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  • 1. International Islamic University IslamabadCourse: Translation StudiesSession: Spring 2013Topic: Project Analysis of Great Expectations and its translation AzeemWarasatSubmitted to: Mam Nighat ShakurSubmitted by:Sonia SanaBushra AftabMobeen JamshaidShamsa NoreenHseema ZafarSana SafeerDate of submission: 29-05-2013
  • 2. INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS TRANSLATIONTranslation is a type complete discipline today and there are many departments of translationstudies in many universities throughout the world. It is a very wide discipline which covers avast area of study. There are three types of translationsIntra-lingual translation or “rewording”: an interpretation of verbal signs bymeans of other signs of the same language.Inter-lingual translation or „translation proper‟: an interpretation of verbal signs bymeans of some other language.Inter-Semiotic translation or „transmutation‟: an interpretation of verbal signs bymeans of non-verbal sign systems (Munday 2008)Interlingual translation i.e., the translation between two languages is the focus of translationstudies. It deals with the transfer of texts from one language to another, where the sigh system ischanged. Translations of different literary and political texts have always been of greatsignificance in history of nations. This is how one culture influences the other culture. Thehistory of imperialism also takes translation as an important tool in the process of colonization.In translation studies the effect of changed sign system is studied on the target text and thatweather it has retained the same effect or not. The factors which influence the translation are alsotaken into account i.e., cultural differences, language differences, untranslatability and manyothers. Sometimes it is the context which affects the translation and sometimes it can be thepersonal bias of the translator. Thus, translation study is a complete discipline which covers avast area of study.STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:The present study aims to trace the theoretical matrix applicable to the translation process andproduct by studying the target text (TT), Great expectations by Charles Dickins and itstranslation i.e., source text Azeem Warasat by Syed Allaudin.ROLE OF A TRANSLATOR:The Translator as a Mediator and ReconciliatorThe translator is a bilingual mediating agent between monolingual communication participants intwo different language communities. He plays a vital role in communication process during
  • 3. translation. He reads in order to produce, decodes in order to re-encode it in a different language,concerns the same message as in the TT and is aimed at different receivers, not at the sender.There are two kinds of mediation performed by the translator. The translator has not only abilingual ability but also a bicultural vision. Translators mediate between cultures by bridgingthe gap between source text and target text, seeking to overcome those incompatibilities whichstand in the way of the transfer of meaning.There is another sense in which translators are mediators. They are privileged readers of thesource text unlike an ordinary reader. The translated text reflects the correct understanding of thetranslator. The translator employs creative transmutation where there is untranslatability.The translation process is based on communication, semiotics and pragmatics. With in thisperspective, the translator takes on the role of mediator and recociliator between cultures, each ofwhich has its own visions of reality, ideologies, myths etc.A translator should free a language during translation process from the rigid and imprisonedstructure of source text and make it more pure and sensible in the target text for the target textreceivers. He should make it adaptable for the receivers in that it does not change the ST, itsmeaning and sense.Collective summary of the texts:The novel starts out with one of the most significant events of Philip Pirrip (Pip)‟s life when he isa young child. As he was sitting one evening, looking at his parents‟ tombstones, an escapedconvict violently grabs Pip, ordering him to bring food and a file. Even though Pip doeseverything he is asked, the convict gets caught anyways. Pip returns to living the normal, tranquillife with his older sister and her husband, Mrs and Mr. Joe Gargery in Kent, England. Soon,however, his Uncle Pumblechook takes him to the Satis House where he meets the strange butwealthy Miss Havisham, who had been stood up at her own marriage, and her beautiful adopteddaughter Estella. This is the girl that Pip falls madly in love with from the moment he meets herand will continue to do so throughout the rest of his life even though she treats him with onlycontempt