in the great unbroken chain of ends andmeans in creation. On this condition alone can an edifice bereared, which after the lapse of ages, and the testimony of thou­sands of additional discoveries, posterity shall acknowledge tolest upon true foundations; so that it shall no longer be neces­sary for each age to be electing new structures on the ruins ofthe former. 17. In the experimental knowledge of anatomy our way hasbeen pointed out by men of the greatest and most cultivatedtalents; sl1ch as Eustachius, Malpighi, Ruysch, Leeuwenhoek,Harvey, Morgagni, Vieussens, Lancisi, Winslow, Ridley, Boer­haave, Wepfer, Heister, Steno, Valsalva, Duverney, N uck,Bartholin, Bidloo, and Verheyen; whose discoveries, far fromconsisting of fallacious, vague, and empty speculations, will for­ever continue to be of practical use to posterity. 18. Assisted by the studies and elaborate writings of theseillustrious men, and fortified by their authority, 1 have resolvedto commence and complete my design; that is to say, to opensorne part of those things which it is generally supposed thatnature has involved in obscurity. Rere and there 1 have takenthe liberty to throw in the results of my own experience; butthis only sparingly, for on deeply considering the matter, 1ieemed it best to make use of the facts supplied by others.
  12. 12. 8 THE ECONOltfY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.1ndeed there are some that seem born for experimental obser· vation, and endowed with a sharper insight than others, as if they possessed naturaUy a finer acumen; such are Eustachius, Ruysch, Leeuwcnhoek, Lancisi, &c. There are others again who enjoy a natural faculty for contemplating facts already dis­ covered, and eliciting their causes. Both are peculiar gifts, and are seldom united in the same person. Besides, l found, whenintcntly occupied in exploring the secrets of the human body,that as soon as l discovered anything that had not been ob­served before, l began (seduced probably by self-love) to growblind to the most acute lucubrations and researches of others,and to originate the whole series of inductive arguments frommy particular discovery alone; and consequently to be incapaci.tatcd to view and comprehend, as accurately as the subject re­quired, the idea of universals in individuals, and of individualsunder universals. Nay, when l essayed to form principles fromthese discoveries, l thought l could detect in various otherphenomena much to confirm their truth, although in realitythey were fuirly susceptible of no construction of the kind. ltherefore laid aside my instruments, and restraining my desirefor making observations, determined rather to rely on the re·searches of others t1lan to trust to my own. 19. To find out the causes of things from the study of givenphenomena cel-tainly requires a talent of a peculiar kind. 1t isnot every one that can confine his attention to one thing, andevolve with distinctness aU that lies in it: it is not every onethat can think profoundly, or, as Cicero says, "that can cast upaU his reasons, and state the sum of his thoughts,":Z; or, as inanot1ler place, "that can recaU the mind from the senses, fixupon the real truth in everything, and see and combine withexactness the reasons that led to his conclusion.":Z; This is apeculiar endowment into which the brain must be initiated fromits very rudiments, and which must afterwards by a graduaIprocess be made to acquire permanence by means of habit andcultivatioll. 1t is a common remark that poete, musicians, sing­ers, painters, architects, and sculptoll!, are bOIn such; and weknow that every species of animaIs is born with that peculiarcharacter which distinguishes it so completely from every otherspecies. We see that some men come into the world as prodi.
  13. 13. INTRODUOTION. 9gies endowed with superhuman powers of memory; others withan extraordinary activity of the whole faculty, amounting to apeculiar strength of imagination and intuitive perception; byvirtue of which no sooner do they set the animal mind in mo­tion on any subject, than they excite the rationality of thecorresponding rational mina, they arrange their philosophicaltopics into a suitable form, and afterwards engage in thoughttill they see clearly whether their opinions are consonant withthe decisiot1s of a soundjudgment; when, if any element of anobscure character embarrasses the subject, by a happy gift. ofnature they separate the obscure from the clear, and in its placeinsert sorne other element more conformable to the general idea,80 as to make all the parts aptly cohere. With a natural facilitythey distribute their thoughts into classes, and separate mixedtopics into appropriate divisions; and skilfully subordinate series,thus perspicuously divided, one under the other, that is, theparticular under the general, and the general under the univer­saI. Thus are they never overwhelmed by the multiplicity ofthings, but continuaIly enlightened more and more, and, by thehelp of arrangement and general notions, recall to mind when­ever they please, such parts of the subject as had become efiàcedfiom their notice, and unfold such as are complicated or per­plexed. Those who are born with tbis felicity of talent, and afterwaldsploceed in due order to its development, the more profoundlythey penetrate into the depths of science, the less do they trustto their imagination, and the more cautious are they not to ex­tend their reasoning beyond the strict limit justified by facts:or if they indulge in conjecture at ail, they treat it as mere sur­mise and hypothesis unti! experience bespeaks its correctness.They avoid as a hydra any premature attachment to, or implicitcredence in, opinions, unless there are circumfltances duly tosupport them. Even if they retain them in theu: memory, theydo not admit them as links in any chain of reasoning; but whileconducting their argument, in a manner banish them fiomthought, and keep the attention fixed on data and faets alone.The fictitious depresses them, the obscure pains them; but theyare exhilarated by the truth, and in the presence of everythingthat is clear, they too are clear and serene. When, after a long
  14. 14. 10 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO};1.course of reasoning, they make a discovery of the truth, struight­way there is a celtain cheering light, and joyful connrrnatorybrightness, that plays around the sphere of their mind; and akind of mysterions radiation, - 1 know Dot whcnce it proccec1s,- that darts through sorne sacrec1 temple in the brain. Thus asort of rational instinct displays itself, and in a manner givesnotice that the soul is caUcd into a state of more inwaTCl com­munion, and has returned at that moment into the golden age of its intellectual perfections. The mind that has known this plcasure (for no desire attaches to the unlmown) is carried away wholly in pursuit of it; and in the kindling flame of itslove despises in comparison, as exte111al pastimes, all merelycorporeal pleasures; and although it recognizes them as meansfol exciting the animal mind and the purel blood, it on noaccount foIlows them as ends. Persons of this cast consider thearts and sciences only as aids to wisdom, and lea111 them ashelps to its attainment, not that they may be reputed wise forpossessing them. They modestly restrain aIl tendency to inflat­ed ideas of themselves, knowing that the sciences are an ocean,of which they can catch but a few drops. They look on no onewith a scornful bww, or a supercilious air, nor arlOgate anypraise to themselves. Theyascribe aIl to the Deity, anc1legardHim as the source from whom aIl true wisdom descends. Inthe promotion of his glory they place the end and objeet oftheir OWll. 20. But those who go in opposition ta nature, and with nowisc10m to befriend them, and strive to intrude themselves arbi­traily into this condition, are only doing violence to their powers.The more they attempt a transition from one reason to another,and to draw a single conclusion from aIl, the more do theyen­tangle the threads of their argument, till they enclose themselveswithin the folds of the intricate web they have woven; and atlast are enshrouded in darkness, fiom which they flnd it impossi­ble by their own endeavors to escape. These chiefly are they whom the sciences and a multiplicityof studies benight and blind, or whom lea111ing infatuates.These are they who invent senseless hypotheses, and gravelyin vite the public to visit their castIes in the air. Who displayan absurd ambition to narrow the limits of knowledge, and per­
