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Ctel module1 fall09


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Ctel module1 fall09

  1. 1. Module One, Domain 1 Language and Language Development ( CTEL, Chapter 1 ) Jeffery Heil California Teachers of English Learners (CTEL)
  2. 2. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs) <ul><li>See pages 3 – 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that each domain is cross-referenced to a page number in the participant guide </li></ul><ul><li>Page 8 gives the test structure of the first three subtests </li></ul><ul><li>Page 9: Rationale for Module 1 </li></ul>
  3. 3. Domain 1: Language Structure and Use <ul><li>001–Phonology & Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>002–Syntax & Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>003–Language Functions & Variation </li></ul><ul><li>004–Discourse </li></ul><ul><li>005–Pragmatics </li></ul>
  4. 4. Domain 2: First and Second Language Development <ul><li>(And their relationship to Academic Achievement) </li></ul><ul><li>006–Theories, Processes & Stages of Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>007–Theories, Models, and Processes of Second-Language Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>008–Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors Affecting Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>009–Affective Factors Affecting Language Development </li></ul><ul><li>010–Sociocultural and Political Factors Affecting Language Development </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rate Your Knowledge <ul><li>Complete page 10: Rate your prior knowledge of the linguistic terminology we will encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Look at page 11 and predict what the three major subheadings of the nature of language. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Page 11 Communicative Competence
  7. 7. Structure <ul><li>Four Linguistic subsystems that are necessary to understand how language is formed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Function <ul><li>Two Major subheadings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking and writing only </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal and non-verbal communication (everything non-discourse and non-structure) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Variation <ul><li>This is the different styles/registers we use to communicate depending on the context of a communicative act in terms of subject matter, audience, and occasion </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose -Formal & Informal </li></ul>
  10. 10. Subsystems of Language Structure <ul><li>Phonology (page 12) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CTEL Ch1 13-20 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology (page 13) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CTEL Ch1 20-23 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax (page 14) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CTEL 23-25 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantics (page 15) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CTEL 26-30 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pragmatics (17 - 27) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CTEL 39-43 </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Phonology <ul><li>Phonology - It is the study of the sound system of a language; the way in which speech sounds form patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>A phoneme is the sound that makes up a langue, the smallest unit of sound. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: cat, /c/ /a/ /t/ has three phonemes. </li></ul><ul><li>Minimal pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Phonemic Sequence – permissible ways in which phonems can be combined in a language </li></ul><ul><li>Describing Phonemes : place, manner of articulation, voice (b/p distinction, Arabic doesn’t distinguish voice) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Phonology - Stress <ul><li>Characteristics of language beyond phonemes : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch/tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intonation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Phonology - stress <ul><li>Stress – amount of volume a speaker gives to a particular sound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stress can occur at the word or sentence level (a property of syllables) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex : désert noun, “dry region” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ex : dessért noun, “sweet foods” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kímberly walked home. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kimberly wálked home. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kimberly walked hóme . </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Phonology – pitch & rythym <ul><li>Pitch - serves to distinguish meaning within a sentence. It can have a high or low pitch depending on what the speaker is trying to convey. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are going to school! Vs. You are going to school? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prosody – the underlying rhythm of the language (interaction of pitch and word stress) CTEL, pg17 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem -pronouncing all words with equal emphasis (Ben Stein </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modulation is the process that words, phrases, and sentences go through to change the tonal center from one place to another. The purpose is to help give language structure, direction, and variety. (going down for authority, up for engagement/interest) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Phonology – intonation patterns <ul><li>Intonation Patterns are variations in the pronunciation of phrases or sentences that follow certain patterns, changes in the pitch of the voice, length, and speech rhythm to modify sentence meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most English sentences combine accented and unaccented syllables in an undulating rhythm until just before the end of the sentence, at which time the pitch rises and then drops briefly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem : when a tonal language, like Cantonese, uses intonation variation at the word level, the output could be considered harsh. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrastive Analysis vs. Error Analysis </li></ul>