and hostility. Soon Pip learns to be a blacksmith from his brother-in-law, Joe, thoughhe is completely unhappy as Estella mocks him for being such a common labourer. One night,his sister, Mrs. Joe is viciously attacked and will only be able lie in bed until her death so a niceyoung girl named Bitty is hired to take care of her. Pip uses this opportunity to ask her to teachhim all that she knows academically so that he can better himself in the eyes of Estella.Before long, a lawyer named Jaggers alerts Pip of a large sum of money that had befallen himfrom a secret benefactor and urges him to travel to London to start his education and pave theway to becoming a “gentleman”. Pip, already thinking of Estella, is delighted at his good fortuneand believes that he owes this to Miss Havisham who wants to promote his social status. In
  • 4. London, he makes friends with two gentlemen named Herbert Pocket and Wemmick whilereceiving a good education. Pip continues to pine after Estella but expresses disdain for hisformer loved ones like his once beloved Joe. Pip becomes successful, wealthy and well respectedover the years, gaining everything he had ever wished to be as a child except at gaining the loveof Estella. Many years pass until one particular night when his former convict, Magwitch, returnsto Pip, dramatically announcing his identity as Pip‟s secret benefactor all these years. Pip showshis utter disgust at this turn of events but agrees to help Magwitch escape, as he is still wanted bythe police. As time goes on, Pip begins to genuinely care for Magwitch.Another twist is discovered by Pip when he realizes Magwitch is the birth father of Estella andthat Miss Havisham had never wanted to encourage Estella‟s love for Pip but rather persuade herto “break men‟s hearts”. Pip is utterly heart-broken when he hears of news that Estella hadmarried Bentley Drummle, a cruel upper-class gentleman. Pip visits Miss Havisham one lasttime before her death where she asks for his forgiveness and he agrees despite all the pain that hehas suffered. Magwitch must escape before time runs out and so Pip and his friends sneak himdown the river to catch a ship but is ultimately caught by the police and Magwitch suffers severeinjuries that he later succumbs to. Pip returns to his regular lifestyle focusing on his career beforereturning many years later to the Satis House where he had first met Estella. Once again, Estellaand Pip meet in the garden when Estella informs him of the death of her husband and the crueltythat Drummle had treated her with over the years of their marriage. Pip recognizes that Estella‟sonce cold and bitter eyes have turned warm with compassion as she asks for his forgiveness. Heaccepts and they walk out of the garden hand in hand, while Pip believes that they will never beapart ever again.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYThe objective of the study is to trace out the theoretical aspect followed by the translator, byanalyzing the source text and the target text in the light of certain theories. It will reveal the skillsand that must underlie the practical abilities of the translator.MAIN RESEARCH QUESTIONSThe main questions covering the research areWhat is translation, translation theory?What is the theoretical framework which could be followed during the translation of theselected source text into the target text and how can it be applied?What are the findings of the research after applying the theoretical framework on thetranslation? And what is the role of the translation here?
  • 5. LITERATURE REVIEWIn this chapter, the theoretical framework will be explained to be applied on the text. Followingare the theories which will be applied to analyze the translation of Shane.Jackabson and Nida’s theory of Equivalence:Eugene Nida’s theory of equivalence will be applied on the text Great Expectations by CharlesDickens and its translation. Nida gave his theory in 1940s from his own work of translation. Hebased his theory on Chomsky‟s work of generative transformational grammar. We will try tofind these points in our translation. First we will try to locate three types of meanings in TL i.e.linguistic meanings, Referential meanings and Emotive meanings. And further to locate Emotivemeanings we will be doing hierarchical structuring which differentiates series of wordsaccording to their level, componential analysis that is the plotting of relationship terms, andsemantic structure analysis that is the separation of different meanings according to theircharacteristics. We will also b looking that whether our TT is literal transfer, minimal transfer orliterary transfer. We will also try to find that whether equivalent effect or dynamic equivalence isachieved i.e the relationship between receptor and message is same as that which