DisplacementIn the very start of this chapter of his book, Naipaul uses the sharp images forPakistan and Pakistani leaders...
Next, he quotes his conversation with one „maulana‟ who complains about thebanking system of Pakistan and says: “If Pakist...
He met an officer who is in green sari and led him to the docks to see the pilgrimsleave for Mecca. She has done the degre...
Ahmed was taking him to the dinner and he went down in the lobby of theintercontinental to wait for him where he met two y...
His travel writing also include historical perspectives .historical writings werecharacterized as factual and objectives a...
survive in society as he is a poor. There are numerous examples in which he has usedethnographic detail but to gain narrat...
in his fictional travel narratives. There were images of people, places and landscapes. Hewent to mosques where mullahs we...
colonial gaze. Why did they declare you non-Muslims? What were the pressures on them?He has brought different stories thro...
specific purpose in his life and was blindly following this service. The man in the blue gowncame to their room and asked ...
stoned to death at a public place. For theft at first offence the amputation of the right hand, atsecond offence the amput...
it. He said the great man received only in the mornings.” He gives another eye witness in hiswritings by saying that “we l...
He used different themes and imagery in his writings to make its accurate andauthentic. The theme which he mostly discusse...
In this chapter he refers to the book which was given to him by the doctor. The maxims ofAli. It was the book on the famou...
tall, thin melancholy man with glasses and a walrus moustache. The moustache hintedat his military background".The colonia...
the social evils around them, such as bribery, black-marketing, and corruption etc. theyshould not be expected to accept a...
and became a teacher. When writer talked to him he told that he want to go to England to dohis thesis on Graham Greene, Fo...
not be expected to accept discipline in any form.” Naipaul only pointed out the bad things inPakistan. The main point is t...
live and pray together. Writer describe the land of Raiwind, he talks about fertility of theland. Then he mentioned that w...
Some Muslims believe that Christ will return to earth as the redeemer or the Mahdi.Ahmadis said that the prophecy has been...
Analysis of the Salt Hills of a DreamIn The Salt Hills of a Dream, he has used narrative authority. Firstly he has given e...
Com lit pakistan by v.s naipaul
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Com lit pakistan by v.s naipaul

  1. 1. DisplacementIn the very start of this chapter of his book, Naipaul uses the sharp images forPakistan and Pakistani leaders in a very ironic tone as he says; “it could be seen as afragmented country, economically stagnant, despotically ruled, with its gifted people close tohysteria.” He says that Pakistan is founded thirty years before, of his writing, as a homelandfor the Muslims and is being cherished as a pioneer of the Islamic revival. In Naipaul‟sopinion, Pakistan and Iran, both are using the logic of religion to gain power because they arelacking behind in the concerns of science, which is the ability to run a twentieth- centurystate. Here, he gives a reference of an article in the Tehran times which, according to Naipaul,links the two countries by the statements such as follows: “Politics is combined with religionin Islam. Iran and Pakistan can join hands to prove to the world that Islam is not just a faith ofthe past, practicing ancient rituals.”Further, Naipaul talks about the economic condition of Pakistan at that time by givingethnographic details and comparing them to the Iran‟s condition. For example, he says that“Iran, with a population of thirty-five million, earns seventy million dollars a day, whilePakistan, with twice the population, earns one hundred forty millions a month”. So, he saysthat Pakistan‟s economy is dwindling day by day and to authenticate his argument, he givesexamples of advertisements in Dawn.Away from economic issues, he also refers to the news headline about piousPakistanis who are preparing for the pilgrimage along with their leader, General Zia.According to Naipaul, General Zia is not going to perform his devotions but rather to collecta modest loan of a hundred million dollars. So, he says that Muslims are time and again befooled on the name of religion and faith.He even goes back to historical perspectives of foundation of Pakistan that it came into being on the name of religion. Here, Naipaul quotes the lines from the speech of reveredpoet, Sir Mohammad Iqbal as follows: “Religion for a Muslim is not a matter of privateconscience…Muslims, to be true to Islam, need a state with Muslim polity. So, the Muslim-majority areas of the north west India should be detached and consolidated in to a singleMuslim state.” He says that it was just apparently logical because the campaigners forPakistan became men who overnight had lost their constituencies and were merely men ofreputation who only have concern with elections immediately after the division. Besides,using his analytic skills to convince the readers of his idea that the logic of faith was misusedby Muslim leaders at the time of division, Naipaul also ignores the influence of British ruleand he also hides the injustices done by British to Muslims of the sub-continent.He further quotes his dialogues, with some natives of Pakistan, to prove himself aseeker who is on the quest to search the truth. He describes his observations there that peoplewho used to fight and sacrifice their valuable stocks and lives on the name of true religiousstate, are still dissatisfied with their present conditions. For example, he quotes on line of apoet about his people as: “they didn‟t live up to the faith."