  15. 15. INTROD UOTION. 11suade themselves that there is no cultivated lauù beyond theborders of thei.r own muddy lake. Who, if haply their eyesbe opened, nevertheless contend to the last for the false againstthe true. Who procIaim that nature is altogether beyond thereach of human comprehension, and consign her to chains; bid­ding the world despair of seeing her liberated at aIl, or at leastfor ages. Who claim aIl wisdom as an attribute of memory,and hold nothing in esteem but bare catalogues of facUl, regard­ing as of no account any inqui.ry into their causes. Who, inimitating the character of others, and omitting their own, or infighting fiercely under anothers standard, fancy themselvesamong the leading geJ;liuses of the age, and think they havemerited the leadership. Who consider themselves as havingrevealed the secrets of Delphos, if they have only been able toinvest the obscure oracles of another mind with sorne new, andas they supposed ornamentaI, costume of thei.r own. AlI whicherrors of theirs arise from the fact, that they have not leamedto measure their genius by the mIe of nature. 21. As the natural gift we have mentioned, or the faculty bywhich the understanding sees acutely and distinctly into theseries of things, is to be perfected by the use of means; so evenwhere this faculty is by nature excellent, there are many thingsthat retard its advancement, diminish its energy, and enfeebleits efforts. Such, for instance, are the desires of the animalmind and the pleasures of the body, which render the rationalmind, when too compliant to them, unable any longer to pursueits high investigations; for then it is as it were in bonds, andforced to go wherever lust will have it. This faculty is impairedand destroyed also by the cares and anxieties arising fiom do­mestic circumstances and the consideration ofworldly prospects.For these determine the mind to low and outward things, andnever raise it to the high and the inward. Nothing superin­duces more darkness on the human mind, than the intClferenceof its own fancied providence in matters that properly belong tothe Divine Providence. 22. This faculty, however, is chiefly impaired by the thirstfor glory and the love of self. l know not what darkness over­spreads the rational faculties when the mind begins to swellwith pride; or when our intuition of objecta calls up in the
  16. 16. 12 THE EGONOMY OF THE ANIMAL K1NGDOM.objects themselves the image and glory of our own selfhood. Itis like ponring a liquor upon sorne exquisite wine, which throwsit into a fioth, sullies its purity, and clouds its translucence. Itis as if the animal spirits were stirred into waves, and a tempestdrove the grosser blood into insurgent motion, by which theorgans of internaI sensation or perception becoming swollen,the powers of thought are dulled, and the whole scene of actionin theu theatre changed. In those who experience these disor­derly states, the rational faculty is crippled, and brought to astand-still; or rather its movements become retrograde insteadof progressive. A limit is put ta its operations, which its pos­sessor imagines to be the limit of aH human capacity, becausehe himself is unable to overstep it. He sees little or nothing inthe most studied researches of others, but everything - 0, howvain-glorious! - in his own. Nor can he return to conect con­ceptions until bis elated thoughts have subsided to their properlevel. "There are many," says Seneca, "who might haveattained to wisdom, had they not fancied they had attained italready." z The Muses love a tranquil mind, and there is noth.mg but hurnility, a contempt of self and a simple love of truth,that can prevent or remedy the evils we have described. But how often does a man labor in vain ta divest himself ofhis own nature. How often, when ignorant or unmindful of thelove that creeps upon him, will he betray a partiality to himself and the offspring of his own genius. If an author therefore de­ sires that his studies should give birth to anything of sterlingvalue, let him be advised, when he has committed to paper whathe considers to be of particular merit and is fond of fi-equently perusing, to lay it aside for a while, and after the lapse of months to return to it as ta a something he had forgoW;m, and as the production not of himselt; but of Borne other writer. Let him repeat this practice three or four times in the year. In accord­ ance with the advice of Horace,­ .. Reprehendlte, quod non Multll dies et multa litura coercult, atque Perfectum decJes et non castlgavlt ad unguem." De Arte Poeticd, 1. 292-294.Should his writings thcn often raise a blush upon bis counte­nance, should he no longer feel an overweening confidence withregard to the lines which had received the latest polish from his
  17. 17. INTRODUCTION. 13hands, let him be assured that he has made some little progr",ssin wisdom. 23. l think that l shall not at aH detract from the literatureof the present day, if laver with many, that the ancients sur·passed us in wisdom, in the art and perfection of distinguishingthings, and in the shrewdness of their conjectures respectingthe occult. For with no instruction Bave their own, they laidthe foundationB of numerOUB arts and sciences upon which theirposterity aiterwards built; nay, from the resources of their owngenius, and without being under any intellectual obligations tothe past, they raised the superstructure to no inconsidelableheight. Of the truth of this fact we have evidence in theirwritings, which, more lasting than brasa, have been handeddown uninjured through an interval of thousands of years evento this very day. The instructive lessons they have taught, andthe opinions they have pronounced, we, their posterity andcbildren, are still wont to respect, to receive, and to apply tothe practical purposes of life. It is scarcely necessary to men·tion such names as Aristotle, IIippocrates, Galen, Archimedes,Euclid, and others. 24. On the other hand, l think l shaH not detract fiom thepraise due to ancient literature, if again with many laver, thatthe late and present ages are distinguished above thoso of theancients for the aids they have afforded in carrying to a furtherextent the developments of genius, or for accumulating exper­imental facts; thus for supplying posterity, of whom we havethe brightest hopes, with materials for a wisdom that is yet tocome. Each therefore has occupied its peculiar province; theancients excelling in genius; the modems abounding in mate­rials that. may afford support to future genius. 25. Thus does it seem to be tho will of that Providence whorules aH earthly affaira, that the one state should be Bucceededby the other; that the parents should instruct the children;and that the ancients should incite their posterity to the acqui­sition of the experimental knowledge by which their contem·plative sciences may be confinned; and in like manner that weof the present age should stimulate the generations that followus, to work again and again in the mines of the same experi­ence, so that they, in their tum, may attain to a deeper insight:, VOL,I. 2
  18. 18. 14 THE EGONOilIY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDO.lI.and a fmther progress; in fine, that various ages should culti.vate variuus kinds of learning; in order, as it woulc1 appear, thatthe sciences may at last arrive at their destined perfection. Whether we contemplate the sphere of generals or particu­lars, we al ways behold na ture busied in alternations. She poursaround the world the light of day, and then the darkness ofnight, and from darkness leads on a new day through the gatesof the breaking dawll. She advances from spring to summer,and from summer to autumn, and retums through winter tospring-time. She guides the infant through youth and manhoodto old age, while at the same time she is preparing a new gen­eration to enter on the years of infancy and youth. By likealternations, or u similar order of things, it is reasonable to sup­pose that the republic of lettèi-s is govemed. First came theday, and the world was enlightened with the brilliance ofgenius; then the night, and for ages the human mind layslumbering in c1arkness. N ow again the dawn is near, and weabound in experience. Haply the progress hence will be to anew day and a second age of genius. 26. And the time is ut hand when we may quit the harborand sail for the open sea. The materials are ready: shall wenot build the edifice? The harvest is wuiting: shall we not putin the sickle? The produce of the garden is rüe and ripe:shall we fail to collect it for use? Let us enjoy the providedbanquet, that is to say, from the experience with which we areenriched, let us elicit wisdom. Had such a store as we possessheen set before the sages of antiquity, there is reason to pre­sume, that they would have advanced tile sciences to the heightsnot only of Pindus but of Helicon. Nor will there be wantingmen at this day, with this splendid inheritance of knowledge;who - provided they devote their minds to the object ficmtheir earliest years, and with their full native powers, and donot suffer themselves to be cunied away by the sensual pleasuresand dissipations of the age - will carry the same sciences be­yond the Pindus of the ancients. 27. But to launch out into this field is like embarking on ashorelcss ocean that environs the world. It is easy to quit theland, or to loose the barses fiom the starting-post; but to attainthe end or reaeh the goal is a labor for Hercules. N evertheless
  19. 19. INTRODUCTION. 15we are bounc1 1.0 attempt the abyss, though as }(t we must pro­ceed Iike young birds, that with the feeble strokes of t11eir new­fledged wings first essay their strength, and from their nests trytbe air, the new world into which they are 1.0 enter. 28. But ail this contributes nothing 1.0 the business before us,or 1.0 the knowledge of the blooc1. l shall therefore detnin thereader no longer, but proceed immec1intcly 1.0 the matter in hanr1.Allow me 1.0 observe, thllt in each chapter of the ensuing treatisel have prescribed 1.0 myself the following method. First, byway of introdJction l haye premised the expericnce of the bestauthorities, ac1bering closely 1.0 their own worc1s, that nothingmay be suppressed which may be suspectec1 of militating againstmy views. N ext, l have procceded 1.0 foml sorne general infer­ences, and 1.0 confinu them one by one by the previous experi.ence, so LIr as it has gone, the latter serving as tbe foundationof the present work; my principal object in which is, 1.0 let factitllclf sreak, or 1.0 let causes flow spontaneously frOID its lips
