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IPv6 Theory by Cisco
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  • 1. Cisco Hands-On Training IPv6 theory Darrell Root Sep-09 www.ciscohandsontraining.com This presentation will be posted in the episode comments on the website Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 2. IPv4 address exhaustion (www.potaroo.net) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 3. OSI layer review source: http://www.softpanorama.org/Net/Images/tcp_ip_layers.gif Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 4. Ethernet frame format Ethernet frame type 0x0800=IPv4 Ethernet frame type 0x86DD=IPv6 source: http://cs.uccs.edu/~cs522/msgformat/hw1_ht1.gif Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 5. TCP segment format (RFC 793) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 6. HTTP tcpdump is very familiar Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 7. UDP format (RFC 768) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 8. IPv4 and IPv6 header format (source: h3c.com) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 9. IPv6 extension headers (from www.cisco.com) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 10. IPv6 extension headers (from wikipedia) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 11. IPv6 address example and shortening rules 192.168.33.76 2001:0db8:0032:0000:0000:5bf0:3f2d:8f8a 2001:db8:32::5bf0:3f2d:8f8a Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 12. IPv6 netmasks 2001:0db8:0032:48c3:4f21:5bfe:3f2d:8f8a 2001:0db8::/32 Typical small ISP allocation Typical allocation for 2001:0db8:0032::/48 enterprise, building, or home 2001:0db8:0032:48c3::/ Typical subnet (including p2p 64 links) 2001:0db8:0032:48c3:4 Loopback interface f21:5bfe:3f2d:8f8a/128 Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 13. IPv6 netmask sizes 65536 sites each with /32 /48 65536 subnets each of /48 size /64 One subnet with 16 /64 billion billion hosts Used for loopback /128 interfaces Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 14. subnet mask drill 2345:6789:abcd:ef01:2345:6789:abcd:ef01 2345:6789:abcd:ef00::/63 0x1=1 0001 /16 /32 /48 /64 /128 /8 /44 /52 /60 /43 /45 /50 /62 /63 Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 15. 2345:6789:abcd:ef01:2345:6789:abcd:ef01/128 2345::/16 2345:6789:abcd::/48 2345:6789::/32 2345:6789:abcd:ef01::/64 2300::/8 2345:6789:abc0::/44 2345:6789:abcd:e000::/52 2345:6789:abcd:ef00::/60 2345:6789:abc0::/43 2345:6789:abc8::/45 2345:6789:abcd:c000::/50 2345:6789:abcd:ef00::/62 2345:6789:abcd:ef00::/63 Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 16. IPv6 address types (www.iana.org) 2000::/3 through 3fff::/3 Global Unicast fc00::/7 through fdff::/7 Unique local unicast fe80::/10 through febf::/10 Link local unicast ff00::/8 through ffff::/8 multicast Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 17. IPv6 multicast addresses (source: edge.networkworld.com) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 18. ipv6 well known multicast addresses • ff02::1 all hosts on local subnet • ff02::2 all routers on local subnet • ff02::5, ff02::6 OSPFv3 • ff02::9 RIPng Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 19. IPv6 multicast to ethernet multicast (src: technet.microsoft.com) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 20. IPv6 neighbor solicitation sudo tcpdump -e -n icmp6 00:22:41:27:a4:0a > 33:33:ff:00:00:01, ethertype IPv6 (0x86dd), length 86: 2001:db8:1f05:2e5:222:41ff:fe27:a40a > ff02::1:ff00:1: ICMP6, neighbor solicitation, who has 2001:db8:1f05:2e5::1, length 32 00:1f:f3:3c:fc:d5 > 00:22:41:27:a4:0a, ethertype IPv6 (0x86dd), length 86: 2001:db8:1f05:2e5::1 > 2001:db8:1f05:2e5:222:41ff:fe27:a40a: ICMP6, neighbor advertisement, tgt is 2001:db8:1f05:2e5::1, length 32 Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 21. IPv6 duplicate address detection 00:1b:63:f0:8a:93 > 33:33:ff:f0:8a:93, ethertype IPv6 (0x86dd), length 78: :: > ff02::1:fff0:8a93: ICMP6, neighbor solicitation, who has fe80::21b:63ff:fef0:8a93, length 24 (no reply, so no duplicate address detected) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 22. IPv6 router advertisements 00:1f:f3:3c:fc:d5 > 33:33:00:00:00:01, ethertype IPv6 (0x86dd), length 110: (hlim 255, next-header ICMPv6 (58) payload length: 56) fe80::21f:f3ff:fe3c:fcd5 > ff02::1: [icmp6 sum ok] ICMP6, router advertisement, length 56 hop limit 64, Flags [none], pref medium, router lifetime 1800s, reachable time 0s, retrans time 0s source link-address option (1), length 8 (1): 00:1f:f3:3c:fc:d5 0x0000: 001f f33c fcd5 prefix info option (3), length 32 (4): 2001:db8:1f05:2e5::/64, Flags [onlink, auto], valid time 2592000s, pref. time 604800s Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 23. IPv6 address stateless autoconfiguration (RFC2462) • Host has MAC address 1234:5678:90ab • After using duplicate address detection, host assumes IPv6 link-local address fe80::1234:56FF:FE78:90ab • Host sends router solicitation and receives router advertisement with prefix 2001:db8:1234:5678::/64 • Host uses DAD and eventually assumes IPv6 address 2001:db8:1234:5678:1234:56FF:FE78:90ab Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 24. IPv6 Cisco IOS support • Introduced in 12.2T • Integrated into mainline in 12.3 • Many recent new features, so use at least 12.4 mainline • For cat6, use 12.2(18)SXF or later (currently 12.2 (18)SXF16, 12.2(33)SXH5, or 12.2(33)SXI2a • IP plus feature set, or advanced IP services feature set (very recent releases include it in IP services) Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 25. IPv6 map example All IPv6 addresses start with: 2001:0db8:0: Top lo0 1::1/128 s0 s1 2::1/64 1::5/126 s1 s0 2::2/64 1::6/126 s0 s1 3::1/64 3::2/64 Middle bottom lo0 1::2/128 lo0 1::3/128 Saturday, September 19, 2009
  • 26. IPv6 configuration example ipv6 unicast-routing interface Serial1 no ip address ipv6 address 2001:DB8:0:2::2/64 ipv6 rip bob enable clock rate 64000 ! ipv6 router rip bob Saturday, September 19, 2009