  2. 2. Next, he quotes his conversation with one „maulana‟ who complains about thebanking system of Pakistan and says: “If Pakistan makes money in an Islamic way,everything will follow.” Here, we see that imagery and tone used by Naipaul, although buildshis narrative authority to attract the reader‟s attention but is based on Naipaul‟s assumptionsabout Muslims because he thinks them yet primitive, having limited knowledge and vision ashe writes “uneven, everything retuning to dust”, image of „malevolence‟ for maulana, anddraws his character sketch as: “he (maulana) didn‟t know. He hadn‟t thought about it… helived by his rules. His world had shrunk to a hut in a crumbling village.” All these showNaipaul‟s vulcanization of fictional paradigms with travel strategies as the above mentionedexample blends the art of characterization with ethnographic element of travel writing.Karachi phantasmagoriaHe starts the chapter of Karachi Phantasmagoria in Pakistan by referring to Muslimworld; this is a country that was become independent in order to make experiment withIslamic and Quranic laws that would sustain an Islamic state and a banking system withoutinterest. Habib bank symbolizing the magnificence of the New York had number of signshere and there in Karachi but he got information about an Islamic bank through thenewspaper that is Tebran Times. He went to Mr,Deen‟s office that has distempered walls andthe carpet with its rd and white pattern and a government issued sofa. He was very courteousto him but a dutiful man and busy with the sending of pilgrims‟ ships to Mecca. Mr.Sherwaniwas a colleague of Mr. Deen. Naipaul was introduced to him as he wanted to see Islam inaction. He suggested him to read the interpretation of Quran by Murmauke Pickthall. Naipaulhas quoted the saying of him that true Muslims who follows as a complete way of life is veryrare. Mr.Sherwani asked of his previous religious faith that he responses in negative so hemakes a prophecy about him to be a Muslim after investigation.It was a happy month of a Ramadan for the Sunni Muslims of Pakistan but the samemonth is of mourning for those who could not be recognized as the prophet‟s successors.Different pilgrims‟ ships went to Mecca. Mr.Deen was Indian who migrated here andpreferred to stay there. Naipaul with Mr., Sherwani and his colleagues went to differentmosques in Karachi that are decorated with fluorescent tubes and sticks of blue white glitter.He observed there mullahs showing of their knowledge of the Quran how well they knew andhow fast they can recite. Faith unity and discipline are the theme of Islam and was also saidby Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan that locked all components of faith together Mr. Sherwanileft him to his hotel intended to pray till morning fast. The Morning News published a storywith the title „PLOT TO MAKE PAKISTAN A FOREIGN STOOGE. The story was ofBenazir that was fabricated. She has written letters to her brother in order to save her father‟slife. She mentions the offering of America to give up Pakistan nuclear program. In politics,there were no rules but faith is full of rules so Islam is cause and tool for everyone, on that hecomments “it could lead to worldly virulence.