  20. 20. 16 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. CHAPTER I. TB]l: COMPOSITION AND GENUINll: ESSENCll: OF TBll: BLOOD. 29. LEEUWENHOEK has observed, that blood drawn from hisown hand was composed of red globules floating in a crystallinehumor not unlike water, but that he was in doubt whether aIlblood was of the same nature. He says, that upon a closeexamination of the globules, after separating one from the other,and even dividing sorne of them, they presented the appearanceof being very slightly colored. Milk he found in like manner toconsist of globules fioating in a limpid humor, but these weretransparent. (Philosophical Transactions, n. 102, p. 23.) Healso clearly discerned, as he says, that every globule was com­pounded of six smaller ones, which were as fiexile and soft as thelarger. That in proportion as the larger were stretched out orelongated, the smaller assumed the same lengthened figure, tillthey became like threads. He also relates that he had subjectedthe larger globules to violent motion, when they burst in pieces,and displayed the smaller globules. Also that the globules ofmilk were of different dimensions, but that those of the bloodwere of only one dimension. (Lectiones Gutlerianœ, v., p. 84-86.)He saw that the globules were flexible and pliant in proportionas the blood was healthy, and in passing through the small capil­laryarteries and veins, changed to an ol)long figure (Phil. Trans.,n. 117, p. 380), three times as long as broad: also that theypassed byand into one another, and by reason of their softnesscould be moulded into various shapes, but when at liberty imme­diately recovered their former globular condition. Where manyglobules came together, and lost their heat, they appeared as auniform matter in which no parts were distinguishable. (Lect. Gutl., p. cit.) When the author was ill, the globules of theblood he drew from himself appeared to he harder and firmer;but when he was in a good state of health, they were betterconnected with each other, being softer and more fiuid: whencehe infers, that death may sometimes proceed from the hardnessof these globules. (Phil. Trans., n. 117, p. 380, 381.) Whenhe examined blood possessing much crystalline liquor, and placedin one of his tubes, and carried it into the open air at a time
  21. 21. COMPOSITION AND ESSENCE OP THE BLOOD. 17 when there was a pretty strong wind, he observed that the glob- ules were agitated, like the air itself, by concussions and mutual motions; and he observed moreover another kind of motion, in that eaeh globule gyrated round its own axis. (Ibid., n. 106, p. 129, 130.) He likewise observed that the transparent liquor in whieh the red globules of the blood swim, itself consisted of fim"ll globlllel, which were fewer before evaporation than after. In the same liquor hc also distinguished certain bodies of a quadrangular figure, which he considered to be saline particles. (Ibid., n. 117, p. 380.) But the globules of the blood, he says, are specifically heavier than the crystalline liquor, for the moment they escape from the veins, they by little and little subside toward the bottom; and being made up of soft, fluid corpuscules, and lying one upon another, they unite together, and by their close conjunetion, the blood that is under the surface alters its color, and becomes dark red, or blackish. The red globules, he says, are 25,000 times smallcr than a grain of sand. (Ibid., n. 106, p. 122.) He observed that in a tadpole the particles of blood wcre fiat and oval, and that sometimes, by reason of the tenuity of an artery, they were made to assume a tapering figure, and were so minute, that a hundred thousand myriad of them could not equal in bulk a large grain of sand. (Epist. 65, Arcana Naturœ Detecta, p. 161, 162.) 30. LANCIS!. " Microscopical experiments demonstrate, that the blood consists principally of two parts, namely, of serum whieh is mostly limpid in healthy subjects, and of extremely minute globules from which the general mass of this fluid derives its redness, whether it be in circulation, or intercepted in any part of the system.... Leeuwenhoek observes, that in fishes he found that the partiel es whieh occasioned the redness of the blood were plano-oval; that in land animais they were round, so far as he eould judge from the cases that came under his own inspection. But that in human blood these globules were soft, and each of them fOlmed by the union and conjunction of six: smaller globules. fo these he attributes the redness of the blood, and considers that it is deeper and more intense the more numerous they are, and the more agglutinated the one to the other. With respect to my own observations l would remark, that 1 have made them with the greatest care, and with the assistance also of the illustrious Blanchinus. There are four principal things that wc noticed in drops of blood recently drawn, when received on a crystal plate and submitted to the microscope. 1. Innumerable globules of a lcd color, which on, exaulination 3ppearcd to be mixed up with a transparent scrum, and swimming in it, but which, when the serum had soon after 2"
  22. 22. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 227Of this formative substance, therefore, scarcely anything canbe predicated adequately, inasmuch as it occupies the supremeand superlative degree :mlong the substances and forces of itskingdom: but 1 would rather calI it a formative substance thancaU it nature; for it has within it a force and nature such as 1have described. 257. Except that it is the first, the most perfect, the mostuniversa1, and the most simple, of al[ the BUbstances andforcesof its kingdom. It is evidently thefirst, because it commencesthe thread, and when commenced continues it to the ultimate oflife. (n.253.) It is the most perfect, because it causes all thingsto proceed in the most distinct manner (n. 248); and perfectlysubordinates each severaUy, and when subordinated, coordinatesthem for their uses and ends. (n. 252.) It is the most univer­sal, because it insures the general good of aU things, and at thesarne time the particular good. It is the most simple, becauseaU other things in the body are successively compounded. 258. And that it has a8signed to it, within its own litUe cor­poreal world, a certain species of omnipresence, power, knowl­dge, and providence: of omnipresence, because it is the mostnniversal substance, and in a manner the aH in aU of its king­dom; for in forming all things, it must be everywhere present inorder to form them. Of power and knowleàge j for it goes fromprinciples to causes, from causes to means, from means to effects,frOID use to use, or from end to end, through the mysteries ofaU the mundane arts and sciences; so that there is nothing,however internaI and deeply involved therein, but it evokes it,and summODB it to assist in building and completing its king­dom. In the animal kingdom, therefore, in whatever directionwe turn our eyes, we meet with wonders that overwhelm DBwith astonishment; so that it would seem that to this force orsubstance, starting fiom its principles and proceeding fromorder to order, no possible path were refused, but its course laythrough aU things. Of providence j for it ananges prospectively,that the membeJs and parts of the members shaU combine, andundergo renovation and formation, in one peculiar and contra­distinctive manner. (n. 261.) We shaU admit a certain provi­dential series if we attentively contemplate the parts in thewhole, and see how one is prepared for the sake of another;
  23. 23. 228 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.how one always comes to the use of the nen succeeding; andhow aIl, individually and coUectively, are for the sake of thefirst substance; since they refer themselves to their antecedents:hence aU the consequents refer to the first of the series, on whichthey depend, and for the sake of which they exist in one dis­tinctive manner. (n. 252.) 259. This formative substance or force then it is whichgovems the sceptre and Bits at the helm of the kingdom; thatis to say, marks out the provinces, disposes the guards, distrib­utes the offices, and keeps èverything in the station in whichit h38 been placed, and thus takes care that everything shaUexecute its functions in aIl their p.etails. Bince, therefore, it isthe most powerful, the most scientific, the most present, of aIlthings in its body, it follows that it is 38 it were the demi­goddess, tutelar deity, and genius of the microcosm. Never­thelèss its power is extremely limited, although leBB limited thanthat of the substances and forces that come after it, in regardto which indeed it is comparatively unlimited. 1 say compara­tively, for so far fiom being essentially unlimited, there is noth­ing poBBible to it but that which h38 been impressed upon andimparted to its nature; so that its omnipresence, its power andprovidence, are almost entirely confined within the circ1e of itsown narrow world. For the Author of Nature has reserved tohimself the supremacy over it and aU things, both in regard topower, presence, knowledge, and providence, which supremacyhe exercises according to the law (Bince the soul has ceased tobe his image), that so far as it is dependent upon him, so far itis perfect in every faculty, and conducted to universal and abso­lute ends, and its lower powers and degrees, by its means, arethe sarne; but so far 38 it ceases to be his image and likeness,so far it becomes impelfect in aU its faculties, and lapses awayfrom the nobler ends.· 260. The jir8t ends, as well a8 the midàle and ultimate ends,according to which cause8 jollow in provi8ive and given ordertilt they arrive at the ultimate effect, appear to be present to it,and iMerent within it, simultaneously and in8tantly. Thisfollows from the law, that the antecedent is formed for the use • This sentence appears to be Imperfect ln the original: an attempt h here made toaupply the sense. - (Tr.)
