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A2 English Literature & Language - Practical & Stylistics
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A2 English Literature & Language - Practical & Stylistics

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  • 1. Stylistics & Practical Criticism Objectives: *To understand the differences between stylistics and practical criticism *To be able to use stylistics and practical criticism to develop our understanding of the Pre-Release texts.
  • 2. Literary Approaches: Practical Criticism
    • The analysis of the literary devices used in a text. The literary text is seen as a self-sufficient work of art.
      • Rhyme Scheme
      • Figurative Language (similes / metaphors / imagery / alliteration / personification)
      • Enjambment
      • Pathetic Fallacy
    • Etc …
  • 3. Linguistic Approach: Stylistics
    • The analysis of the language used in a text to help the reader arrive at an objective view.
      • Sentence structure (clauses / verbs / noun phrases etc ..)
      • Connotations / Denotations
      • Active / Passive
      • grammatical structures
      • phonology
    • Etc …
  • 4. Why is stylistics a useful approach?
    • Stylistics allows you to make detailed comparisons about ALL the texts – both literary and non-literary.
    • As you are stating what is used (linguistically) it allows you to be more objective (unbiased).
    • BE CAREFUL – stylistic analysis will not give you all the answers.
  • 5. Why is practical criticism a useful approach?
    • Practical Criticism allows you to make detailed comparisons about literary texts it identifies how a text conforms or deviates from the typical features of that genre.
    • The careful study of form and style and an analysis of techniques enables the reader to reveal the fine moral perceptions embedded in a text.
    • BE CAREFUL – practical criticism is limited – it only considers the words on the page.
  • 6. Stylistic or Practical?
    • Look at the list of words on the next two slides. Divide them into two categories (S) for Stylistic and (PC) for Practical Criticism. Two have been done for you!
    • Do you know what they mean?
    • Colour code your list:
      • Red = No Idea
      • Amber = I think I have some idea
      • Green = I know what this means.
  • 7. Glossary
    • Adjective (S)
    • Adverb
    • Archaic
    • Colloquial
    • Conjunctions
    • Connotations
    • Convergence
    • Consonant
    • Denotation
    • Determiner
    • Diachronic variation
    • Discourse markers
    • Divergence
    • Ellipsis
    • External narration
    • Figurative language
    • Foregrounding
    • Formal
    • Generic
    • Geographical dialect
    • Metaphor (PC)
    • Monologue
    • Morphology
    • Narrator
    • Neologism
  • 8. Glossary
    • Non-finite verbs
    • Noun
    • Noun phrase
    • Parenthesis
    • Phonology
    • Polysyllabic
    • Preposition
    • Pronoun
    • Semantic field
    • Semantics
    • Sentence structure
    • Synonym
    • Tense
    • Verb
    • Vowel
  • 9. Task Read Activity 10. *How do they differ? *Where do they overlap?
  • 10. Semantic Fields Objectives: *To develop our understanding of semantic fields *To be able to use semantic fields when analysing texts.
  • 11. Look at these words:
    • attrition
    • sudden death
    • barbed-wire entanglements
    • defence
    • threat
    • What topic does the text that these words come from address?
  • 12. Were you correct?
    • ENGLAND v SPAIN
    • An early goal will open up any game but the longer this Wembly quarter-final today remains scoreless, the more it will become a contest of attrition , with the winners likely to be decided by sudden-death overtime or a penalty shoot-out. England are better equipped for an exchange of goals, with Shearer at least producing his prolific league form at international level. Spain have yet to find a consistent striker but the depth of their strength is formidable. They will hope to draw England on to the barbed-wire entanglements of their defence and then use Sergi to catch the opposition on the break. Hierro, Amor and Caminero will pose a threat to Adams coming from the deep. Terry Venables could have done with Ince against Nadal.
  • 13. Semantic Fields
    • The reporter has used two semantic fields within the report
    • The words highlighted in green most people would assume to be from the semantic field of war
    • The second semantic field are words one would associate with football reports – what words would form that semantic field?
