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Functional linguistics

these slides will help the students to know about the basic works done by known Linguists in the field of Functional Linguistics.

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Functional linguistics

  1. 1. FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS WORKED BY IRAM RASHEED
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • MEANING IS THE PRIMARY DRIVER OF FORM IN LANGUAGE.. • FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS IS FOCUSED ON DERIVING GRAMMATICAL SYNTACTICAL AND TEXTUAL STRUCTURES FROM THE WAYS IN WHICH LANGUAGE IS USED. • SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS IS AN APPROACH TO LINGUISTICS THAT CONSIDERS LANGUAGE AS A SYSTEM. • THE LABEL “SYSTEMIC” IS RELATED TO THE SYSTEM NETWORKS USED IN THE DESCRIPTION OF THE LEXICO-GRAMMAR OF HUMAN LANGUAGES.
  3. 3. COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE  HALLIDAY STATES THAT LANGUAGE IS THE STUDY OF HOW PEOPLE EXCHANGE MEANINGS THROUGH THE USE OF LANGUAGE. oEXAMPLE: THE BOY ATE THE BREAD IN THE KITCHEN. STATEMENTS…. THE BOY IS EATING THE BREAD. COMMANDS… EAT THE BREAD! QUESTIONS… IS THE BOY EATING THE BREAD???
  4. 4. THEORETICAL CLAIMS….. • FOUR MAIN THEORETICAL CLAIMS ABOUT LANGUAGE ARE THERE…. 1. THE LANGUAGE USE IS FUNCTIONAL. 2. ITS FUNCTION IS TO MAKE MEANINGS. 3. THESE MEANINGS ARE INFLUENCED BY THE SOCIAL AND CULTURAL CONTEXT IN WHICH THEY ARE EXCHANGED. 4. THE PROCESS OF USING LANGUAGE IS A SEMIOTIC PROCESS, A PROCESS OF MAKING MEANING BY CHOOSING..
  5. 5. DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTIC THEORY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY  MANY LINGUISTS HOLD THE FACT THAT LANGUAGE IS USED FOR COMMUNICATION IS LARGELY IRRELEVANT TO ITS ANALYSIS. “HOW DID SUCH A VIEW ARISE??”  THREE MAIN THEORISTS WERE THERE…..  SAUSSURE DREW A FUNDAMENTAL CONTRAST BETWEEN LANGUAGE (LANGUE) AND SPEAKING (PAROLE).  BLOOMFIELD (1933) PROPOSED A SIMILAR DISTINCTION: GRAMMAR(THE LINGUISTIC SYSTEM) VS. MEANING (THE USE OF THE SYSTEM ON PARTICULAR OCCASIONS)  CHOMSKY (1965) PROPOSED A DISTINCTION ANALOGOUS BUT NOT IDENTICAL TO SAUSSURE’S AND BLOOMFIELD’S, NAMELY COMPETENCE VS. PERFORMANCE.
  6. 6. RELATION OF THEIR DISTINCTION WITH COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION OF LANGUAGE…  HOW CAN THE VARIOUS COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE BE INCORPORATED INTO THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE??  THE TWO FUNDAMENTAL RELATIONS DEFINING A STRUCTURAL SYSTEM ARE CO- OCCURRENCE (SYNTAGMATIC) AND SUBSTITUTION(PARADIGMATIC) (SAUSSURE)  SYNTAGMATIC RELATIONS DEFINE THE FRAME IN WHICH PARADIGMATIC RELATION EXIST.  PHONEMES MORPHEMES WORDS SENTENCES DISCOURSE /SPEECH EVENTS. • Langue Grammar competence Parole Meaning performance
  7. 7. DEVELOPMENT OF LINGUISTIC THEORY IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY • THE IDEA OF EXTENDING LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS TO INCLUDE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION WAS FIRST PROPOSED BY CZECH LINGUIST METHESIUS (PART OF PRAGUE SCHOOL) • HE AND HIS SUCCESSORS DEVELOPED THE THEORY OF FUNCTIONAL SENTENCE PERSPECTIVE. • THIS THEORY WAS FIRST BROUGHT TO THE ATTENTION OF ENGLISH- SPEAKING LINGUISTS IN HALLIDAY (1967); KUNO (1972A, 1972B) AND CHAFE (1972) APPLIED THEM TO ISSUES THAT WERE OF CONCERN TO THEORETICAL LINGUISTS IN THE US AT THAT TIME. BY THE END OF THE 1970S, A NUMBER OF FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES WERE EMERGING IN BOTH THE US AND WESTERN EUROPE.
  8. 8. FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES  THERE ARE THREE APPROACHES…  FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR BY ( DIK 1978,1989)  ROLE AND REFERENCE GRAMMAR BY FOLEY AND VAN VALIN  SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR BY HALLIDAY  FG AND RRG ARE MODERATE FUNCTIONAL THEORIES. THESE THEORIES REJECT THE CONCEPTIONS OF GRAMMATICAL STRUCTURE, BUT EACH PROPOSES DIFFERENT REPLACEMENT VIEW OF STRUCTURE.  FG VIEW OF LANGUAGE: THE LANGUAGE SYSTEM IS NOT CONSIDERED AS AN AUTONOMOUS SET OF RULES RATHER IT IS ASSUMED THAT THE RULES CAN ONLY BE UNDERSTOOD WHEN THEY ARE ANALYZED IN TERMS OF CONDITIONS OF USE.  RRG IS CONCERNED NOT ONLY WITH RELATIONS OF CO-OCCURRENCE AND COMBINATION IN STRICTLY FORMAL TERMS BUT ALSO WITH SEMANTIC AND PRAGMATIC CO-OCCURRENCE AND COMBINATION RELATIONS.
  9. 9. FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES • SFG TAKES A STRONGLY DISCOURSE-ORIENTED VIEW OF LANGUAGE. • HALLIDAY MAINTAINS THAT THE ULTIMATE EXPLANATIONS OF LINGUISTIC PHENOMENA ARE TO BE FOUND IN LANGUAGE USE. • LANGUAGE HAS EVOLVED TO SATISFY HUMAN NEEDS; AND THE WAY IT IS ORGANIZED IS FUNCTIONAL WITH RESPECT TO THESE NEEDS – IT IS NOT ARBITRARY. A FUNCTIONAL GRAMMAR IS ESSENTIALLY A “NATURAL” GRAMMAR, IN THE SENSE THAT EVERYTHING IN IT CAN BE EXPLAINED, ULTIMATELY, BY REFERENCE TO HOW LANGUAGE IS USED. • ACCORDING TO HALLIDAY THERE ARE THREE METAFUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE; • IDEATIONAL , INTERPERSONAL, TEXTUAL METAFUNCTIONS.
  10. 10. FORMAL VS FUNCTIONAL APPROACHES FUNCTIONALIST: • THOSE LINGUISTS WHO BELIEVE LANGUAGE AS SYSTEM OF COMMUNICATION AND TAKE THE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TO BE IMPORTANT FOR ITS ANALYSIS. FORMALISTS: • CONSIDER THE COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE TO BE IRRELEVANT TO ITS ANALYSIS, FOLLOWING CHOMSKY.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION  ALL FUNCTIONALISTS AGREE THAT LANGUAGE IS A SYSTEM OF FORMS FOR CONVEYING MEANING IN COMMUNICATION AND THEREFORE THAT IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND IT, IT IS NECESSARY TO INVESTIGATE THE INTERACTION OF STRUCTURE, MEANING AND COMMUNICATIVE FUNCTION.

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