  24. 24. ON THE FORM.ATION OF THE CHIeK, ETC. 229of the consequent (n. 252); but there would he nothing conform-able in the antecedcnt, unless this use or end had been beforerepresented. Were not this the case, the rudimentary spinalmarrow could not be adapted from the beginning to the condi-tions of aU the members; the heart could not be fonned with aview to the conditions of the arteries and veins, nor yet with aview to the condition of subserving the lungs; the lungs couldnot he constituted for the reception and expiration of theilatmospherc; nor the trachea, fauces, tongue, teeth, and lips, forthe articulation of sound; nor the eye for the enjoyment of sight,and by sight, of the universe; nor the ear fOI the reception {Iftones. The same observation applies to a11 the other members,in each of which the use and end is always foreseen before it isactuaUy present. To repeat my formel comparison (n. 248),unless the archer take a Iight aim with his eye at first, the an(Wat the end of its flight will he found vastly wide of the m:uk.But when distant and ultimate ends are kept in vicw as if theywere present, intermediate ends are comprehended at once, nndare carried onwards with a fixed aim and an llnCrrLIlg directIon.Thus when the formative force or substance by a kind of intui-tion, if 1 may so speak, comprehends the ultimate end, then theintermediate ends are at the same time contnined within it, ex-tending to the end foreseen and pointed at; that is, they 1!ûwin an unerring order. 1 am aware, that in speaking of first and ultimate ends assimultaneously present and involved in the same substance andforce, 1 am using terms that are not fully intelligible so long aswe are ignorant of the mode in which they are present and in-volved. Yet 1 must have recourse to these terms, 8Ïnce scarl;t!lyanything adequate can be predicated of this force and substance. (n. 256.) For it is in the first principles of its things, and in acertain intuition of aIl ends, or replesentntion of its univerlle. We cannot by any other means speak more adcquately of it,3ince it lies heyond the sphere of common words, and of aUsuch as are applied to the comprehension of the lower S(IltlCS. But how the intuition of ends can accomplish sach an e1f((t,- how it can form a rea11y connected and actua11y corporeal /lYs- tem, - this is not more eusy to understand th an is the manner in which the intuition of the mind (which is also an intuition of VOL. I. 20
  25. 25. 230 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIM.4L KINGIJOM.enda) is enabled to rouse a11 the mUAc]p,s of thp, hody to palpa.ble motion, or in which a bare will is enabled to determineitself into real actions. Here we would only observe, that inthis formative substance, ends are at once preBent and involved jnot that all things that can ever be in it are in it at once, butthat they will be communicated to it, and thus are in it. Wemay fitly illustrate the case by an algebraic equation, whichsimultaneously comprises ratios, analogies, and harmonies inindefinite number, each of which may be successively educedand evolved, and again successively reduced into the sarneequation. And it will be seen in the sequeI, that different endamay be present and involved in it, or the same ends in a differ­ent manner. This is true in the finite sphere. But in theInfinite Being, aU things that can ever by possibility be involved,are involved at once; and this of themselves or essentiaUy, andnot successively. Of Him, therefore, change of state is neverpredicable, although it is predicable of a11 natural and finitethings, and even of the formative substance itself. 261. Oonsequently this substance or force represents to itselfthe state about to be formed,just as if it were astate alreadyformed,. and inileeà the state alreaày formed as astate alJoutto be formed. For if the ultimate ends are in it, together withthe middle and first, then the state that has been formed is rep­resented as present in the state that is to be formed, and thestate that is to be formed in the state that has been formed; theone being involved with the other in momentaneous presence.The case is the same as when the mind embraces sorne ultimateobject in its plans; for then it sees this object as if it were pres­ent, or when the means are furnished, contemplates it as al·ready accomplisfted and realized: and how much more is thistrue in this higher faculty, where the principle of the mindsreason resides, or the force of forces, and the substance of sub­stances! That this substance represents to itself the state which is tobe formed as already formed, is in sorne measure evident fromthe methodical distribution of the motive fibres in the body; somethodical indeed, that conformably to the slightest hint of thewill, a11 things rush into effect. For the motive fibres are 1;0fitly ~ombined in the muscles, s,nd the muscles in the body, that
  26. 26. ON THE FORMATION OF THE Cl1IOK, ETC. 231the mere nod and breath of the will is sufficient, in less than amoment, to excite and animate the associate ministers of actionto the motion intended; that is to say, when this substance orforce, for whose disposaI they are thus prepared, determinesfrom its principles. This we may see exemplified in the case ofdancers, harlequins, buffoons, posture masters, athletes, harpers,songstresses, &c., whose lungs, trachea, larynx, tongue, mouth,fingers, eyes, features, feet, arms, chest, and abdomen, act in moststupendous concert; not to mention other instances. Is therenot here a represE.ntation of the thing formed, like as of thething about to be fonned, since the obedience of the whole is soready and so easy; into which obedience all that is formednaturally falls, by vll"tue of the same principle of action. Forunle88 what is formed represented itself in what is to be formed.,a similitude and concordance so great never could exist. Andthis is the reason why this substance, in the state of formation,always also persiste in the thing formed, nor ever desists fromthis until the thread of life is broken. Wherefore the truth ofthe rule is evident, that subsistence is perpetuaI existence. 262. That this substance represents to itself the state formedas astate yet to be formed, is a consequence of the formertruth; for this substance is always in a state of formation andexistence; otherwise what is formed could not subsist. This isshown in a lively instance in the case of parental love or storgë;for parente regard their infants as themselves in the infants, oras most united other selves, and not as separate until long afterbirth: a sign, as it would seem, that the very force and sub­stance that was in the parent, is trnnsplanted into the offspring.If this be the case, then the sarne substance, always sirrülar toitselt; cannot ad otherwise in that which is formed., than in that,namely, in the parent, which had previously been fOlmed. 263. Moreover the series of all the contingents, in the oràerin which they successively appear f01 the pmpose of c01npktingthe work of formation, is instantly present to it, and as it wereinherent within it. Those things appear as contingent, whichare successively to become present, in order that the process offormation may be rightly completed; and which, if they wereDot present, would occasion the work to stop, and the connec­tion to be broken and continued no farther. Renee, when
  27. 27. 232 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM. during the state of fonnation these contingents do not present themselves in their just proportion and rightful mode, the parts of the system are connected together in accordance with those contingents which are presented: as we see evidenced in mon· strous bilths. (n. 255.) For in the egg and the !Comb, all things that can p08swly be contingently present, are alreaày present,provided, and prepareà. For everything that is wanted is in· volved in the albumen and yolk of the egg; and this, with such exactitude of arrangement, that each particular can be caUedforth and come in the proper order. The yolk also itself is dis·tinct from the albumen, and within it lie the ingredients of the red blood. The like is the case in the womb, where the embryodraws from the mothers general store whatever its nature re·qlliJ:es: thus it is provided and as it were foreseen that nothingin the chain or series of contingents shall by any chance bewanting. We may likewise instance parental love as a contin·gent, without which the slender and early thread of the infantframe could never be drawn out to the period of adult age.These things, 1 have said, appear as contingents, inasmuch asthey must present themeelves successively; but they are re·garded as necessarily consequent, since theyare present in thething formed, and thus are already provided. Thus one or theother of them being given, the effect cannot be otherwise thanin conformity to it; for instance, warmth and fotus being given,other results present themselves of neccssity. The same ruleobtains in all other cases: for example, aIl the use of the heartis marked out before the heart is completed; and indeed by thelittle spinal marrow, before the heart appears. So likewise thelungs are designed in the heart, before the latter is doubledback upon itself into the form it is ultilnately to assume. Suc­cessiveness gives an appearance as if use then first contingentlybegan to determine itself to a consequent, when it is present ina previous organ aIready fOlmed j but that the case is otherwise,is clear both from what 1 have here adduced, and from n. 260and 261. So again it is plovided that the ovulum be roIleddown fi"Om the ovaries through the Fallopian tubes, the fimbri·ated extremities of which embrace and forward it, and that hav­ing reached the uterus, it should be sUlTounded with the mem·brancs and liquor amnii; and by means of the placenta shoula