exists betweenthe original message and the receptor. And how much naturalness is found in TT. We will alsotry to focus on four basic requirements of a translation1) Making sense2) Conveying the spirit and manner of original3) A natural and easy form of expression4) Producing a similar response.Vinay and Darbelnet’s ModelFurthermore we will apply Vinay and Darbelnet’s Model. Vinay and Darbelnet in their bookStylistique comparée du français et de l‟anglais (1958) compare the differences between Englishand French and identify two translation techniques that somewhat resemble the Direct (literal)and Oblique (free) methods.Direct (literal) translation discusses three possible procedures:1) Literal translation or word-for-word.2) Calque - this is a special kind of borrowing where the SL expression or structure is literallytransferred to the TL, such as the English character „Snow White‟ in French becomes „BlancheNeige‟
  • 6. 3) Borrowing - the SL word is transferred directly into the TL, like „kamikaze‟.Oblique (free) translation covers four procedures:1) Transposition - interchange of parts of speech that do not affect the meaning, a noun phrase(après son départ) for a verb phrase (after he left)2) Modulation - reversal of point of view (it isn‟t expensive / it‟s cheap)3) Equivalence - same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is most useful forproverbs and idioms („vous avez une araignée au plafond‟ is recognizable in English as „youhave bats in the belfry‟)4) Adaptation - cultural references may need to be altered to become relevant („ce n‟est pas juste‟for „it‟s not cricket‟)Two other important parameters arise from the work of Vinay and Darbelnet. The first of these isthe idea of “servitude” which refers to the compulsory changes from ST to TT; and “option”which refers to the personal choices the translator makes, such as the modulation example above.Option is an important element in translation because it allows for possible subjectiveinterpretation of the text, especially literary texts (Munday 59-60).Catford Linguistic ApproachWe will also apply Catford’s linguistic approach which includes the introduction of the term„translation shift.‟ In 1965 the term “shift” was first applied to the theory of translation byCatford in his work A Linguistic Theory of Translation. Here he discusses two types of shift:1) Shift of level, where a grammatical concept may be conveyed by a lexeme (the French futuretense endings are represented in English by the auxiliary verb „will‟).2) Category shifts, of which there are four types – structural shifts (in French the definite articleis almost always used in conjunction with the noun); class shifts (a shift from one part of speechto another); unit or rank (longer sentences are broken into smaller sentences for ease oftranslation); selection of non-corresponding terms (such as count nouns).His systematic linguistic approach to translation considers the relationship between textualequivalence and formal correspondence. Textual equivalence is where the TT is equivalent to theST, while formal correspondence is where the TT is as close as possible to the ST (Munday 60).Catford also considers the law of probability in translation, a feature that may be linked to thescientific interest in machine translation at the time.
  • 7. TRANSLATION ANALYSIS OF Great ExpectationASTRANSLATED BY syed AllauddinUNDER THE TITLE Azeemwrasat(THE TARGET TEXT)Following theories will be applied during the analysis of the ST and TT.3.1. Jackabson and Nida‟s theory of Equivalence3.2. Vinay and Darbelnet‟s Model3.4. Catford Linguistic ApproachJackabson and Eugene Nida’s Theory of Equilance:. As for example a linguist Roman Jacobson talked about equivalence that “there is ordinarily nofull equivalence between code units”.According to him the problem of meaning and equivalence focuses difference in the structureand terminology of language rather on any inability of one language to------ a message that hasbeen written in another verbal language. He recognized the differences between the twolanguages at three levels.The level of genderThe level of aspectThe level of semantic fieldThe level of gender:As for example in ST morning and file are neutral. On other hand these words are translated as“subah” and “ritee” and these words are feminine in the TT.The level of aspect:The level of aspect is somehow maintained in TT as for example past is translated into pasttense.The level of Semantic FieldIn TT difference at gender level is there and difference on semantic field is there. Translatorsomehow maintained or tried to maintain equal at aspect level.As for example English uncle is normally explained in Urdu as Chacha and Mamu,so there isambiguity in meanings. Uncle may have meant Urdu “Mamu” but the translator translated as“Chacha”.