  3. 3. He met an officer who is in green sari and led him to the docks to see the pilgrimsleave for Mecca. She has done the degree in journalism and allotted to the department in theinformation. She did the job because her family gave her the financial support that is notenough for her. She has made her children to get education in both English and Urdulanguages to get job in Arab contraries that demands of English. She belonged to Ahmadisect that was declared by Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as non-Muslims. She was preparing them incase of to exile from Pakistan as they are in minority. Ahmad appeared with sigh ofrevelations as Messiah in northern India Ahmadi believe in him and do not consider prophetMuhammad as final as Muslims do. General Rahimduddin, governor of Baluchistan arrivedto say farewell to the pilgrims‟ leaving for Mecca. Pilgrim is one of the practices of Islamdeep rooted in old Arabian tribes. he made a speech here to guide them.He went to Ahmed‟s office that was also religious person and belonged to Sindoriginally from pre-Aryan race. He said about beauty of Islam which is a mixture of law andcompassion. In order to make him understood the Islamic concept of charity and brotherhood,he wanted to see him the old shrines of Sind. They came back to Intercontinental and Mr.Ahmed said to him that a intellectual is always concerned with truth so put your eyes inpositive things. Another person he met is Mr. Mirza. There were many books of Englishpolitics of 1930 to 1940 signifying that his education career has passed in England. Hisconversation with the two sitting person in front of him was based on the value of truth.People have lost their interest in truth and there was very little information based on truth.His purpose was to visit him to get knowledge of the application of Islam to institution togovernment and law. He discussed the importance o prophet and Islamic laws that are divinebut not applied. He seemed to him as simplest mullah who was interested in his politicalambition.He met Mr. Slahuddin who was an editor of Urdu language newspaper with fivethousands circulation. In his office, there was a pencil drawing of Mr.Jinnah on the walls. Hiswas the same that Islamic laws must be employed to be an Islamic state as it was in the timeof prophet and first four caliphs and it was the tine of their ruling. He has also given himbooklets that was published in department of European colonist by Muslim missionarypublication „the Koran and Modern CIENCE” that had an idea that prophet (SAWW) hadmany modern European ideas and “First and the Final Religion”. There was also informationabout American Dussel Webb who has spent his long life in an Islamic missionary work.Through Mr. Salahuddin, he met Khalid Ishaq who was a member of the Islamic ideologycouncil and a member of government commission, leading lawyer in Karachi and a migrantfrom India. His purpose was to spread and promote Islamic culture and civilization. They satI his office and discussed his passion for Islam. There is a need to develop Islamic institutionbased on the emotional needs of the people. That needs could only be understood with theidea of equality. Scholars and mullahs claimed of having enough knowledge about Islam butin reality they possessed a very little. Faith was on aspect that can remove and answernegative emotional needs.
  4. 4. Ahmed was taking him to the dinner and he went down in the lobby of theintercontinental to wait for him where he met two younger that came there to see traffic toremove their boredom. Ahmed told him that men from Sukkur were rustic villagers whovisited that place top visit naked women. They came to see traffic that seemed to them thatthey had seen the whole world. It was a self deceptive idea that Pakistanis had contempt fornaked women and came to se them as well. Ideas of Ahmed about women were alsotraditional. He wanted his children to work in hospital even as sweepers as there men couldlessen the stress of others. He told the story of Pakistan in two sentences that Hindus hatedEuropeans and when Muslims woke the hated both Hindus and European so Pakistan was theresult of hate. They had taken their dinner. A man came in Pakistani dress with a flat Sindicap. He was the one who wanted to show him in one of Sindi shrines. He suffered fromtumor, doctors told him of cancer so an injection of snake poison would be required. He wentto a shrine, kept on praying and one day he cut off that and he was alright since. Everybodyfools here everybody so people started turning to Islam as everything else was failed.Analysis of Karachi phantasmagoriaAnalytic skills have three formal aspects as Naipauls assumptions, narrative strategiesand narrative authority. He has presented all assumptions in a quite ordered plan. It revealssome hidden ideology and worldview with which he has portrayed his travel writing. It is notthe