  16. 16. Phonology <ul><li>How Can Phonology Inhibit Communication ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a student’s primary language sound system differs from the English Sound system: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It’s difficult to transfer what is not in the system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When speaking and making different sounds to a word, meaning could change (short i, b/v, l/r, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When a student struggles to master pronunciation, intonation, and stress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Morphology <ul><li>Morphology –the study of meaning units (words) in a language. </li></ul><ul><li>Morpheme - is the smallest unit (in the word) in the building blocks of meaning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: dog=1 morpheme dogs (dog + s)=2 [dog = root/free ] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex: unhappiness = un + happy + ness (no necessary link between spelling & morphemes) [happy=root, un & ness=affix] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deer (singular) = one morpheme Deer (plural) = two morphemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two lexical morphemes are also called compound words. The word is made from two free morphemes (basket + ball = basketball) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Morphology <ul><li>Inflectional Endings- all are suffixes (eight total): -s,-es, -s, -ing, -ed, -en, -er, -est </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflectional morphemes do not change meaning or grammatical class of the word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Derrivational Morphemes – the use of affixes to morphemes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These do change either the meaning or grammatical class of the word </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognates are words in related languages that developed from the same ancestral root such as English “father” and Latin “pater”. </li></ul><ul><li>How can morphology inhibit communication? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When a plural is irregular, such as mouse (singular) and mice (plural), an EL will over generalize and say mouses, since s/he learned that houses is house in the plural form. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Syntax <ul><li>Syntax is the study of the structure of sentences and the rules that govern the correctness of a sentence . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(not to be confused with grammar) “I ain’t got a pen” is sytactically correct, but not grammatically Standard English usage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun -names person, place, or thing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preposition -links pronouns and nouns to the rest of the sentence </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Syntax <ul><li>Syntactic rules are pattern relations that govern the way the words in a sentence come together </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence patterns are various ways of expressing a complete thought from simple sentences (S & V) to compound, complex sentences </li></ul>
  21. 21. Syntax <ul><li>Implication : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need to be exposed to different sentence patterns from simple to complex in oral and written form in order to acquire the patterns. They can be taught after the acquisition process in order for students to monitor their language development. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Semantics <ul><li>Semantics is the study of meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases or sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties w/Semantics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Meanings -words can have multiple meanings and connotations (tire, tire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False Cognates- there can be false cognates (library, librer ía, embarrassed/embarazada) CTEL, pg 27 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idioms -are a group of words that have a single meaning and is not to be interpreted literally (It’s raining cats & dogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Ambiguities -are when words, phrases, or sentences have multiple meanings </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Semantics <ul><li>Semantics is the study of meanings of individual words and of larger units such as phrases or sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties w/Semantics: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Meanings -words can have multiple meanings and connotations (tire, tire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False Cognates- there can be false cognates (library, librer ía, embarrassed/embarazada) CTEL, pg 27 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idioms -are a group of words that have a single meaning and is not to be interpreted literally (It’s raining cats & dogs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language Ambiguities -are when words, phrases, or sentences have multiple meanings </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Semantics <ul><li>Acquiring Vocabulary (Nation), page 28 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grammatical behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colocational behavior (what words are frequently found next to the work) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stylistic register (formal/informal context) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conceptual meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word associations (connotation) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importance of Academic Vocabulary (CALP) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Lexicon <ul><li>Lexicon is the sum total of the meanings that an individual holds. It is knowledge of how to use the words correctly and how words are formed to create new meanings. It entails different semantic properties such as synonyms, antonyms, homonymns, and idioms </li></ul>
  26. 26. Relationship Among Language Structures <ul><li>See page 16 </li></ul><ul><li>How does primary language affect acquisition of second language in each area of the chart? </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Contrastive Analysis!!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Contrastive Analysis – describing the characteristic differences between languages </li></ul><ul><li>Again, this helps for predicting kinds of syntax errors students might make, but in no ways supplants direct instruction with rich authentic exposure to English discourse (using written and oral examples) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Contrastive Analysis <ul><li>Phonology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No short vowel sounds in Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Los libros de Juan éstan pesados. There are no apostrophes to show possessives in Spanish. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Syntax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>El gato negro. The adjective follows the noun in Spanish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semantics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognates: profesor, professor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False Cognates: librer ía, library </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read the poem: The English Language </li></ul>