  • 8. Gender:Example:1.It was a rainy morning, and very damp.ST:15Aaj ki subha geeli and shabnami thi.TT:112.The mist was heavier.ST(pg13)Kohar itni zayada thi.TT (pg11)3. It was one of those March days when the sun shines hot and the wind blows cold: when it issummer in the light,and winter in the shade.ST(pg369)Budh ki subha a gai.Suraj achi trha chamak raha tha lekin phir bi sardi apnay urooj pae thi, eskay elawa taeez hawa chal rahi thi.TT (pg 72)4.I handed him the file and he laid it down on the grass.ST:16Menay eski matloba raiti ussay di jissay es nay ghass par rakh dya.TT:12LEVEL OF ASPECT:EXAMPLE:1.His back was towards me.ST:16
  • 9. Eski pusht meri tarf thi.TT:122. Didn‟t you hear the cannon last night?ST:18Kia tum nay kal raat bandooq chalnay ki awazain nahi suni thi.TT:14.3.i opened the door first to Mr.Wopstle……..and last of all to uncle Pumblechock.ST:22Mera kaam tha kay jab mehmaan aain tou mae en kay liye darwaza kholon pehlay aanay walaymister wopsle thay………sab sae aakhari mae chacha pumbli chook pohanchay.TT:15.The level of Sementic fields:Example:1.And I opened the door first to Mr Wopsle,next to Mr and Mrs Hubble,and last of all to UnclePumblechook.ST(pg 19)Pehlay anay walay mister Wopsle thay phir Mr and Mrs Hubble aye.sab sae aakhir mae chachaPumbli Chook pohanchay.FORMAL EQU ALENCE:The message in the target language should match as closely as possible the different elements ofsource language.EXAMPLES:1.My sister was more than twenty years old than I.ST(page number6)Meri behan muj se bees baras barri thi.TT(page number 9)
  • 10. 2.who‟s put into prison-ships,and why they‟re put there?ST(page number 12)Unhay jahaz kay qaid khanay mae kis nay dala?wo waha kuyn qaid kiye gae han?TT(page11)3.There was a door in the kitchen.ST(page number 13)Kitchen mae aik darwaza tha.TT (page number 11)4.It was a rimy morning and damp.ST(page number 13)Aaj ki subho geeli aur shabnami thi.TT(page number 11)5. “what‟s in the bottle,boy?”said he.ST(page number 14)“Bottal mae kia hay bettay?”usnay pocha.TT(page number 12)6. “Excuse me,ladies and gentlemen.”ST(page number 25)“maazrat chahta hun.khawateen o hazarat.”TT(page number 17)Dynamic Equalence:The message has to be tailored to the receptors linguistic needs and cultural expectation and aimsat complete naturalness of expression.Examples:1.There was a door in the kitchen,communicating with the forge;I unlocked and unbolted thatdoor,and got a file from among Joe‟s tools.then,I put the fastenings as I had found them,openedthe door at which I had entered when I ran home last night,shut it,and ran for the mistymarshes.ST(page number 13)
  • 11. Kitchen mae aik darwaza tha jo bhatti ki taraf khuta tha.us darwazay say mae bhatti maepohancha aur Joe ki raition mae sae aik utha li.Phir mae dhorta hua daldal ki taraf chaldia.TT(page number 11)2.In the pantry I stole some bread,some rind of cheese,about half a jar of mince meat,somebrandy from a stone bottle which I decanted into a glass bottle,diluting the stone bottle from ajug in the kitchen cupboard,a meat bone with very little on it,and a beautifull round compact porkpie.ST(page number 13)Ghar sae aik gosht ka tukra chori kia phir kisi aisi chez ko talash karnay laga jo qaidi ko peenayk liye di ja sakay kitchen kay aik sangi jaar mae brandi rakhi hui thi menay aik bottal mae thorisi undhaili takay qaidi ko day sakon.TT(page number 11)3. “I believe you.you‟d be but a fierce young hound indeed,if at your time of life you could helpto hunt a wretched warmint,hunted as near death and dung hill as this poor wreched warmintis!”