  28. 28. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 233 emulge the blood: so that if only the contingent is provided, namely, the presence of the seed, aIl the other things necessarily follow. 264. Since a11 thcse things follow by inevitable connection,what shaH we think of the fortuitous events, as they are ca11ed,that happen in civillife ? It is not our province here to con­sider whether these are present and involved à priori, or not.At aU events they are hidden from our view, just as the chrys­alis and butterfly states are hidden from the silk-worm, theprocess of formation from the embryo and chick, and theeconomic functions of the body from ourselves. Notwithstand­ing our ignorance in these respects, we are nevCltheless. con­strained to admire the wonderful connection of ends within us,whenever they become revealed by the development of the ulti­mate end. But this matter cannot be fully explained, becausethe above are effects of the Divine Providence, and it is requi­site that we should first inquire into the nature and effects offree-will. 265. According to the nature and 8tate of thi8 formative8OO8tance, and auitaJJly to it8 intuition or repre8entation, caUBe8jlOUJ into their ejfect8. That diversity and change of state arepredicable of this substance, is a truth which l do not wish toprove by philosophical arguments, but by inductions derivedfrom experience. l would here observe only, that everythingnatural and finite is capable of successively assuming differentstates, and when thus assumed, of holding them simultaneously:but l do not here propose to consider the quality of these states,but oo1y to declare, that according to the nature llnd state ofthe formative substance, causes and effects f1.ow conformably tothe intuition or representation of enda. 266. A8 appears from the dijferent forma of animals. Toenumerate all the animaIs and their different forma, wouldrequire me to traverse ocean, earth, and ail. For there areaquatic, ten-estrial, and winged animaIs. Of each of these thereare genera and species. There are moreover insects, multitudesof which elude the sight when unassisted by glasses. Of thesemsects there is as great a diversity as of the soils that produce,the leaves that nourish, and the sunbeams that vivify them.They have each thcir own proper form, and each their own 20·
  29. 29. 234 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIiIlAL KINGDOM.proper formative substance. This formative substance COll­structs the effigy in accordance with the nature derived fiomthe parent, rarely deviating from the mode!. Inasmuch asthis is obvious to the senses, it remains only to conclude fromthese data the reason why fOl-mS are produced so dissimilaramong themselves, and yet bearing such extreme resemblanceto the one common parent. 1 ask, then, whether the rationalmind cao arrive at any other conclusion in this case, than thatthere is a formative substance and force, which in conformitywith its nature and state establishes such forms and laws of~gimen as are suitable to the government proper to its king-dom; and that the body thus formed is an image of the repre­sentations of its soul ? 267. From the imaginatilJeforce in pregnantfemales, caus­ing corre8ponàîng marks on the liule body of the embryo. Forin case the mother experience any great alalm, or any inordinateemotions of terror or longing, and in this state the represen­tation of anything be vividly made to her mind, it will im­mediately descend to the brains of the embryo through thevascular and fibrous passages, and (if 1 am not mistaken in theconjecture) through the innermost coat of the arteries and theoutermost coat of the veins, and thence through the spirituousfiuid and the purer blood. In this manner we find impressedupon the tender body of the embryo, figures of strawberries,chenies, phuns, rape-seed, figs, apples, pomegranates, herbs, earsof corn, grapes, roses, parsley, lettuces, mushrooms, caulifiowers,finger-marks, weals, rods, Hies, spiders; hence also arise dark­<lolored stains, fissuled forehead, hare-lip, swines snout; marksof fish, serpents, oysters, crabs-claws, bunching or webbed fin­gers, slugs, combs of cocks, mice, donnice, &c,: nay, further, fromthe continuaI contemplation of a beautiful pelson, the mothermay supminduce the impression of a beautiful face, it may beher own or that of sorne other object of her admiration. Theimpression thus made does not disappear, but is permanent andcontinues to grow even during adolescence. Let us supposenow that the figure of a slug or dormouse was marked upon thecuticle of the fœtus; that the cause of this phenomenon wassome unsatisfied longing on the part of the mother, some emo­tion of terror or inordinate desire which had disturbed her
  30. 30. ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 235brain j so that during the formation of the body of the embryoan impression corresponding with this emotion was made uponits tender substance: then from a consideration of these cir­cumstances, let us proceed to infer the cause which operated inmarking those members, and ask ourselves whether that whichinscribed on the cuticle the effigy of the slug or dormouse wasanything different from that which inscribes on the substanceof the body the form of every successive viscus j whether, in fact,it were anything but a seal impressing, whence arose a corre­sponding impression during astate of body in which everythingyielded to the imprinting agent j that is, whether it were any­thing but causes flowing into their eifects in a manner conform·able to the superinduced representation. 268. From the formation of the brains, or of the organismof the internal senses, as being different in different species ofanimals, and in different individuals of the same species. Thismay be inferred from the external forms of animaIs, and alsofrom the internaI forms of the several viscera and parts. Ofthese we would select for example only the brains, where weflnd the organism of these senses. In some animaIs the brainsare small, as in fowls and flsh, and have no furrows and convo­lutions on the surface, but the membranes lie upon them in closecontact j there is little or no cortical substance in the periphe­ ries, but almost the whole of it is situated about the ventricles, and the thalami of the optic nerves are like two succenturiatecerebra, &c. Land animaIs and quadrupeds exhibit the greatest differences in the insuIcations of the brains j in the connection and formation of the ventricIes, choroid plexus, glands, tubercles, infundibulum, and rete mirabile j in the influx and efllux of the blood j the organism being in fact altogether different. But in man the brain is more perfect and more capacious, and three times as large as even in the ox: more caution is shown in the mode of distributing the blood through the arteries j not to men­ tion innumerable other things, which are aU so many evident proofs that causes flow into their effects according to the state and nature of the iOrmative substance, or conformably to itB intuition or representation. 269. Whence it follows, that no condition of the organism is primarily the cause of the internal faculties, but that that
  31. 31. 236 THE EOONOMY OF THE .rfNIMAL KINGDOM. formative force or 8WJstance is the cause, tehose nature, andthe image of tehose representations, determines the form of aJlthings in the body. For such as is the formative force, such is thething formed; such as is the seal, such is the impression; such asis the efficient, such is the effect; such as is the principle, such isthe principate; such as is the thing determining, such is the thingdetennined; hence such as is the formative force or soul, such isthe brain and the body. For the body may not inaptly be caUcdthe image of the soul; and so much is this the case, that fromobserving the face it is possible we may not always be wrong inour conjectures concerning the animal mind: but especiaUy ifwe judge by a mana actions, which are mere executions of thewill, and actual representations of the inner mind. This fonna­tive force therefore causes those creatures that have no intelli­gent or rational soul to be ignorantly impelled to ends by aninstinct analogous to reason; while to those creatures, such asman, that have a rational souI, it has imparted a more capaciousbrain, a more spacious internaI organism, and a more powerfulfaculty of using reason; and in this instance has prudently dis­posed its sanguineous allies under the control of the brain, andhas prolonged the age in which reason may be cultivated so asto grow up to adult maturity. Rence no condition of the organ­ism is primarily the cause of our eljoying reason; but the soulis the cause, which as an intelligent agent designing to enjoy thesociety of the inferior taculties, has so prearranged matters, thatthe avenues leading to herself may be properly disposed andduly laid open, or that aIl things in her kingdom may representherself in an image. For this formative substance, inasmuch asit is comparatively eminent in situation, and is in the highestdeglCe, cannot descend immediately to the mechanism of thebody; for if there be three or four different degrees, the highestcannot act upon the lowest except through the intermediate.Renee it is, that when the organism of the intermediate degreeis injured, or in any way a1fected, the soul cannot flow into theultimate degree, or into the sphere of effects and actions, exceptin a manner eonformable to the state of the intennediate degree.There are numerous contingents that may abrogate or alter ~ecommunication of the one with the other; for instance, whenthe brain is compressed in the womb of the mother; when it is