  28. 28. Seven Functions of Language <ul><li>Halliday (pg 30): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instrumental (getting needs met) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory (controlling others’ behavior) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Informative (communicating information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactional (establishing social relationships) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal (expressing individuality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heuristic (investigating & acquiring knowledge) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imaginative (expressing fantasy or possibility) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>See Best Practice , page 31 </li></ul>
  29. 29. Social Functions of Language (BICS) <ul><li>Importance of PURPOSE : we talk, listen, read and write when we have a purpose for doing it! </li></ul><ul><li>To amuse : tell a joke, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>To inform : read report </li></ul><ul><li>To control : command “sit down now” </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade : telemarketer telling you how to vote </li></ul>
  30. 30. Academic Functions of Language (CALP) <ul><li>Academic language has a place in all content areas. There are many purposes in using language in subject matter. </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Language Functions/Phrases: (pg 31) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate cause & effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasizing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicating sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>summarizing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some of the differences between academic and social functions of language?? </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers should try to use academic language in context!! </li></ul>
  31. 31. Types of Language Variation CTEL 43-48 <ul><li>Dialect : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A distinct form of a language that differs from other forms of that language in specific linguistic features </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Types of Language Variation <ul><li>Historical Variation : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical records go back thousands of years and indicate that language changes across time and context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language varies in the social context with the purpose to communicate. </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Types of Language Variation <ul><li>Academic Language : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language can be content-specific (academic areas, military, law, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why does language variation evolve ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economics/war </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Factors that influence a speaker’s or writer’s choice of language… <ul><li>Imagine you are trying to persuade (orally, in person) an elderly woman to participate in a community center. She came w/her son from a the Appalachia . She has been a housewife and has taken care of her son’s child. More Social or Academic Variation? </li></ul><ul><li>Now, what would a written brochure look like that is attempting to persuade her? How would it differ? More Social or Academic change? </li></ul>
  35. 35. Factors that influence a speaker’s or writer’s choice of language… <ul><li>Now, select a purpose and setting, oral or written, to accomplish a mode of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>How do the factors change? </li></ul><ul><li>What does this say about our ability to use language? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Analyzing Oral and Written Discourse <ul><li>Two volunteer read script please. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, read the written discourse “Explanation of a math workshop” </li></ul><ul><li>What are the differences and similarities between these samples of oral and written discourse? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conversations are fluid, text is fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do our students tend to write like they talk? If so, what are the implications for us? </li></ul><ul><li>We need to explicitly teach appropriate discourse forms in writing!!! </li></ul>
  37. 37. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings <ul><li>Using the top-half of the Venn diagram, identify similarities and differences between language structures used in spoken and in written English. </li></ul><ul><li>In the bottom-half, brainstorm strategies you can use to teach oral and written discourse in English (Imagine you are teaching non-native speakers of English; although, the strategies would apply to English-only too). </li></ul>
  38. 38. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings <ul><li>Spoken : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More informal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More idiomatic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: more linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fewer use of idioms </li></ul></ul>Guided by the topic, theme, idea Top Half
  39. 39. Promoting Communicative Competence in Social and Academic Settings <ul><li>Spoken : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for clarification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paraphrase </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>syntax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ hamburger” </li></ul></ul>Formal or informal Transitional words Bottom Half
  40. 40. The Hamburger & the Taco (to accompany pg 22 ) <ul><li>Hamburger </li></ul><ul><li>Represents the organized composition, narrative or essay. Top bun is intro ; layers of food are the body/content ; and the bottom bun is the conclusion . </li></ul><ul><li>Five -paragraph composition </li></ul><ul><li>Taco </li></ul><ul><li>Has a cover, the tortilla semi-rolled with lettuce and meat, but no specific order. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative writing : ingredients with no specific order </li></ul>
  41. 41. Analyzing Text Structure <ul><li>At your tables, read the three examples aloud and analyze the text based on the matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples are from 8th grade social-studies, secondary geometry text, and a 4th grade science text. </li></ul><ul><li>What stands out to you about this analysis? </li></ul>
