The Academic Word List           Reorganized for Spanish-               Speaking ELLs   Robert W. Bushong II   ESL Instruc...
A master‟s degree thesis involving Spanish and theAWL (Academic Word List)  a list of 570 academic words  arranged in 10...
How the List Was Constructed a corpus of 3.5 million words excludes the 2,285 words on the General Service List  (West, ...
What is an “academicword”? Many people have the mistaken impression that  these are words like CHROMOSOME or  HYPOTENUSE....
What is an “academicword”? SUBLIST 1:     area, approach, create, occur, similar SUBLIST 5:     aware, capacity, decline...
How many of the AWL wordsare cognates for Spanish-speaking ELLs?      Problem:  What is a cognate?
An ELL from Colombiawrites:The Congress must explicatewhy we need another lawabout attending school.explicate?Spanish: exp...
explicate  explicationexplication [ˌ ɛksplɪˌke  ɪʃən] noun1. the act or process of explicating (explaining)2. analysis or...
explicate  explicationNOT A COGNATEThe correct translation of EXPLICAR in English isEXPLAIN, not EXPLICATE.
The Challenges in       Operationalizing “a           Cognate”Just because the word exists does not mean it is acognate FO...
What Is a Cognate?“In the psycholinguistic literature, cognates are often defined aswords that share aspects of spelling, ...
Research QuestionTo what extent do the 570 headwords in theAcademic Word List consist of English-Spanish true cognates, fa...
Cognates, Polysemes, &                  Homographs(1) Polyseme is an individual word with multiple, related    meanings.  ...
Six Features of a Cognate(1) Cognate etymology(2) Cognate semantics(3) Cognate syntax(4) Cognate morphology(5) Cognate ort...
Six Features of a Cognate(1) Cognate etymology compares the histories of words in cognate pairs.    e.g., visual/visual (L...
True Cognate: visual/visual
True Cognate:chemical/químico
False Cognate:allocate/alocar
Three Types of CognatesTrue CognatesPartial CognatesFalse Cognates
Three Types of Cognates    True Cognates    Partial Cognates    False CognatesTrue Cognates• Do not need to be related (1)...
Three Types of Cognates    True Cognates    Partial Cognates    False CognatesTrue Cognates• Do not need to be related (1)...
Three Types of Cognates    True Cognates    Partial Cognates    False CognatesPartial Cognates• Do not need to be related ...
Three Types of Cognates    True Cognates    Partial Cognates    False CognatesFalse Cognates• Do not need to be related (1...
Three Types of Cognates    True Cognates    Partial Cognates    False CognatesNon-cognates• Do not meet the requirements f...
Procedure(1) Collected data from bilingual, monolingual, and cognate   dictionaries(2) Compared data compiled from the dic...
Comprehensive Bilingual Dictionary of Spanish False Cognates,2nded(Hamel, 2004; p. 20)                                   (...
English-Spanish Cognates Lexicon(Rotavista, 2008; p. 137)
The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary(Thomas et al., 2005; p.873)
Spanish-English Cognates(Woods & Stovall, 2005; p. 4)
SpanishDict.com
EsTheFreeDictionary.com
Results
True Cognates (Excerpt)
Partial Cognates (Excerpt)
False Cognates (Excerpt)
Non-cognates (Excerpt)
Limitations(1) Although cognate was operationalized as thoroughly as possible,    labeling a word takes a certain amount o...
ImplicationsWith knowledge of English-Spanish cognates on the AWL, teachers,curriculum designers, and textbook writers can...
Works Cited (Literature Review) Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34,    213–238. González, F...
Works Cited (Dictionaries)Castillo, C., & Bond, O.F. (1987). The University of Chicago Spanish-   English and Spanish-Engl...
The Academic Word List           Reorganized for Spanish-               Speaking ELLs   Robert W. Bushong II   ESL Instruc...