  32. 32. ON THE FORM~TION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 237flooded -with blood or fluid that is not snfficiently purified, but has been disturbed by violent emotions, or by diseases; when the placenta has not been properly connected with the uterinefolds j when the ovulum has not descended through the Fallo­ pian tubes in proper time and order: with an infinite number ofothèr circumstances, in aU ofwhich the formative force is under the necessity of combining the parts of the machine in a manner different from what it otherwise would have done, and accord­ing to the series of contingents which has befallen it. (n.255,263,267.) Besides, even after birth, accidents, wounds, and dis­eases occur, which injure, affect, and invert the natura! state jfrequently causing loss of memory, and of the power of exercis­ing reason, also stupidity, stolidity, madness, fury, melancholy.None of these things, however, prevent the soul from remainingin a state of intelligence, although the intermediate organism,which has received from the before-mentioned casualties a dif·ferent condition, cannot flow into the effects and actions of theultimate degree except in such a way as is conformable to thiscondition. Thus we may understand how a soul as rational mayreside in the tenderest infant, nay, in the idiot, as in the mostconsummate genius. 1 have stated that the sou! in irrational animals causes theanimated body or animal to be ignorantly impelled to ends byan instinct analogous to reason. By natural instincts 1 meanall those operations which do not come within the consciousnessof the miDd, or to its intuitive knowledge or percepîion; such,for instance, as the economical and chemical operations of theanimal kingdom, aIllong which we may enumerate the systoleof the heart and arteries j those laws of the commixtion, discrim­ination, separation, and elaboration of the blood which are re­counted in n. 199; and an in:finite number of other things whichfollow in their train. Of these operations the cerebellum appearsto be the conductor, and it acta aU at once or undividedly outof the Gordian knot of its structure, and moreover it is an organ­ism of the second degree. (n.164.) But not so the cerebrurn,which is discriminated into innumerable cortical thalami, andits organism carried to the third degree of composition (n.1M),aU the voluntary operations of the body being therefore underit. This formative subetance is bound by necessity to adjoin
  33. 33. 238 THE EOONOMY OF THE .ANIMAL KINGDOM.the cerebellum to the cereb11lm; so that the greater part of theeconomical functions and exercises of the body may be refelTedto the cerebellum, lest by any chance the cerebrum, when in­tent on its own concerns and reasons, should allow the republioto fall into inactivity and ruin, or distract and destroy it by in­surrectionary motions, or by allurements and cupidities. Since then aIl things in the body are adapted to the natureof the soul, and to the image of herrepresentations, it is wiselyprovided that animaIs which possess no reason, and consequent­ly no will, should live under the guidance of their instincts. 1say no reason, and consequently no will, because will is a con­comitant only of reason, and can be called will only in virtue ofthe liberty which results fiom reason. Animal instincts never­theless so resemble reason, will, and liberty, as those privilegesexist in us, that nothing can simulate them better; nay, 80weIl are they counterfeited, that we are aIl but deceived by theresemblance. Indeed, the actions resulting from instincts aretruly marvellous, and seem as if they were determined by aspecies of deliberation and forethought, instead of proceedingfiom a blind impulse. In illustration of this we have only torefer to the different offices pelformed by instinct; as in thecase of bUds building their nests, laying and incubating eggs,excluding the young fiom the I:lhell, nurturing theu unfledgedofispring, sending off their fledged offspring, giving warning ofthe season, selecting the food proper to them, distinguishing anddreading their enemies, eluding their pUlsuit, &c. In the caseof spiders, weaving their ingenious webs under the tiles, settingtraps for flies, and when captured coiling th.reads round theprisoners. In the case of bees, rifling the flowers, elaboratingwax, storing their cells with honey, providing against winter,emigrating i~ swarms from their hives, stripping the drones oftheir wings, &c. In the case of the silk-worm, ensconsing itselfin sUken filaments, hiding itself until it assumes the chrysalisstate, soaring next as a butterfly, and excluding its eggs with a"iew to continue the species: and what more may 1 not add inregard to other instances? AlI the outlines of the future bodyare traced by a similar instinct, in the egg alld in the wornb.Now, if we rt::~ort to analysis, and reduce the known and un­known to an equation, and then evolve its proportions, do we
  34. 34. ON THE FORMATION OF THE OHIOK, ETO. 239not clearly perceive that there is a soul proper to every speciesof animal; that this soul adapts all things to the image andnature of itself; and that it cannot and ought not to constructthe organism of the brains in brutes otherwise than that theymay be governed by instincts in place of that reason and willby which man is distinguished. But 1 shall treat more distinctlyof this subject in the Parts on the Brain,· where 1 speak ofvarieties of organism. 270. The veriest formative force and substance is the souZ.For of the soul alone can we predicate that it is the most uni­versaI, the most perfect, the most simple, and the first of thesubstances and forces of its kingdom (n. 257) : that it is every­where present, potent, conscious, and provident in its body (n. 258): that it is the sole living substance, or that by whichaU other things in the system live: and that in its own kingdomit is the principle in every action; and may claim the predicateof having momentaneously present to it, and involved within it,bath first, and riddle, and ultimate ends (n. 260) : in a word,that in what is formed, and in what is to be farmed, it is similarto itself; being taken by derivation from the soul of the par­ent. That it bas momentaneously present to it, and as it wereinvolved within it, the series of aU contingents necessary forcompleting the work of formation. (n. 263.) That its power isso exalted that in aIl the public and private affaira of its king­dom, it can give its subjects laws from the throne of its simplewill; that it advances to the attainment of its purposes throughthe mysteries of all the natural sciences and arts, so that itmeets with nothing so insuperable, but that in its descent fromits principles down the ladder of order, it is enabled to arrive atlength at the ultimate end which it had represented to itselt:(n. 258.) Wherefore every action of the body is the soulsaction, so far as it is an action of the will, this, an action of thereason, and this, of the principle of reason in which the soul is.But as the soul cannot descend without intermediates into theultimate compositions and effects of its body, because the soulis in the highest degree, and cannot fiom the highest flow intothe lowest and act upon it immediately (for which reason there • 8ee the Animal Kingd{)fn, Appendlx, vol. Il., p. 657, where there lB Rome accountIl) Dr. Sve4bom of Swedenborga extenaive TreatJse on the Braln.- (no.)
  35. 35. 240 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.is a subordination and succession of things before there is anycoordination and coexistence), therefore it foilows, that ne;ct tothe soul, in the order of forcee and substances, is the spiritu0U8 jluid; next, the purer blood, and next, the red blood; whichlast is thus as it were the corporeal soul of its O1JJn little worlil.The red blood, therefore, simultaneously comprising within itselfthe superior fluids, is the storehouse and seminary, the parentand nourisher of aU parts of its kingdom, whether solid, soft, orfluid; so that nothing exists in the body that did not preëxÏstin the blood. (n. 59, 61.) And on the nature, constitution,determination, and continuity of the blood depenc1 the fortunesand condition of the animal life. (n. 62.) The blood is theultimate fluid which discharges the functions of the soul inthe animal kingdom. (n. 46.) See also n. 37-42, 91-99, 102,133-137, 143-147, 154, &c. Thus all these may be calleà formative substances and forces, that is to say, each in iesO1JJn degree; while the one vital substance, which is the saul, presides and rules over aU. 271. Binee, then, aU thin.ls are thus most nicely suboràinateàand coordinated, it fOl101JJS, that the spirituous jluià is the firstcause. The first cause of ail is indeed the soul, which is the lifeand spirit of the spirituous fluid; anc1 the detennination of thiafluid proceeds fiom the soul as its first principle; but since,through the defectiveness of terms, scarcely anything can beadequately predicated of the soul, we mày consider this fluid,which in point of unanimity is the other self of the sou~ as thefirst in the series of agenda. But how this fluid acts or formsfrom determining principles, - this is among the secrets ofnature. For in the primordial state, as Malpighi relates, "aUthe parts are so mucous, white, and peUucid, that use whatglasses we may we cannot see c1early into their structure.•..But this much certainly is visible, that the blood or sanguineousmatter does not possess from the commencement aU those things that are afterwards found in it. For at first we see in the vesseIsa species of colliquamentum conveyed by little channels towardsthe fœtus; afterwards, by means of fermentation, a yellowishand rust-colored humor is produced, which ultimately becom68red.... Hence ... successive changes in the sanguineous matterare evidenced by the addition of color to the blood." (n.242.)