result of his one experiment of observing, but after collecting data he has reassessed data,re-think and re-organize. He has manipulated all his imagery, language, tone other fictionaland travel writing elements in such a way that seemed to be adjectives and factual. He metdifferent people and discussed experiment of Islam with them.He wants to see Islam in action so he had seen every man from this perspective andhad not tried to understand what they are saying. He has chosen those characters that werewithout mystics or intellectual bent as in the case of Mr. Mirza. He rejected his discussionbecause of intellectual bent and preferred the instructions of Mr. Salahuddin who was asimple man.He has chosen the words according to his own assumptions and choice as he has beensaying about the person who is faithful as he is in fever of faith. When he met with Mr. Mirzawho talks of Islamic law and institutions that were not launched according to its teaching. Hecriticizes him that in spite of his teaching he could not think beyond that point and showedvanity. Even he assumed of him that he is interested in political ambitions to get heights afterthe suppression of Benazir‟s party. It seems that many of his writing is based on his ownassumptions and produced out of his actual experiential textHe has also used auto bio graphical features in this chapter. He was in search of Islamicinstitutions and experiments. When Mr. Sherwani asked him about his any religious faith. Heanswered in negative; Mr.Sherwani became happy to this news of him and said it is necessaryfor Islamic studies not to be prejudiced. It showed his one autobiographical feature that hewas an aethiest. He had no belief in any religion so he did not know the value of respect thathas been associated by any religious person to his concerned religion.
  5. 5. His travel writing also include historical perspectives .historical writings werecharacterized as factual and objectives and authoritative. Naipaul has also added his ownpersonal dimensions to many historical passages. He has taken references from articles.Documents and books to give the addition of a sect who narrative authority. He has given thehistorical detail of Ahmadi. Ahmadi was sect who believes in Prophet (SAWW) but do notcall it final. That idea was hateful to Muslims .They are declared non-Muslims by ZulfiqarAli Bhutto. Ahmad was born in northern India in last century with some signs of revelationsbut he could not resist. He describes the background of Ahmed who belongs to Sind, preAryan race of Sind. That was the builders of Mehenjo-Daro and Harrapa, the creator of Indusvalley civilization. That migrating Aryan had overrun in1500Bc. Mostly Pakistani thoughtthat their history begun with the independence of Pakistan in 1947. He has a pithy and factualstyle that is seemed to be objective but it does not.he has also added one another historicalfigure that is Tolstoy. He has used with the reference to Mr. Mirza that he did not like to betaught such things Tolstoy was the greatest v of the Arab philosopher scholars of the Abbasidperiod.he says that parophets are like other men.It was said by Naipaul that Pakistan was made to sustain an Islamic welfare state withIslamic banking system. He refers to „the Tebran Times‟ that one Islamic bank system existedin Pakistan under the guidance of Maulana Madoodi. On the other hand, that signs of ha bibbank that shows magnificence of New York are found everywhere. Another reference he hascoded from the Morning News. The Morning News published a story with the title „PLOTTO MAKE PAKISTAN A FOREIGN STOOGE. The story was of Benazir that wasfabricated. She has written letters to her brother in order to save her father‟s life. Shementions the offering of America to give up Pakistan nuclear program. He has also given himbooklets that was published in department of European colonist by Muslim missionarypublication „the Koran and Modern CIENCE” that had an idea that prophet (SAWW) hadmany modern European ideas and “First and the Final Religion”. There was also informationabout American Dussel Webb who has spent his long life in an Islamic missionary work.There were comments from European and non-European writers who has given a verypositive response towards Islam.He is also known for ethnographic observations. It is produced by „a detached andclinical perspective‟. His ethnographic details include landscape, topography and people. Italso bears narrative authority and colonial gaze. He gives the detailed ethnographic ofMr.Deen‟s office as it had cotton carpet that was worn, its red and white patterns are full ofdust. The distempered walls were of ochre colored and windows of the roughest carpentry.He said in mosques, poor had feelings of community but rich were separating in engaged inprivate devotions. He went to the intercontinental with Ahmed, he found many people thereto see traffic. He gave all detailed biography about his characters. When at the end ofchapters an overgrown peasant comes, he describes the appearance of him, readers assumeespecially Pakistani that he has com from Sind as he was worn a flat Sindi cap. He does notlook fresh and he could not speak to him because he could not speak English and he sat atdistance. He has described the detailed of this person who is in decay and is confused how to