.ST(page number 15)Mujjay tum par bharosa ha.usnay kaha “tum itnay chotay ho kay kisi qaidi ko pakray janay kalutf nahi lay saktay.mera khyal ha kay tum kisi ko la kar mujjay nahi pakarwao gay.”TT(pagenumber 13)4.I wonder he did not marry her and get all the property.ST(page number 155)Lekin es nay shadi sae pehlay kis trha saray paisay hasil kar liyee.TT(page number47)5.for eleven years,I had not seen Joe nor Biddy with my bodily eyes,when,upon an evening intouched It so softly that I was not heared ,and looked in unseen.There,smoking his pipe in the oldplace by the kitchen firelight,as hale and as strong as ever though a little grey,sat Joe;andthere,fenced into the corner with Joe‟s leg,and sitting on my own little stool looking at thefire,was-I again!ST(page number 59)
  • 12. Bilakhir giyyara saal baad mae Englistan wapic a gya.waha sae mae foran he apnay puranay gharbhatti a gya.wahan kitchen k samnay Joe betha hua pipe pee raha tha.wo essi trha lamba choraaur mazboot jisam wala Joe tha.lekin uskay baal safaid ho chukka thay.phir meri nazrain aikchottay bachay par parri jo aag k samnay betha hua tha.wo bilkul mujj jesa dikhai day raha thajab mae aik chota sa bacha tha.ye Joe ka baita tha.TT(page number 82)Vinay and Darbelnet’s Model Application:Direct TranslationBorrowing:The SL word is transferred directly into the TL.1. ST. (P:2)A man with no hat,with broken shoes.TT.(P:..)Is ne naa he coat pehn rakha tha r na e hat2. ST .(P:2.Chap:1)Tell your name! said the manPip,sir.TT. (P:7)Tmara kia nam hy us shahas ne pucha. Pip sir.3. ST. (P:11.chap:2)Who is fairing? Said I .TT. (P:11)Main ne pucha firing kyun ho rae hy?4. ST. (P:14. Chap:3)What is in the bottle, boy? Said heBrandi, said I.
  • 13. TT: (P.12)Botle m kia hy bety, us ne puchaBrandi main ne jwab dia.Literal Translation:It is word for word.1. ST.(P:1.Chap:1)You little devil or I‟ll cut your throat.TT. (P:7)Chotay shetan, warna m tmra gala kaat lun ga.1. ST .(P:4.Chap:1)You bring me, tomorrow morning.TT. (P:8)Kul subho tuk ye chezen lay ao.2. ST. (P: 6.Chap:2)My sister was more than twenty years than I.TT. (P:9)Meri behan muj say bees baras bari the.Calque:It is a special kind of borrowing where the SL expression or structure is literally transferred tothe TL.1. ST. (P:….)What‟s in the bottle,boy? Said heBrandy,said i.
  • 14. TT.(P:)Bottle m kia hy lrkay? Us ne pucha2. ST P:21.Chap:.)Dinner.TT. (P:15)Dinner.3. ST. (P:21.Chap:…)Dear uncle.TT. (P:15)Dear uncle.4. ST. (P:23.Chap:4)Clean plates.TT. (P:16)Saaf platten.Oblique TranslationTransposition:It is interchange of parts of speech.1. ST. (P:52.Chap:8)As i were a dog in disgrace.TT. (P:26)Us ne khana zameen rakh dia jesay m koi kutta hun.2. ST.(P:…)Miss Havisham sent for me.TT. (P:28)
  • 15. Miss havisham ne muje bhulaya hay jnab.3. ST. (P:69.Chap:11)I shall not tell you.TT. (P:27)Main nahi btaa sakta.Modulation:It is reversal of point of view and semantic meaning.1. ST. (P:7.Chap:2)Where have you been, you young monkey.TT. (P:10)Tm ab tuk kahan thy kuttay.2. ST. (P:4.Chap:1)You never dare to say a word or dare to make a sign concerning your having seen me such aperson as me and you shall be let to live.TT. (P:9)Phir main tme koi nuqsan ni punchaun ga .3. ST.(P: 23. Chap:4)Held on tight, while Mrs. Joe and Joe ran to him.TT. (P:17)Meri behn or Joe is qadar gabraey k apni jahaa say hil e na sken.4. ST. (P:52.Chap:8)I took the opportunity of being alone in the courtyard.TT. (P: 26)Estella mje ghr say bahir lay aee or sehan main tanha chor dia .