The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs
The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs
The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs
The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs
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The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

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This presentation was given by Robert Bushong and Keith Folse at the 46th Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit in Philadelphia on March 29, 2012. It was based on a study Bushong did for his Master's thesis at the University of Central Florida in 2010; Folse was Chairperson of the thesis committee.

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The AWL Reorganized for Spanish-Speaking ELLs

  1. 1. The Academic Word List Reorganized for Spanish- Speaking ELLs Robert W. Bushong II ESL Instructor Center for Multilingual Multicultural Studies University of Central Florida rwbushong@yahoo.com PowerPoint Presentation Dr. Keith S. Folse Professor Department of Modern Languages University of Central Florida keith.folse@ucf.edu Handout46th Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit, Philadelphia March 29, 2012
  2. 2. A master‟s degree thesis involving Spanish and theAWL (Academic Word List)  a list of 570 academic words  arranged in 10 sublists (9x60 + 1x10) by frequency (Group 1 is more frequent than Group 10)  AverilCoxhead – New Zealand (consider population)  a corpus  corpus-based word lists
  3. 3. How the List Was Constructed a corpus of 3.5 million words excludes the 2,285 words on the General Service List (West, 1953) approximately 10% of an academic text (but less than 2% in fiction) words had to appear frequently AND widely (appear in at least 15 of 28 different fields)
  4. 4. What is an “academicword”? Many people have the mistaken impression that these are words like CHROMOSOME or HYPOTENUSE. The words are useful because they are “advanced” words (i.e., beyond the GSL 2,285) that are used in a variety of genres/topics.
  5. 5. What is an “academicword”? SUBLIST 1: area, approach, create, occur, similar SUBLIST 5: aware, capacity, decline, precise, revenue SUBLIST 10: adjacent, albeit, nonetheless, odd, undergo
  6. 6. How many of the AWL wordsare cognates for Spanish-speaking ELLs? Problem: What is a cognate?
  7. 7. An ELL from Colombiawrites:The Congress must explicatewhy we need another lawabout attending school.explicate?Spanish: explicar ( = toexplain)
  8. 8. explicate  explicationexplication [ˌ ɛksplɪˌke ɪʃən] noun1. the act or process of explicating (explaining)2. analysis or interpretation, esp. of a literarypassage or work or philosophical doctrine3. a comprehensive exposition or descriptionCollins English Dictionary – Complete andUnabridged © HarperCollins Publishers 2003
  9. 9. explicate  explicationNOT A COGNATEThe correct translation of EXPLICAR in English isEXPLAIN, not EXPLICATE.
  10. 10. The Challenges in Operationalizing “a Cognate”Just because the word exists does not mean it is acognate FOR THE AVERAGE STUDENT.Remember – Our purpose is whether REAL PEOPLEwould recognize the words as cognates, not whetherthere is a historical connection between the two,something that would interest dictionary writers butnot necessarily educators in 2012.
  11. 11. What Is a Cognate?“In the psycholinguistic literature, cognates are often defined aswords that share aspects of spelling, sound, and meaning acrosslanguages. … In linguistics, cognates are often defined aswords that share a common etymological origin” (Sunderman&Schwartz, 2008, p. 527).e.g.,The Word CognateLatin cognatus“meaning „born together, kindred, related, from the same stock‟”(Johnston, 1939, p. 4)Romance language derivations:Spanish cognado, Portuguese cognato, Catalan cognatEach word has undergone what has been aptly described as a “phoneticerosion…” (González, p. 293) from Latin.
  12. 12. Research QuestionTo what extent do the 570 headwords in theAcademic Word List consist of English-Spanish true cognates, false cognates, partialcognates, and non-cognates?
  13. 13. Cognates, Polysemes, & Homographs(1) Polyseme is an individual word with multiple, related meanings. e.g., area (a) Housing is very expensive in the San Francisco area. (b) The area of the office is 150 square feet. (c) I’d rather be sitting in the nonsmoking area. (d) Training is one area of the business that we could improve. Directly quoted from Oxford American Dictionary for Learners of English (Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 36)(2) Homograph is a group of unrelated words that share one written form. e.g., contract (a) The company signed the contract. (b) His biceps would contract as he lifted weights. (c) I got a vaccine so I would not contract the virus.