  6. 6. survive in society as he is a poor. There are numerous examples in which he has usedethnographic detail but to gain narrative authority and gave a decayed perception.He has also used narrative authority to convince his readers by giving a text thatincluded observations, eye witnessing experiences and offers the readers a very enjoyabletext. He has quoted many Pakistani people, through his sayings, he provides evidence andconvinces readers that Pakistan is independent on the name of Islam but failed to experimentIslamic laws. He has included all their dialogues that are related to not implementing ofIslamic rules. At the very start , he quotes the saying of Mr.Deen who says that people talkabout Islam but expect from others to start with. Throughout the chapter, by giving differentdialogues from different people he has tried to prove this thing. All characters like Mr. Mirza,Mr.Salahuddin, Mr, Ahmed, Mr.Deen and Khalid Ishaq, he has tried to prove the samethings. At one place, he quotes the idea that Islam is a complete way of life so people find itdifficult to follow it. At the same he met many people who says that Islam demands not tolive life separately. Mr.Mirza said so and he also employed this formula on himself.Intellectual strategies are all used his narrative authority. By different ways,he choses a verycritical selection of the realities and convinced his readers.He has also used fictional elements in his travel writing that makes it vulcanization ofboth. Characterizations have also been used by him in his travel writing that is one offictional elements. These fictional elements in his travel writing are women and meshedtogether. Vulcanization is a better well defining term to describe his new form of narratives.He has given the detailed description of his characters. He has used minor and majorcharacters. He met first Mr.Deen who is in mid fifties, wearing grey trousers, a white shirtand stripped tie. He is very dutiful man. Mr. Sherwani is colleague of him who is of fortyeight. He had a smooth skin and was wearing a short sleeved sport shirt and looked likeQutub, a Pakistani painter. He gives him instructions to get knowledge of Islam as to readinterpretation of Quran by Murmauke Pickthall. The officer in a green sari with a degree injournalism led him to see pilgrims‟ ships. She even told him of his biography that he was notmade to choose her nature of job by her but she was allotted a seat in information.He has depicted her character in such a way regarding her religious sect that everyreader shows sympathy with her. He convinced his readers by giving it objective reality. Shehas made her children to get education in Urdu and English as they re in minority, may beexiled from Pakistan. With English, they can adjust. General Rahimduddin was on of minorcharacters who delivered speech to pilgrims and to say farewell. Mr. mirza is one of majorcharacters who emphasize on truth that has lost in Muslims. He has many books and wasknown for its intellectual. Mr .Ahmed was in mid fifties, a penitent he had come late toreligion. He was well built, erect and energetic, still attractive, dark, hook nosed with a fullcurved lower lip. He belonged to the original pre Aryan race. He gave detailed descriptionabout his characters that made his writing boring and ugly but sometimes it created interestand readers enjoyed.For Naipaul, „textualizing‟ has meant putting „order‟ to things that he has spread it intoareas, imagery and tone. Imagery is another fictional element that has been used by Naipaul
  7. 7. in his fictional travel narratives. There were images of people, places and landscapes. Hewent to mosques where mullahs were reciting Quran and he has said about them by makingcriticism on scholars of Islam that they were showing off how well they knew and how fastthey recite. It is a negative depiction of Islamic scholars. In one mosque, children were sobesieged by the distributor of the sweets that he held his cardboard aloft. He defines thissituation by using animal imagery of dead cockroach that was carried off by ants. He hasdescribed the whole description of Mr. Salahuddin‟s office that was at the top of newishcentral building of four or five storey in central Karachi. A broken, bumpy dirt road off abazaar street, black skinned children were playing soccer there. When he described the detailof the government officer, Mr Deen‟s office. he said that outside one scooter created “atearing noise in a cloud of blue