00 Anatomy Framework


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A brief introduction to the human species and the history of anatomy

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00 Anatomy Framework

  1. 1. What is the framework that Homo sapiens fits in? <ul><li>American Museum of Natural History depiction of a Neanderthal hunter. </li></ul>
  2. 3. Why is it useful to know this framework? <ul><li>Kingdom: Animalia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Primates </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Homin </li></ul><ul><li>Genus: Homo </li></ul><ul><li>Species: sapiens </li></ul>
  3. 4. What do we share with other mammals?
  4. 5. I’m better than you! I have NINE cervical vertebrae!
  5. 6. <ul><li>Mammals have lungs with alveoli, with breathing mainly powered by a diaphragm </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals have a 4-chambered heart </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals have a neocortex (part of the cerebral cortex) in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Mammals have differentiated teeth (heterodontia) </li></ul><ul><li>All vertebrates have an integumentary system with epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, but only mammals have fur (hair) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Endothermy? </li></ul><ul><li>Viviparity? </li></ul><ul><li>Mammary glands and nipples? </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence? </li></ul>
  7. 8. Why study anatomy?
  8. 9. What is the history of anatomy? <ul><li>What did the painters at Lascaux cave understand about anatomy 16,000 years ago? </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>6,600 + year old Egyptian manuscript shows that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, uterus and bladder were recognized, and that the blood vessels were known to come from the heart. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Hippocrates <ul><li>Greek </li></ul><ul><li>5 th century B.C. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The original Hippocratic Oath <ul><li>I swear by Apollo, Asclepius, Hygieia, and Panacea, and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment, the following Oath. To consider dear to me, as my parents, him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and, if necessary, to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art . </li></ul><ul><li>I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Hippocratic Oath (slide 2 of 4) <ul><li>To please no one will I prescribe a deadly drug nor give advice which may cause his death. </li></ul><ul><li>Nor will I give a woman a pessary to procure abortion. </li></ul><ul><li>But I will preserve the purity of my life and my arts. </li></ul><ul><li>I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Hippocratic Oath (slide 3 of 4) <ul><li>In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or with men, be they free or slaves. </li></ul><ul><li>All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Hippocratic Oath. The End. <ul><li>If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all men and in all times; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my lot. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Galen (from Rome; student of Hippocrates) <ul><li>He lived about 200 BC </li></ul><ul><li>He compiled findings from earlier anatomists and dissected dogs, from which he made drawings </li></ul><ul><li>His books were THE reference book for medicine for 1500 years!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His ideas were kept alive by Arabic medicine, as Western medicine took several steps back after the fall of the Roman Empire </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. People didn’t challenge Galen’s ideas <ul><li>Because Galen said it, people believed that arterial blood came from the heart and venous blood came from the liver </li></ul><ul><li>Because Galen said it, people thought the left ventricle of the heart was filled with air. Even when they saw blood in the heart they thought they were wrong, not Galen. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Galen said bloodletting was a good practice, people carried it out until the 1800’s. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>There were two key concepts in his system of bloodletting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first was that blood was created and then used up, it did not circulate and so it could 'stagnate' in the extremities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second was that humoral balance was the basis of illness or health, the four humours being blood, phlegm, black bile, and yellow bile, relating to the four Greek classical elements of air, water, earth and fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to balance the humours, a physician would either remove 'excess' blood (plethora) from the patient or give them an emetic to induce vomiting, or a diuretic to induce urination. </li></ul></ul>Hippocrates believed that menstruation functioned to &quot;purge women of bad humors.&quot; Galen began physician-initiated blood-letting.
  18. 19. A curious man <ul><li>Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) came from a long line of Belgium physicians </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the famous De humani corpus . </li></ul><ul><li>You can thank him for the idea of putting anatomical terms in Latin (or Greek) </li></ul>
  19. 20. Why Vesalius was different <ul><li>Hands-on direct observation was considered the only reliable resource, a huge break with medieval practice. </li></ul><ul><li>He kept meticulous drawings of his work for his students in the form of six large illustrated anatomical tables </li></ul><ul><li>In 1539 a judge became interested in Vesalius' work, and made bodies of executed criminals available for dissection. He soon built up a wealth of detailed anatomical diagrams. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many of these were produced by commissioned artists, and were therefore of much better quality than those produced previously. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Anatomy flourished in the Renaissance (this is a 1559 print). </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Rembrandt’s depiction of an anatomy lesson, 1632 </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>In England, the Murder Act (1752) stipulated that only the corpses of executed murderers could be used for dissection. By the early 19th century, the rise of medical science, occurring at the same time as a reduction in the number of executions, had caused demand to outstrip supply. The Anatomy Act (1832) expanded the legal supply of cadavers for medical research and education, in reaction to public fear and revulsion of the illegal trade in corpses. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Gray's Anatomy: Descriptive and Surgical , by Henry Gray <ul><li>This book was first published in 1858. </li></ul><ul><li>While studying the anatomical effects of infectious diseases, Gray contracted smallpox from his dying nephew and died shortly after the publication of the 1860 second edition, at the age of 34. </li></ul><ul><li>Work on his much-praised book was continued by others and on November 24, 2004, the 39th British edition was released. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Which do you prefer?
  25. 26. The anatowiki! <ul><li>The newest resource in anatomy, created especially for and by this class! </li></ul><ul><li>YOU are the star at http://anatowiki.wetpaint.com </li></ul><ul><li>Help your classmates create the best study tool ever! </li></ul>