  42. 42. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language <ul><li>Gestures : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ OK” gesture obscene (Brazil/Turkey) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Come Here” (w/finger) is the way to call dog/prostitute in some cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We must explicitly teach our gestures & be careful about which gestures to use! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facial Expressions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans are often perceived by others as being superficial for so much smiling!! </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language <ul><li>Eye Contact : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of eye contact = respect in some cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In North America, it is a sign of disrespect/defiance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proxemics : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North America = arm’s length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Latin America = much closer </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language <ul><li>Touching : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very personal & intimate in some cultures, while in others it is commonplace. Head patting is very taboo in many cultures. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Styles/Registers (CTEL, pg 41, table 1.15) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How you talk depends on your audience . .boss, store clerk, students, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students need to know how and when it is appropriate to switch registers </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language <ul><li>Dialect : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a variation among speakers of the same language. “I’m stuffed” (US=I’m full) vs. (Australia=I’m pregnant!”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speakers of certain dialects may be viewed differently (less intelligent, low SES, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Figures of Speech : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Y’all come back now” (said to Japanese businessmen caused them to get off a bus!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use fewer idioms with beginning level Els and ALWAYS explain them! </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Pragmatic Features of Oral and Written Language <ul><li>Silence : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Silence differs dramatically across cultures. In the U.S., it is interpreted as expressing embarrassment, regret or sorrow. In Asian cultures, it is a token of respect. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Quickwrite (page 26) <ul><li>Describe one discourse setting/context (classroom, social event, store, types of correspondence) and identify key features appropriate to the setting </li></ul><ul><li>Share some ideas with the class </li></ul>
  48. 48. Factors that affect a speaker’s or writer’s choice of pragmatic features <ul><li>Cultural Norms : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student’s upbringing will influence how s/he responds and uses pragmatic features (touching, eye contact) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When engaged in communicating for social purposes, gestures, and facial expressions, will be more commonly used </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Factors that affect a speaker’s or writer’s choice of pragmatic features <ul><li>Setting : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the setting is in the classroom, the teacher/student register will be in place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct vs. indirect communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication (oral/written) is with intent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject Matter : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language is content-specific </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. What are some Difficulties ELs have with respect to Pragmatics? Factors that affect a speaker’s or writer’s choice of pragmatic features Audience Purpose Context Oral Example Administrator Inform : Students ask Principal to include after school programs School (informal) Written Example Administrator/or perhaps school board Persuade : Parents write a letter to principal requesting sports after school Home (formal)
  51. 51. Review of Linguistic Knowledge <ul><li>Return to page 10 and re-rate your knowledge of the linguistic terminology from this section. Add any pertinent information on pages 28-30 </li></ul><ul><li>Page 31 - Rubric to Evaluate ELD Program. Evaluate Yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Write evidence found in each item. Remember to consider: listening, speaking, reading and writing. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Module 1 , Domain 2 First and Second-Language Development and Their Relationship to Academic Achievement (CTEL, Chapter 2)
  53. 53. Readings from CTEL Handbook <ul><li>Read Page 32 “ Contemporary Theories (of Language Acquisition) ” to familiarize yourselves with two major theories , Constructivism & Cognitivism , and the other theories aligned with them. Summarize the theories on page 33 </li></ul><ul><li>For this test, you will need to know theories , not theorists !! </li></ul>
  54. 54. Contemporary Theories of Language Acquisition <ul><li>Constructivism - we construct our knowledge based on individual experience and schema. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Interactionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interlanguage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism - knowledge is viewed as symbolic, mental constructions in the mind of individuals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metacognition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CALLA </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. 1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Babbling : from 6mo - 1yr during which a child imitates the sounds of human language </li></ul><ul><li>Holophrastic : child uses one word to mean a whole statement (“holo”= complete or undivided, is a one word = one sentence stage.) For example, dog is a whole sentence. </li></ul>
  56. 56. 1st Language Acquisition Stages <ul><li>Two-Word : this state emerges when a child reaches approximately 2yrs and begins to produce two-word utterances such as “car go.” </li></ul><ul><li>Telegraphic : state of stringing more than two words together. Children often sound as if there are reading a Western Union message, as in “Cathy build house.” </li></ul>