  14. 14. Six Features of a Cognate(1) Cognate etymology(2) Cognate semantics(3) Cognate syntax(4) Cognate morphology(5) Cognate orthography (i.e., spelling)(6) Cognate phonology (i.e., sound)
  15. 15. Six Features of a Cognate(1) Cognate etymology compares the histories of words in cognate pairs. e.g., visual/visual (Latin root word visualis) goal/gol (English loanword gol)(2) Cognate semantics analyzes the degree to which cognate pairs are similar in meaning. e.g., visual/visual, a shared core meaning commodity/comodidad, no shared core meaning(3) Cognate syntax analyzes the degree to which cognate pairs’ word forms share parts of speech. e.g., construct, either a verb or a nounconstruir, a verb but not a noun(4) Cognate morphology analyzes the degree to which cognate pairs share morphemes. e.g., communication (com-, uni, -tion) / comunicación (com-, uni, -ción)(5) Cognate orthography (i.e., spelling) analyzes the degree to which cognate pairs share spelling. e.g., compare factor/factor and physical/físico(6) Cognate phonology (i.e., sound) analyzes the degree to which cognate pairs share pronunciation. e.g., compare legal/legal and process/proceso
  16. 16. True Cognate: visual/visual
  17. 17. True Cognate:chemical/químico
  18. 18. False Cognate:allocate/alocar
  19. 19. Three Types of CognatesTrue CognatesPartial CognatesFalse Cognates
  20. 20. Three Types of Cognates True Cognates Partial Cognates False CognatesTrue Cognates• Do not need to be related (1) etymologically, and they do not need to be perfect matches (2) semantically, (3) syntactically, (4) morphologically, (5) orthographically, or (6) phonologically.• Do need to have noticeably similar features.• Do need to share one or more core meanings. e.g., create/crear (verb) core meaning: to produce
  21. 21. Three Types of Cognates True Cognates Partial Cognates False CognatesTrue Cognates• Do not need to be related (1) etymologically, and they do not need to be perfect matches (2) semantically, (3) syntactically, (4) morphologically, (5) orthographically, or (6) phonologically.• Do need to have noticeably similar features.• Do need to share one or more core meanings. e.g., goal/gol (noun) core meaning: an aim (of some sort)goal(polyseme) meaning: (1) an objective or (2) a reference to soccergol (monoseme) meaning: a reference to soccer
  22. 22. Three Types of Cognates True Cognates Partial Cognates False CognatesPartial Cognates• Do not need to be related (1) etymologically, and they do not need to be perfect matches (2) semantically, (3) syntactically, (4) morphologically, (5) orthographically, or (6) phonologically.• Do need to have noticeably similar features.• Do need to share one or more core meanings.• Do need to have one or more dissimilar core meanings. e.g., affect/afectar (verb) core meaning: to impact (something orsomeone)affect (noun) core meaning: a psychological dispositionafecto (noun) core meaning: affection
  23. 23. Three Types of Cognates True Cognates Partial Cognates False CognatesFalse Cognates• Do not need to be related (1) etymologically, and they do not need to be perfect matches (2) semantically, (3) syntactically, (4) morphologically, (5) orthographically, or (6) phonologically.• Do need to have noticeably similar features.• Do not share core meanings. e.g., allocate (verb) core meaning: to designatealocar (verb) core meaning: to drive insane
  24. 24. Three Types of Cognates True Cognates Partial Cognates False CognatesNon-cognates• Do not meet the requirements for (1) true cognates, (2) partial cognates, or (3) false cognates.