  • 16. Equivalence:It is the same meaning conveyed by a different expression, which is most useful for proverbsand idioms.1. ST. (P: 1.Chap:1)Philip Pirip and also Gorgiana wife of the above were dead and buried; and that Alexander,Abraham, Jobias and Roger, infant children of oresaid were also dead and buried.TT. ( P:7)Mere walid, walida or panch bhai inteqal kr k whe mudfoon thy.2. ST. (P:23. Chap: )You don‟t know that Uncle Pumblechook has offered him to take into town tonight into his ownchase cart and to keep him with his own hands to Miss Havisham tomorrow morning”.TT.(P:)Aj rat uncle pumblechook k ghr thehry ga subah wo is ko lay kr Miss Havisham say mulaqatkrne jaen gay.3. ST. (P:52. Chap )“With this boy! Why, he is a common laboring boy”.TT.(P: )Is k hath ktne khurdre or boot kitne budhy hn. Ise adaab ni maloom. Ye bilkul aam sa lurka hy.4.ST.( P:52. Chap:..)Wished Joe had been more gentally brought up, and then I should have been so too.TT. (P:26)Muje khayal ayah k kash Joe ka tor tareeqa acha hota.CATFORD AND TRANSLATION "SHIFT"Level shift:
  • 17. This is expressed by grammar in one language and lexis in another.1. ST. (P:69.Chap:11)Am I pretty?Yes; I think you are very pretty.TT. (P:26)Kia m khubsurat hun?Han ho to.2. ST. (P:69.Chap:..)Am I insulting?TT. (P:…)Kia m bay murawat or zalim hun?Structural shift:This is the most common form of shift and to involve mostly a shift in grammatical structure.1. ST. (P:92.Chap:14)It is most miseable thing to feel ashamed of home.TT. (P:35)Hmara ghr b khrab or ibrat zada tha jis say mje sharam aati the.2. ST. (P:88.Chap:..)The booy has been a good boy here and that is his good reward. Of course, as an honest man youwill expect no other and no more.TT. (P:34)Tume muj say mazid raqam ki tawaqo nahi krni chahyeClass shift:
  • 18. This is a shift from one part of speech to another.1. ST.P:971.What‟ll I do with it! What‟ll he do with it? I‟ll do as much with it as him.TT.P…Muje kia kam hy or usy kia kaam hay? Muje be utna utna e kaam hy jitna kam usay hay.3. ST. (P:88. Chap:17)It is as much as received and greatful welcome, though never looked for.TT. (P: )Paisay both kaam aen gay but main ny to is ka mtaliba ni kia thaUnit/ Rank shift:These are shifts where the translation equivalent in the TL is different rank to the sourcelanguage.1. ST. (P:70.Chap:..).With those words, he released me.TT. (P:28)Ye sub khuch keh krr, hmen jane ki ajazat day di.2. ST. (P:71.Chap)I don‟t thik I am, maam.TT.(P:29)Nahi medam.3. ST. (P: 72)It‟s a great cake. A bride cake. Mine! She looked all around the room in a glaring manner andthen said, leaning on me while her hand twitched my shoulder, come, come,come! Walk me,walk me!TT. (P: 29)
  • 19. Ye aik cake hy.meri shadi ka cake wo meray kanday pr jhuk gae.mre sath chalo larky.chalne mmeri maddad kro.Intra-system shift:These are shifts take place when the SL and TL possess approximately corresponding systemsbut where the translation involves selection of a non-corresponding term in the TL system.1. ST. (P:70. Chap: )Whom have we here?TT. (P:28)Ye kon hy?2. ST. (P:97. Chap:..)I reminded Joe of my half-holiday?TT. (P:..)Aik din main ne Joe say kha k mje aik din ki chutti chahye.