  57. 57. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Beginning : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal receptive/productive skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to recognize some basic groups of related words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write some isolated English words </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe a picture/object using common vocabulary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match simple vocabulary words to pictures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write sentences appropriate to prompt </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Intermediate : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respond to a prompt using difficult vocabulary in a relevant complete sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read a story and recall details and answer literal questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write simple sentences appropriate to prompt or write story by listing events or ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and follow difficult instructions/delivery in an academic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read involving processes such as: sequencing, generalization, drawing conclusions, and making predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing contains fluent sentences, paragraphs, well-organized ideas, and accurate transitions </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. 2nd Language Proficiency Levels <ul><li>Advanced : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand and follow more complex instructions/delivery in an academic context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Read more complex narrative and expository texts and answer increasingly difficult questions that involve sequencing, generalizing, drawing conclusions, and predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing contains fluent sentences and paragraphs with well organized ideas, accurate transitions, vivid vocabulary, and no significant grammatical errors </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L1 (Left) </li></ul><ul><li>Immersed in language </li></ul><ul><li>Whole to part </li></ul><ul><li>Natural babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Building concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Praise/reinforce </li></ul><ul><li>Informal </li></ul><ul><li>“ parent-talk” </li></ul><ul><li>Long silent period </li></ul><ul><li>Time to develop concrete things </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one w/many clues </li></ul>
  61. 61. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Specific to L2 (Right) </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented </li></ul><ul><li>Part to whole </li></ul><ul><li>Planned language instruction </li></ul><ul><li>No babbling </li></ul><ul><li>Enrichment or requirement(depending on person) </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of error/high anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Formal </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter silent period </li></ul><ul><li>Pressed for time </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Group/class translating concepts/knowledge </li></ul>
  62. 62. Relationship of 1st & 2nd Language Acquisition <ul><li>Commonalities Across L1 & L2 (center) </li></ul><ul><li>Universals </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Stages </li></ul><ul><li>Building concepts </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge in L1 facilitates L2 development </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation to understand </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Gestures </li></ul><ul><li>Non-verbal </li></ul><ul><li>Survival </li></ul><ul><li>modeling </li></ul>
  63. 63. Krashen’s 5 Hypotheses on Second Language Acquisition (The Monitor Model) <ul><li>CTEL Handbook, Ch2, pages 62-64 </li></ul><ul><li>Hypotheses : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquisition-Learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective Filter </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis <ul><li>Subconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to L1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long, active listening period; speaking emerges in stages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Error accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction is modeled </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Know the rules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Having formal knowledge of language </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Errors corrected </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction is overt </li></ul></ul>Acquisition vs. Learning
  65. 65. Monitor Hypothesis <ul><li>Editor (allows for error self-correction) </li></ul><ul><li>To work properly, a person needs : </li></ul><ul><li>Time (conversations vs. writing a ¶) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on form </li></ul><ul><li>Know the rule </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor can be successful for language tests & writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The 'monitor' acts in a planning, editing and correcting function when three specific conditions are met: that is, the second language learner has sufficient time at his/her disposal, he/she focuses on form or thinks about correctness, and he/she knows the rule.” </li></ul>
  66. 66. Natural Order Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire grammatical structures in a fairly predictable order, but cannot teach to that order. We must focus on meaningful messages. </li></ul>
  67. 67. Input Hypothesis <ul><li>We acquire language when we understand what is said to us </li></ul><ul><li>i + 1 (known to the unknown, combine familiar with something new) </li></ul>
  68. 68. Affective Filter Hypothesis <ul><li>Self confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Level of anxiety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A high affective filter impedes the reception of comprehensible input </li></ul></ul>
  69. 69. Cummins’ BICS, CALP, CUP CTEL pg. 64 L1 L2 BICS CALP CUP BICS CALP
  70. 70. Cummins’ Quadrants A B C D Many Clues Few Clues
  71. 71. Cummins’ Quadrant Activity <ul><li>Look at the Quadrant Activity on page 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Try to determine in which quadrant each of the items would be placed </li></ul><ul><li>Remember : there doesn’t have to be a right answer, some may be able to be placed in more than one!! This is designed to simply get you thinking about the issue </li></ul>
  72. 72. Cummins’ Quadrants
  73. 73. Cognitive & Social Strategies Learners Use in Developing a Second Language <ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Formulaic expression </li></ul><ul><li>Elaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal for Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Request for Clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play </li></ul>