  • 14. Semantic Fields
    • ENGLAND v SPAIN
    • An early goal will open up any game but the longer this Wembly quarter-final today remains scoreless , the more it will become a contest of attrition , with the winners likely to be decided by sudden-death overtime or a penalty shoot-out . England are better equipped for an exchange of goals , with Shearer at least producing his prolific league form at international level. Spain have yet to find a consistent striker but the depth of their strength is formidable. They will hope to draw England on to the barbed-wire entanglements of their defence and then use Sergi to catch the opposition on the break. Hierro, Amor and Caminero will pose a threat to Adams coming from the deep. Terry Venables could have done with Ince against Nadal.
  • 15. How does the writer’s use of the war semantic field code the text? What does it tell us about the role football plays in today's society?
  • 16. Semantic Fields PRE-RELEASE
    • Look at each of the pre-release texts you have been given.
    • Make a note of words / phrases within each text that are in the same semantic field.
    • You may find you have more than one semantic field per text – write a list of words / phrases that belong to each semantic field.
    • How many of the texts share semantic fields?
  • 17. Glossary
    • Adjective – a word added to a noun to qualify it.
    • Adverb – a word add to a verb to modify it’s meaning.
    • Archaic – referring to language features that are no longer in use.
    • Colloquial - local dialect / slang
    • Conjunctions – a word that connects sentences, clauses and words.
    • Connotations - the implied meanings / associations of a word.
    • Convergence – a tendency to behave the same as people with whom one has contact.
  • 18. Glossary
    • Consonant – a speech sound other than a vowel.
    • Denotation – the surface meaning of the word.
    • Determiner – a limiting adjective or modifying word (any, my)
    • Diachronic variation – variation in the language that changes over time.
    • Discourse markers – words and phrases that signal the structure and organisation of the text.
    • Divergence – a tendency to behave differently from people with whom one has contact.
  • 19. Glossary
    • Ellipsis – an abbreviation in which a word or words are left out and implied.
    • External narration – where the teller of the story is an external character.
    • Figurative language (non-literal)
    • Foregrounding – bringing something to our attention.
    • Formal – proper.
    • Generic – referring to the whole group.
    • Geographical dialect – evidence from what is said / written of speaker’s regional origins.
  • 20. Glossary
    • Metaphor – a comparison where something IS something else
    • Monologue – a speech spoken by one person.
    • Morphology – the ways in which words are formed from smaller units of meaning (morphemes):
    • un reli able
    • prefix base suffix
  • 21. Glossary
    • Narrator – the ‘voice’ or ‘speaker’ in a text
    • Neologism – a new word or phrase:
      • Borrowing – taken from another language.
      • Compounding – joining two words together.
      • Acronym – using initials
      • Blending – merging words together.
      • Clipping – abbreviating a word.
  • 22. Glossary
    • Non-finite verbs:
      • to + verb
      • verb + ing
      • verb + ed
    • Noun (collective noun, proper noun, abstract noun)
    • Noun phrase – group of words used as one noun.
    • Parenthesis – a word or passage inserted into a sentence that is grammatically complete WITHOUT it.
  • 23. Glossary
    • Phonology – the study of the aspects of language connected to sound.
    • Polysyllabic – words with more than three syllables (monosyllabic – words of one syllable)
    • Preposition – indication of time or space – used before a noun (under the table, on Sunday morning)
    • Pronoun – I, we, he, she, they, it …
    • Semantic field – a group of words with related / similar meaning.
  • 24. Glossary
    • Semantics – the study of words and their meanings.
    • Sentence structure:
      • Single – a sentence with only one verb group
      • Compound – sentences / clauses linked simply (and, but)
      • Complex – sentences where subordinate clauses are bound together by more complex connectives and punctuation
      • Minor – fragment of a sentence
      • Declarative – a statement (most common sentence)
      • Imperative – a command
      • Interrogative – a question.
  • 25. Glossary
    • Synonym – a word that has the same meaning as another.
    • Tense – past / present / future
    • Verb – a ‘doing’ word
    • Vowel – a e i o u

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