  • 20. Mona Baker’s approach:(1) Relative Markedness:In the first example we see that the first full sentence, which describes the boy‟s impression ofthe time, is being skipped by the translator. Then we observe that the names of Pip‟s brothers arecut down during the translation and it is only mentioned as his five brothers being dead are alsoburied beside his parents.Similarly, in second example we see that Pip‟s conversation to his own e.g. „I believe they werefat, though I was at that time undersized for my years, and not strong.‟ and „I earnestly expressedmy hope that he wouldn‟t, and held tighter to the tombstone on which he had put me; partly, tokeep myself upon it; partly, to keep myself from crying.‟ is skipped by the translator and he onlytranslates the thematic and informative structures uttered by the man (convict) e.g. „you youngdog,‟ and „Now lookee here!‟ said the man. „Where‟s your mother?‟ are translated by thetranslator. All this shows the meaningful choices made by the writer of the TT in the course ofcommunication, which is called as “relative markedness” by Mona Baker.(1) My first most vivid and broad impressionof the identity of the things seems to me tohave been gained on a memorable rawafternoon towards evening. At such a time Ifound out for certain, that this bleak placeovergrown with nettles was the churchyard;and that Philip Pirrip and also Georgiana wifeof the above were dead and buried; and thatAlexander, Bartholomew, Abraham, Tobias,and Roger, infant children of the aforesaid,were also dead and buried. (page 1)(2) „you young dog,‟ said the man, licking hislips, „what fat cheeks you ha‟ got.‟ I believethey were fat, though I was at that timeundersized for my years, and not strong. „Darnme if I couldn‟t eat em,‟ said the man, with athreatening shake of his head, „and if I han‟thalf a mind to‟t!‟I earnestly expressed my hope that hewouldn‟t, and held tighter to the tombstone onwhich he had put me; partly, to keep myselfupon it; partly, to keep myself from crying.„Now lookee here!‟ said the man. „Where‟syour mother?‟ (page 2)(1) Ye aik sard, bheegi aur muljagee she peherthe jis pe sham ka gumaan guzar raha tha.Mai church k veeran qabristaan maimoujood tha jo meray ghar k qareeb hewaqea tha. Meray walid aur walida aurpaanch bhae rehlat ikhtiyaar ker k waheenmadfoon thay. (page 1)(2) „noojwaan kuttay‟. Qedi garaya. „teray gaalpholay howay hain. Mumkin hai maitujhay b kha jaun. Acha ye bata, teri maakahan hai? (page 2)
  • 21. (2) Cohesion(1) Therefore, I resolved… (page 8)(2) However her temper was greatlyimproved… (page 106)(1) Chunacha mai ne faisla kea… (page 4)(2) Beharhaal Ms. Joe mai buht tabdeeli aachuke the… (page 31)According to the Mona Baker‟s hypothesis of cohesion it is suggested that increasedexplitcitation of cohesive ties may be a strategy adopted by translator to bring functional shifts intexts. Hence, progression of the cohesive ties plays an important role. In other words we can saythat TT must be coherent, logically progressed through cohesive ties. In our research of the TTwe have seen that the cohesive ties are properly translated in the TL to make the coherence andhang the words together through these to make the thematic sense clear as underlined words inthe above examples show this.(3)Implicature:(a)Quality:„You bring me, tomorrow morning early, thatfile and them wittles. You bring the lot to me,at that old Battery over yonder. You do it, andyou never dare to say a word or dare to make asign concerning your having seen such aperson as me and you shall be let to live. Youfail, or you go from my words in anypartickler, and your heart and your liver shallbe tore out, roasted and ate.(page 4)Agar tum ne nahin kea tu mai tumhara dil kaatker nikal lung ga. Kal subha tak ye cheezainley ao. Inn cheezun ko ley ker iss puraaniimarat mai mujhay puncha du. Iss khandar maijo maidaan k dusraay hissay mai waqya hai.Kisi shaks say iss baat ka zikar na karna k tumne mujhay deikha hai.phir mai tmhain koenuqsaan nae punchaun ga. (page 2)In quality as mentioned before that only necessary amount of information is given that can besupported. In above example we see that translator skips the threatening of boy by convictthrough horrible imagery. We see that translator skips this part because at many times in the text