  36. 36. ON THE FORMATION OF THE CHICK, ETC. 241From the whole process of the formation of the chick in theegg, as described by Malpighi and Lancisi, it is evident thatthese fluid substances act as the causes of things according tothe before·mentioned order; as is clear from the firet livingpoint, the carina, the initiament of the medulla spinalis, of theheart, and other appended organs; from the colliquamenta,zones, vcsicles; from the successive change of the liquide, andfrom the nature of the albumen and yolk in the egg. For whenfinally the red blood comes to be formed, and its assistance tohe required, the vessels elongate till they reach the yolk, out ofwhich the constituent, combining, and complementalY elementsof the blood are educed. They also so extend as to come incontact with the atmosphere (n. 50), Bince there are passages·and commissures which lead through the shell of the egg,through the medium of which whatever the yolk may wantis supplied by the air. That such is the succession and subordi·nation of causes is acknowledged even by the most celebratedauthore. Thus Lancisi observes, that "with regard to the quaI­ity of the fluid that slowly traverses the umbilical vessels towardsthe end of the second day, it is firet yellowish, then rust-red,and at last sanguine or blood-red; whence it is very clear thatthe more fluid cylindere of colliquamentum, which appear pel.lucicl and perfectly limpid before and on the first day of incuba­tion, me through certain gradations of color, yellowish andrusty red, before they attain the character of blood; thesechanges being brought about by a gentle fermentation causedby the warmth, and by the elasticity of the air in motion, thesulphurous particles meanwhile being disengaged by degrees,and the saline volatile particles raised [to the sUlfaceJ." (n. 245.)And Malpighi states, that the blood "ultimately becomes red,and in this last state is put in circulation by the heart." (n.242.)Consequently, 272. That the purer Olooà Îs the second cause,. and the redblood, the third cause, or the ejfect of the former causes. Alsothat the purest fibrils are first produced,. then the vessels of the purer blood,. and lastly, the vessels of the red blood,. one ofthese orders preceding the other, and then, according as theyare compounded, one acting with the other. These positions are but • ClIlel traneltue. VOL. J. 21
  37. 37. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CONSIDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHILOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MBIIB:&R OF THllI BOUSlIl OF NOBLEB IN THllI ROYAL DII!lT OP8WJIDIlN; A8BB880R OF THllI ROYAL IOIlTALLIC COLLJllGI!l OF 8W11DI!lN;FELLOW OP THIl ROYAL ACADJIlMY OF SCIlllNCE8 01 UPSALA, AND OFl8lIl ROYAL ACADI!lIlY OP llCII!lNClIl8 OP STOCKHOLM; COBBl!lSPONDINGMBIIBIlB 01 TBIl IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCE8 OF 8T. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE- LATIN BY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME TWO SIICOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS UlOOJlPOJl.l.T.D Reproduced by Photo-offset, SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  38. 38. THE ECONOMY OFTHE ANIMAL KINGDOM CON8IDERED ANATOMICALLY, PHYSICALLY, AND PHlLOSOPHICALLY BY EMANUEL SWEDENBORGLATE MEMBER OF THE BOUSE OF NOBLEB IN THE ROYAL DIET OPBWEDENi ABSEBBOR OF THE ROYAL MlilTALLIC COLLEGE OF BWEDEN;FELLOW OF THE ROYAL AC~EMY OF SCIENCES OF UPBALA, AND OF"HJ: ROYAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF STOCKHOLM; CORRESPONDINGMEMBER OF THE IMPERIAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF ST. PETERSBURG TRANSLATED FROM THE- LATIN BY THE REV. AUGUSTUS CLISSOLD, M.A. VOLUME TWO SIIlCOND EDITION NEW YORK THE NEW CHURCH PRESS INOOIIPOBA.TIIlD Reproduced by Photo-offset. SWEDENBORG SCIENTIFIC ASSOCIATION. 1955
  39. 39. Paucù natus est. Qui populum tZtatis sua cogitat: multa annorumm.7lia, multa populorum 6upervenient: ad .11a respice, etiamsi omniblUtecum lJiIJentibus SI1entium . . . [aliqua eausa] indixerit: lJenient, quiline offensa, ,ine gratta judiunt. S&N&CA, Eplet. lxxIx.
  40. 40. CONTENTS OF VOLUME SEOOND. PAR TI. - Oofltinued. PAUCh&pter VIII. AD IDtroduetion ta Rational PaycholoQ.. • •• 6 PART II. Chapter 1. On the Motion of the Brain; ahowlng that lta ÂII­ imation lB coïncident with the Reaplration of the Lunga. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 61 " n, The Cortical Subatance oC the Brain apeciflca1ly.. 118 Cl m. The Human Sou!.. • • • • • • • • • • • 201Index of Authon. • • • • • • Sli7Liat of U nverifted Citations.. • • 859Bibliographlcal NotIcea of Authon. 861IDdex of Subjecta. • • 869A.ppendîL • • • • • ü9 ~
  41. 41. THE ECONOMY 011 THE ANIMAL KING DOM. PAR TI. - Oontinued. CHAPTER VIII. ~ INTRODUCTION TO RATIONAL PSYCBOLOGY. 579. PSYCBOLOGY is the science which treats of the essenceand nature of the souI, and of the mode in which she 1I0wsinto the actions of her body; consequently it is the first andlast ofthose sciences which lead to the knowledge of the animaleconomy. But whereas the soul has her residence in a place sosublime and eminent (n. 270), that we cannot ascend to her,and attain to the knowledge of her, except by a particular andgeneral investigation of the lower and accessible things of her-kingdoID; or whereas she lives withdrawn so far within, thatshe cannot be exposed to view until the coverings under whichshe is hidden are nnfolded and removed in order: it hencebecomes necessary that we ascend to her by the same &tepsor degrees, and the same ladder, by which her nature, in theformation of the things ofher kingdom, descends into her body.By way therefore of an Introduction to Rational Psychology, 1will premise THE DOCTRINE OF SERIES AND DEGREES (a Qoc­trine, of which, in the preceding chapters, 1 have made suchfrequent mention), the design of which is, to teach the natureof Order and its rules as observed and prescribed in the succes­sion of things: for the rational mind, in its analytical inqniryinto C&tllleS from effects, nowhere discovers the,ID, except in the 1- 1
  42. 42. 6 THE ECONOMY OF THE nrIM..4.L KINGDOM.Subordination of things, and the Coordination of subordinates;wherefore, if we would advance from the sphere of effects tothat of causes, we must proceed by Orders and Degrees; aglee·ably to what rational analysis" itself both approves and advises. (n.67, 161.) The rational mind also, by means of this doc­ trine carefully investigated and established, will see opened toits view a broad and even path leading to the principles ofcauses, and will behold the dissipation of those occult qualities,which, like the shadows of a thicket, deepen at every step so 88to shut out aU further prospect and progress: for as often asnature betakes herself upwards from visible phenomena, or, inother words, withdraws herself inwards, she instantly as itwere disappears, while no one knows what is become of her,or whither she is gone, so that it is necessary to take science asa guide to attend us in pursuing her steps. Without a guideof this kind, moreover, we shall have a tendency to fall intovarious premature opinions; we shall be apt to think, for in·stance, that the BOuI, either from principles proper to herselt;or flom such 88 are above herself, flows immediately into theeffects of her own body; whence, it necessarily follows, thatthe communication of operations between the soul and the bodymust be explained either by Physico1 Injlw:,t or by Occasional Oauses;t or if by neither of these, a third is assumed, as theonly alternative, namely, that of Preëstablisheà Harmony. §Thus the one or other system flows as a consequence from ourwant of knowledge respecting the subordination of things, andthe connection of things subordinate; even supposing the mostaccurate examination and the most profound judgment to havebeen exercised upon the phenomena; for reasonings natnrallyfollow the course of their pdnciples. But whereas aH things insucceeding each other follow one another in order, and whereasin the whole circle of things, from first to last, there is not asingle one which is altogether unconnected or detached from thelest; 1 am therefore compelled, as 1 said, previous to developingthe snbject of Rational Psychology, to take into considera.tionthis doctrine concerning order and connection, so remarkablyconspicuous in the animal kingdom. In the mean while, whether• A.D aoalY8la protleedlng by ratlo8. (Tr.) t The doctrine of the A.r!8toteUao8. (no.)t The doctrine oC Des Cartee.- (no.) § The doctrine oC Lelbmlll.-(2l.)