  25. 25. Procedure(1) Collected data from bilingual, monolingual, and cognate dictionaries(2) Compared data compiled from the dictionaries(3) Consulted additional resources when the dictionary data were insufficient(4) Operationalized cognate as three types of cognates(5) Compared cognates and homographs by using the data collected in this study and an AWL homograph list (Ming-Tzu & Nation, 2004)(6) Labeled each AWL word as a true, partial, false, or non-cognate(7) Compiled cognate lists by (a) alphabetical order and (b) cognate type
  26. 26. Comprehensive Bilingual Dictionary of Spanish False Cognates,2nded(Hamel, 2004; p. 20) (Hamel, 2004; p. 285)
  27. 27. English-Spanish Cognates Lexicon(Rotavista, 2008; p. 137)
  28. 28. The Big Red Book of Spanish Vocabulary(Thomas et al., 2005; p.873)
  29. 29. Spanish-English Cognates(Woods & Stovall, 2005; p. 4)
  30. 30. SpanishDict.com
  31. 31. EsTheFreeDictionary.com
  32. 32. Results
  33. 33. True Cognates (Excerpt)
  34. 34. Partial Cognates (Excerpt)
  35. 35. False Cognates (Excerpt)
  36. 36. Non-cognates (Excerpt)
  37. 37. Limitations(1) Although cognate was operationalized as thoroughly as possible, labeling a word takes a certain amount of judgment on the part of the researcher. In this study, there was no second researcher to verify inter-rater reliability.(2) The researcher was not a fluent speaker of Spanish.
  38. 38. ImplicationsWith knowledge of English-Spanish cognates on the AWL, teachers,curriculum designers, and textbook writers can make better choicesabout the following:(1) the AWL words that need to be explicitly taught to Spanish-speaking ELLs(2) the amount of time necessary to be spend on each AWL word with Spanish-speaking ELLs Future Research (1) To what extent can Spanish-speaking ELLs correctly identify the English-Spanish cognates on the AWL? (2) To what extent do the 570 headwords on the AWL consist of cognates from another Romance language, such as Portuguese, French, and Italian?
  39. 39. Works Cited (Literature Review) Coxhead, A. (2000). A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 213–238. González, F.R. (2000). Spanish contribution to American English word stock: An overview. American Speech, 75, 292–295. Johnston, M.C. (1939). Cognate relationships between English and Spanish vocabularies as a basis for instruction. Austin, TX: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis. Ming-Tzu, K.W., & Nation, P. (2004). Word meaning in academic English: Homography in the Academic Word List. Applied Linguistics, 25, 291–314. Oxford University Press. (2010). Oxford American Dictionary for Learners of English. New York: Oxford University Press. Sunderman, G., & Schwartz, A. (2008). Using cognates to investigate cross-language competition in second language processing. TESOL
  40. 40. Works Cited (Dictionaries)Castillo, C., & Bond, O.F. (1987). The University of Chicago Spanish- English and Spanish-English Dictionary/Universidad de Chicago DiccionarioInglés-EspañolyEspañol-Inglés (4th ed.). New York: Pocket Books.Hamel, B.H. (2004). Comprehensive bilingual dictionary of spanish false cognates/Gran diccionariobilingue de falsos amigos del inglés (2nd ed.). Beverly Hill, CA: Bilingual Book Press.Rotavista, E. (2008). English-Spanish cognates lexicon/Lexco de cognados ingles-español. Pittsburg: Red Leaf Press.Thomas, S., Nash, R., Thomas, G., & Richmond, D. (2005). The big red book of Spanish vocabulary. New York: McGraw-Hill.Woods, R.D., & Stovall, M.M. (2005). Spanish-English cognates/Los cognadosespañoles-ingleses. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  41. 41. The Academic Word List Reorganized for Spanish- Speaking ELLs Robert W. Bushong II ESL Instructor Center for Multilingual Multicultural Studies University of Central Florida rwbushong@yahoo.com PowerPoint Presentation Dr. Keith S. Folse Professor Department of Modern Languages University of Central Florida keith.folse@ucf.edu Handout46th Annual TESOL Convention and Exhibit, Philadelphia March 29, 2012

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