  • 22. he cuts the details of the fears of the little boy which are of the old convict. So, translator hasmentioned only that part which, he thinks can be supported by the other details.(b)Quantity:Joe was a fair man; with eyes of such a veryundecided blue that they seemed to havesomeone got mixed with their own whites. Hewas a mild, good-natured, sweet-tempered,easy-going, foolish, dear fellow – a sort ofHercules in the strength, and also inweakness.(page 6)Joe aik lamba, chora, mazboot jism ka malikshaks tha aur intahae naik aur shareef aadmi.(page 3)As the name mentions that the quantity of the text is the point of concern. So translator whiletransforming the ST into the TT cuts un-necessary details and gives a very short description atmany times instead of long details e.g. in above example the character and appearance of Joe isdescribed very briefly.(c)Relevance:(1) At such a time I found out for certain,that this bleak place overgrown withnettles was the churchyard.(2) You never dare to say a word or dare tomake a sign concerning your havingseen such a person as me and you shallbe let to live.(1) Mai church k veeran qabristaan maimoujood tha jo meray ghar k qareeb hewaqea tha.(2) Kisi shaks say iss baat ka zikar nakarna k tum ne mujhay deikha hai.phirmai tmhain koe nuqsaan nae punchaunga.Relevance presents the withstanding and closeness of the meanings from the TT to the ST asabove example clearly proves this because some words are not translated as it is and the relevantand close meanings are given of these eords.(d)Manner:„Hold your noise!‟ cried a terrible voice, as aman started up from among the graves at theside of the church porch. „Keep still, you littledevil, or I‟ll cut your throat!‟A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a greatiron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with“khamosh raho” aik intehae khoofnaak aurgaer mutwaqa awaz i.Qabrun per lagay pathrun say nikal ker aikshakas ya ka yak namodaar howa. Iss k jismper phatay puranay aur ganday kapray thay. Issk jotay b phatay b puranay aur phatay howay
  • 23. broken shoes, and with an old rag tied roundhis head.(page 1)thay. Iss ney na he coat pehn rakha that na hehat. Iss k paun mai aik aahene zangeer pari hoethe.page 1)Manner talks about the appropriate way adopted by the translator to convey the message to makethe understanding of ST clear to receiver of the TT e.g. as mentioned above, translator does notfollow the same manner and sequence as of the ST and changes it according to his choice whichhe thinks can better make the understanding clear.
  • 24. Findings and ConclusionAs a result of overall study of translation theory, its development and significance and analysisof novel Great Expectations and its translation Azeem warasat following results are drawn.Role of the Translator in this TranslationThe translator, as told in the introduction, is syed Allauddin, who translate this book in a verysimple or easy way. After analyzing the translation following inferences are made about role as atranslator.Purpose of translationThe criteria, pattern or scheme followed by the translator:The scheme of work of the translator was that he has decreased the foreignness of English words,phrases and idioms by using common words, daily life vocabulary, phrases, proverbs and pureUrdu literary words from Urdu language. He has moulded the novel into easy, comprehensibleand fluent Urdu. He has bridged the gap by using equivalent words from our culture andeliminated the alienation of the ST culture.Use of any Theory, Pedagogy by the TranslatorAfter the study of whole text we can say that translator did not followed any of the translationtheory explained and applied above. He just made use of cognitive power and intuition intranslation.One thing that translator kept in mind was the culture. He followed all the possible routes topreserve his own culture in the TT from selecting the ST till translating it. But at the same time,has taken care of cultural transmission and fidelity issues.Cultural Transmission and Fidelity issuesHe selected the text which did not contain any taboo issue or anything which contradicted ournative culture. And while translating it, he delivered the full sense of it. The text gives theinformation about the ST culture to its receivers and the ST information is not manipulated oraltered. The message of ST author is preserved and delivered to the TT receiver.