  43. 43. ,AN INTRODUOTION TO R,ATION,AL PSYOHOLOGY. 1there be truth in what has been said, and what remains to besaid, may he easily ascertained from the four fo11owing con·siderations: First, In case the truth spontaneously manifesteitself; and 88 it were establishes a belief in its presence, with·out requiring any support from far-fetched arguments; for weoften, by a common notion, and, as it were, by a rational in·stinct, comprehend a thing to be true, which afterwards, by amultiplicity of reasonings drawn from a confused perception ofparticulars unarranged an.d unconnected with others which aremore remote from our notice, is brought into obscurity, caUedin question, and at last denied. Sec01ully, In case a11 expe­rience, both particular and genera~ spontaneously favors it. Thiràly, In case the mIes and maxims of rational philosophydo the sarne. Lasay, In case the proposed views makes the ditferent hypotheses, which have been advanced on the subject, tocoincide, supplying us with the proper condition, or commonprinciple, which brings them into order and connection, so that,contemplated in this manner, they are agreeable to the truth.We may remark that a system constructed on the ground ofsuch an agreement, merits the title of ESTAllLISHED llimlONY.But to proceed to the Doctrine of Series and Degrees. 1. 580. By the doctrine of series and degrees we mean thatdoctrine which teaches the mode observed by nature in the sub­ordination and coordination of things, and which in acting shehas prescribed for herself. Series are what succe8Bively andsimultaneously comprise things subordinate and coordinate.But degrees are distinct progre8Bions, such as when we tind onething is subordinated under another, and when one thing iscoordinated in juxtaposition with another: in this sense thereare degrees of determination and degrees of composition. Inthe mundane system there are several series, both universal andlcss universal, each of which contains under it several seriesproper and e8Bential to itse~ while each of theee again containll
  44. 44. 8 THE EOONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.series of its own; so that there is nothing in the visible wo~which is not a series, and in a series. Consequently, the scieDceof Datural things depends on a distinct notion of series anddegrees, and of their subordination and coordination. 581. By tM à<Jctrine of serie8 and àegrees we mean that à<Je­trine wMch teaches the mode observeà lJy nature in the sub<»,di­nation and coordination of things, and which in acting she haapreseribed f<» herself. This doctrine constitutes a principal partof the natura! sciences; for everywhere in nature there is order,and everywhere the rules of order. It is a ~octrine which ex­pounds the nature of the veriest fonn itselt; without whichnothing which is predicable of anything can occur. If the fonn of which wc may be treating be the veriest fonn itselt; and thingsbe regarded as the subject-matter, in this case the subject­matter joined to the fonn perlects the science; thus, for in­stance, in the anatomy of the animal body, everything we meetwith is a subject-matter of science, while notwithstaDding if theveriest fonn of the whole and of every part be not known, thescience is not perlected. The most perlect order in the mun­dane system Js that which reigns in the animal kingdom; 80perlect, indeed, that it may be considered as the living exem­ plar of aU other things in the world which observe any order.Consequently the doctrine of series and degrees ought to teach,Dot only in what manner things are successively subordinatedand coOrdinated, and in what manner they coexist simultane­ously in subordination and coordination, but also, in what man­Der they are successively and simultaneously detennined accord­ing to the order thus impressed, that they may produce actions,iD which may be causes, between which actions and causesthere may be a connection, so that a judgment may be fopnedrespecting caUses from the order in which they exist. 582. Series are what auccessively and simultaneously comprisethings suh<»,dinate and coordinate. Subordination indeed andCOOrdination properly have respect to order in causes, of whichalso they are commonly predicated; but whereas there is noth­ing in the animal kingdom, which does not, in some way, actas a cause, it is aU the same, whether we caU the severalthings in this kingdom successive and coexisting or simnl­
  45. 45. .4N INTRODUOTION TO RATIONAL PSYOHOLOGY. 9taneous, or whether we call them subordinate and coordinate.When the things themselves are subordinate and coordinate,and thereby distinct from other things, their whole complex, insnch case, is called a series, which, to the end that it may co­exist, must e:Dst successively; for nothing in nature can becomewhat it is at once, or simultaneously: since nature, withoutdegrees and moments, whether of time, velocity, succession,or determination, and consequently withont a complex andseries of things, is not nature. 583. But degrees are distinct progressions, such as we findwhen one thing is subordinated unàer another, and when onething is coordinated in jw;taposition with aJnother,. in thissense there are degrees of determi1Wtion, and d.e,qrees of compo­sition. With philosophera, degrees are quantities of qualities;as degrees of heat, of gravity, of colora, and of many otherthings; thus they constitute relations. But degrees are prop­erly progressions and determinate steps; thus, for instance, inthe case of ourselves, when we walk forward, we measure outwith our feet determinate distances, and not only so, but inclimbing a ladder, the very ladder itself has its separate steps orgradations. Hence it is that degrees never exist but in thingssuccessive. In things coexisting they are conceived to exist, forwhich reason they may also he predicated of them; since uponreflection we perceive that they exist within them, because with­out succession, and thus without degrees, they could not havecoexisted. (n.582.) Rence we say that a series, or coordinationof several things, is to be considered as distinguished into itsdegrees; for we do not, because it coexista, deprive the mindof its ides, that it existed or came into existence; since other­wise there would be no distinct perception of the efficient cause,and of its effect. 584. In the mundane system there are severalseries, both uni­versa~ and less universal. These series, the instant they aredetermined, or viewed as determinate, are usually arranged intogenera and species, whence arise superior and inferior genera.,and in like manner species, which acknowledge degrees of uni­versality; wherefore species, and occasionally even individuaIs,are considered as a genus; and vice versa, when compared withgen.era more universal. The most universal series is the uni­
  46. 46. 10 THE ECONOMY OF THE ANIMAL KINGDOM.verse, or the system of the world, which contains witbin itselfseveral series. The world or universe, according to the cele­brated WoUt is a series of finite entities connected with eachother, consequently it is one entity; but this sytem comprisesmany simultaneous and many successive things. (Oosmologia Generalis, § 48, 51, 52, 60.) The series which the world com­prisee, are three superior, and three inferior. The superior seriesare those of the circumambient universe or world; the inferiorare those of the earth. Of the circumambient universe orworld, there is a series of substances simply derived from thefirst substance by the order of succession. The second seriesis that which the same substances constitute when left. to them­selves and their own nature, or when endowed with the libeltyof gyrating, whence cornes fire, both solar and inferior elemen­tary fire. (n. 84.) The third series is that of the auras of themundane system, arising from the combination of the two for­mer, thus from their active and as it were passive principles:this latter series is that for the sake of which the former exist;it constitutes the circumambient world itself; and without it,the three inferior series, which are those of the earth, cannoterist. The auras themselves, which constitute this series, whenexamined as to their causes, by a rational analysis founded onfacts, are four, which, as they succeed each other in order, de­crease in simplicity, purity, universality, and perfection. Theseare the most perfect forms of active and passive nature, repre­senting her forces brought ioto forma. The world itself con­firms their existence; so that he who doubts it, precludes him­self from the investigation of every phenomenon and from thediscovery of causes in every effect. (n. 53-58, 65-68.) The general series of the earth, which in relation to thefûrmer ought to be denominated inferior, are themselves alsothree, and are commonly called kingdoms; namely, the mineraI,vegetable, and animal kingdoms. The mineraI kingdom containsseveral species; as metals, stones, salts, earths, liquids, in short,oumerous inactive substances. The vegetable kingdom containsalso various species, one under the other, such as trees, herbs,flowers, shrubs, and pulse. In like manner the animal kingdomcontains its several species, which it would be tedious to enu­merate. These kingdoms, or general terrestrial series, succeed

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