  74. 74. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>The following is a sample ELD lesson intro </li></ul><ul><li>“ Last week we finished learning about land transportation and today we are going to start our new lesson about air transportation. What do we know about types of transportation that we see in the sky?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Teacher writes students’ responses ) [expressive skills] </li></ul>
  75. 75. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Let’s have someone volunteer to read what you told me and I wrote about the different types of transportation.” (A few students can read the list) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Has anyone else remembered some more types of transportation?” (while students are listening to teacher’s questions, they may come up with additional answers) Teacher asks student(s) to approach chart paper and write it down. [receptive skills] </li></ul>
  76. 76. ELD Lesson Intro <ul><li>“ Now, we are going to think about what else we want to learn about transportation. . . </li></ul><ul><li>What is the importance of this sample of an intro ELD lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is integrating the four language domains (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) important? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we mean by “language is acquired in a natural process?” </li></ul>
  77. 77. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>English Proficiency, Academic Achievement, Positive Self-Concept </li></ul><ul><li>False </li></ul><ul><li>BICS & CALP </li></ul><ul><li>A: BICS B: CALP </li></ul><ul><li>Social conversation, playground, everyday conversation, family talk, friend talk </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order thinking, abstract thinking, academic language, test skill, problem solving </li></ul>
  78. 78. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Use primary language to learn and support learning. Comprehensible input and low affective filter. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two separate “areas” where languages develop. When one language is “emphasized” the other is reduced. SUP </li></ul><ul><li>There is one “area” where languages develop and there is a relationship or connection between languages. One supports the other in the form of transferability. CUP </li></ul>
  79. 79. Schooling for Language Minority Students <ul><li>Yes, most of the skills transfer. If you learn to think in one language, you do not need to learn to think in another language. If you learn to read in one language, you only need to “break the code” in another language. </li></ul><ul><li>Students receiving instruction in L1 did better in English than those students who only received instruction in English language development. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to communicate in primary language. Home context is conducive to developing literacy in an authentic manner, not school-like manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Use of realia, gestures, contextualization of lesson </li></ul>
  80. 80. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL ed 1: pages 70-74; 77-80 </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 44 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  81. 81. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cognitive and constructive perspectives stress the importance of viewing the students as active processors of information from birth and throughout their lives. These processes occur through social interaction and mental activity in which information is internalized and the learner then constructs meaning based on personal experience and prior knowledge. </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. Cognitive, Linguistic, and Physical Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider alternative assessment such as portfolios or performance-based assessment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning, contextualization </li></ul></ul>
  83. 83. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 74-77 </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 45 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  84. 84. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are several affective factors that impact student learning: self-esteem, motivation, and attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the students feels about her/himself can affect either in a general, or specific to a task or situation. As for motivation, it can be attributed to parents, friends, and teachers by creating a learning environment (not nec. Physical), which impacts the attitude of the student toward learning. It is when anxiety continues to exist that creates a high affective filter preventing the student from learning. </li></ul></ul>
  85. 85. Affective Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work to lower the affective filter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A variety of groupings: small, large, dyads, triads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use L1 to support core curriculum </li></ul></ul>
  86. 86. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>CTEL: pages 81-89 (read and know!!) </li></ul><ul><li>In table groups, read and complete page 46 of the study guide. </li></ul>
  87. 87. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is the explicit and implicit patterns for living, the dynamic system of commonly-agreed-upon symbols, meanings, knowledge, beliefs, morals, customs, traditions </li></ul>
  88. 88. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>For students learning a second language, success is dependent on such extra-linguistic factors as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the pattern of acculturation for their community; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the status and acceptance of their culture, which includes their language </li></ul></ul>
  89. 89. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Synthesis/Summary : </li></ul><ul><li>There are numerous structures within schools that affect student learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tracking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedagogy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the school’s physical structure and disciplinary policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the limited roles of both students and teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited parent and community involvement. </li></ul></ul>
  90. 90. Sociocultural and Political Factors that Influence Language Acquisition <ul><li>Pedagogical Implications : </li></ul><ul><li>The acculturation process is an additive approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L1 is accepted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents are involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment/evaluation takes the whole child into account </li></ul></ul>
  91. 91. Language Acquisition Matching Game!! <ul><li>In table groups, match the description of the theories or perspectives to the appropriate term by numbering them </li></ul>