Richard Owen

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  • Richard Owen

    1. 1. Responses Owen Agassiz Huxley Mivart
    2. 2. Charles Bell 1858 was not “marked by any of those striking discoveries which at once revolutionize, so to speak, the department of science on which they bear” Presidential Address, Linnaean Society
    3. 3. Initial Positive Reviews The Times Gardeners Chronicle
    4. 4. Adam Sedgwick “I cannot conclude without expressing my detestation of the theory, because of its unflinching materialism;—because it has deserted the inductive track, the only track that leads to physical truth;—because it utterly repudiates final causes, and thereby indicates a demoralized understanding on the part of its advocates” Spectator (7 April 1860)
    5. 5. Adam Sedgwick The theory was “not inductive – not based on a series of acknowledged facts pointing to a general conclusion, - not a proposition evolved out of the facts, logically, and of course including them.” Spectator (7 April 1860)
    6. 6. Adam Sedgwick “I have read your book with more pain than pleasure. Parts of it I admired greatly, parts I laughed at till my sides were almost sore; other parts I read with absolute sorrow, because I think them utterly false and grievously mischievous.You have deserted—after a start in that tram-road of all solid physical truth—the true method of induction, and started us in machinery as wild, I think, as Bishop Wilkinss locomotive that was to sail with us to the moon. Many of your wide conclusions are based upon assumptions which can neither be proved nor disproved, why then express them in the language and arrangement of philosophical induction?” Letter to CD, 11/24/59
    7. 7. Adam Sedgwick “I shall always protest against that degrading hypothesis which attributes to man an origin derived from the lower animals” October 1868
    8. 8. George Douglas Campbell Duke of Argyll Reign of Law (1867) Both history and physical phenomena were planned and directed by a divine Mind using natural law. Transmutation could occur, natural selection was not the mechanism. Beauty for beauty’s sake could not be explained.
    9. 9. Henry Charles Fleeming Jenkin North British Review, 1867 Since artificial selection had its limits, it actually disproved natural selection. Advantageous variants would be swamped within the population as a whole. Addressed by Darwin in the 5th edition of 1869
    10. 10. Shipwrecked Englishman“Our shipwrecked hero would probably become king; he would killa great many blacks in the struggle for existence; he would have agreat many wives and children, while many of his subjects would liveand die as bachelors. In the first generation there will be somedozens of intelligent young mulattoes, much superior in averageintelligence to the negroes. We might expect the throne for somegenerations to be occupied by a more or less yellow king; but canany one believe that the whole island will gradually acquire a white,or even a yellow population, or that the islanders would acquireenergy, courage, ingenuity, patience, self-control, endurance, in virtueof which qualities our hero killed so many of their ancestors, andbegot so many children; those qualities, in fact, which the strugglefor existence would select, if it could select anything?”
    11. 11. Richard Owen 1804 - 1892
    12. 12. LifeApprenticed to surgeon apothecaryEducated for six months in Edinburgh, 1824Prosector at St Bartholomew’s Hospital, 1825Member, Royal College of Surgeons, 1826Hunterian Museum: Assistant Curator 1827,Curator 1842Fellow, Royal Society, 1834Hunterian Professor, Royal College of Surgeons,1836Introduced to Darwin by Lyell, 1836British Museum: Superintendent, 1856 - 1883Founded British Museum (Natural History), 1881Knight of the Order of the Bath, 1883
    13. 13. Fusing of functionalism (Cuvier) with transcendental anatomy (Oken).
    14. 14. Functionalism Georges Cuvier Adaptation of organism to external conditions “Correlation of Parts” and “Conditions of Existence” Could be allied with British Natural Theology
    15. 15. Lorenz Oken Naturphilosophie The skull consisted of modified vertebrae (1807)
    16. 16. Megatherium 1842
    17. 17. Dinosauria 1842
    18. 18. Dinornis 1843
    19. 19. Royal Medal 1846 Chaning Pearce 1842
    20. 20. Great Exhibition1851
    21. 21. Gideon Mantel 1852
    22. 22. Archaeopteryx 1863
    23. 23. Homology
    24. 24. Homology “The same organ in different animals under every variety of form and function”
    25. 25. Vertebral Theory
    26. 26. The Vertebrate ArchetypeOn the Archetype and Homologies of the Vertebrate SkeletonArchetype as abstract principle or law of nature (1848) Archetype as pre-existing pattern (1849)
    27. 27. 1839 “Do the speculations … of Lamarck and Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire derive any support, or meet with additional disproof, from the facts? … We have the opportunity of tracing Ichthyosauri, generation after generation through the whole of the immense series of strata. The very species which made its first abrupt appearance in the lowest strata, maintains its characters unchanged and recognizable in the highest of the Secondary strata. … In the chalk the genus Ichthyosaurus quits the stage of existence as suddenly as it entered it … and with every appreciable character unchanged. There is no evidence whatever that one species has succeeded or been the result of the transmutation of a former species”
    28. 28. Evolutionism? 1830’s - Matter had “organizing energy” (vitalism) 1838 - Ridicules Lamarckism 1840’s - “The continuous operation of the ordained becoming of all things” 1849 - Humans evolved from fish by natural law 1854 - Apes could not be transformed into men but humans could have evolved from other species by a process other than transmutation
    29. 29. “Derivative Hypothesis” Owen’s Evolutionism Fundamental relationship of all (vertebrate) organisms Spontaneous generation Pattern in fossil record from general to specific Studies of fossils could actually reveal the steps by which adaptation took place. Species come into existence through pre-ordained process of natural law Transmutation is saltational – there are breaks between groups
    30. 30. Reject Darwinism Edinburgh Review, 1860 Origin suffered for the “abuse of science ... to which a neighbouring nation, some seventy years since, owed its temporary degradation” Natural Selection can only cause extinctions Apparent random nature of process Miss-portrayal of Owen by Darwin as a creationist.
    31. 31. On Darwin “Darwin stands to biology in the relation in which Copernicus stood to astronomy” However, a Newton (nomotheization) was still to come
    32. 32. Not A Creationist “We have no sympathy whatever with Biblical objectors to creation by law, or with the sacerdotal revilers of those who would explain such law”
    33. 33. 1858 “I cannot shut my eyes to the significance of that all- pervading similitude of structure - every tooth, every bone, strictly homologous - which makes the determination of the difference [between man and ape] the anatomist’s difficulty”
    34. 34. Owen on Humans Sole members of sub-class Archencephala Larger relative brain size Increase in size of cerebral hemispheres Well developed cerebellum with increased convolutions Presence of hippocampus minor
    35. 35. Examining a Water Baby
    36. 36. BAAS Meeting of June 1860, Oxford
    37. 37. Bishop Samuel Wilberforce
    38. 38. Hooker Fitzroy
    39. 39. “Cambridge Duet” BAAS Meetings 1860: Oxford 1861: Manchester 1862: Cambridge Scientific Journals Natural History Review (Huxley) Annals and Magazine of Natural History (Owen)
    40. 40. Man’s Place in Nature 1863
    41. 41. Problems with “Traditional” ViewBoth sides erred Mis-translated Latin (RO) Illustrations (RO and THH) Lack of fossil evidence (THH)The continued attack by THH since 1850Owen’s evolutionism
    42. 42. Long Campaign Networking with younger scientists Continually attacking Owen’s work since early 1850’s “Slaying a great man as a means to achieve greatness” Attempt to prevent formation of BM(NH) in 1860 - museums were for research
    43. 43. Vehement anti-evolutionary member of “old guard” orTheistic evolutionist and victim of institutional politics
    44. 44. Convicted Mantell & Iguanodon Denied presidency of Geological Society Pearce & blemenites Voted off councils of Zoological and Royal societies. Huxley & brains Prevented from joining Royal Society council Hooker & funding for Kew
    45. 45. Darwin on Owen“The Londoners say he is mad with envy because mybook is so talked about. It is painful to be hated in theintense degree with which Owen hates me.”“I used to be ashamed of hating him so much, butnow I will carefully cherish my hatred & contempt tothe last days of my life.”
    46. 46. 1885
    47. 47. 1866
    48. 48. 1867
    49. 49. 1868
    50. 50. 1869
    51. 51. 1881
    52. 52. 1881
    53. 53. 1881
    54. 54. King ofA Shanty 1882
    55. 55. 1882
    56. 56. SwiftMcNeil 1893
    57. 57. 1867
    58. 58. 1876
    59. 59. 1880
    60. 60. 1882

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