smoke” government issued sofa set was little „rickety‟. Theyare grotesque Representation with cynicism and satire.His tone is quite ironical satirical, sometimes mockery, full of sarcasm. He criticizesMuslims gave references by giving reference to different sect that they are not united inthemselves. In a satirical tone, he has described the differences of the celebration of Ramadanin Karachi and Iran is different as it is full of blessings and sacred month but the month iscelebrated in Iran as full of mourning not to be recognized as prophet successors. He was alsoreferred to Ahmadi sect who was considered Muslims but now regarded as non – Muslims.He has criticized politics of Pakistan by referring to Benazir who was more interested to saveher father‟s life than Pakistan‟s development. His tone is full of cynicism as when he said thatit was quite arresting for her to see a woman as civil servant in an Islamic counties. Heportrays all Muslims and intellectual who talks about Islamic law but expect from others tostart. His language also reveals his tone like he used such words like „the fever of the faith‟„koran‟ and „showing off mullah‟ and he has used tone of extreme pessimism.Islam had become the cause of the independent of Pakistan but Islamic laws were notenforced in it. All people had knowledge of Islam but who follows its practices is very rare.Theme of faith is much highlighted in this chapter that people talk about these things likeIslamic courts, Islamic banks and Islamic experiments but expect other to do the work.Mullahs and other so called intellectuals had read just few books and had become confidentenough that they knew enough. People had so called Muslims but not true Muslims inpractises, there is nothing. Some had political ambitions to run the propaganda of imposingIslamic laws. People are going far from their religion that their parents do not imposereligious as Ahmed says that he has not imposed religion on his sons he has included allnegative comments about the practices and experiments of Islam Pakistan is a result of hate.Everyone fools here everyone else but just faith can guide them that people has not much inthem. Muslims in different sects are divided like Shia, Sunni. Ahmadi is another sect. He hascriticized Muslims and their faith. Theme of poor is also discussed in the end.Dialogues are another element that he has used in his fictional travel narratives.Through dialogues, he had tried to get information from the concerned people. Hisconversation was simple but they had hidden ideology in them and sound in themes. He hadasked questions that continue their conversation and he got more and more knowledge. Afterre-organizing and re-thinking, he has used dialogues for his own purpose that is to pursue
  8. 8. colonial gaze. Why did they declare you non-Muslims? What were the pressures on them?He has brought different stories through dialogues that helped him to pursue his assumptions.Dialogues can be used for him as a source to convince his readers that whatever he wasdescribing on truth based on truth but it is not objective but full of subjectivity. He useddialogues as a tool to grasp knowledge as he asked about the practical achievement of theIslamic ideology council. Dialogues are also used as a transformation of conversationsbetween him and Ahmed.Hyderabad Boogie-woogieIn this part he told about his visit to the famous shrines, which exists near the main city ofHyderabad in Sindh. He said Sindh was full of the shrines of Muslim Saints. When Pakistancame into being all the holy places of other religions were under the Muslim‟s control butstill the followers of that places were came to visit their sacred places. Ahmed is found as oneof the guider of Naipaul, who wanted him to visit one Sufi centre. He wanted him to visit thatshrine because he himself feels attraction for that place. That shrine was famous for its ideaof sacrifice and there was a proper arrangement for the food of poor. He gives the wholedescription of Hyderabad as he tells about the location of Indus River. In Hyderabad wherehe was expecting to stay at night was cancelled due to the arrival of a minister. He said laterthat place which was there for his shelter was too dark and rough that he could not spend hisnight there.At that place Razak, a Sindhi man, was there to guide him further to the shrines of the holyspirits. Second day there plan was to visit the Sufi centre, which Ahmed had suggested. Sofirst day he visited some other shrines and religious places with Razak. At the first shrine wasa holy man who had thousand followers. They could not meet with that holy person becausehe was resting. So they visited some other shrines at that day and came back to their place forsleep. The room which was for him was too suffocated and without air conditioner. The nextday they started their journey to beyond Hyderabad and he has given the detailed descriptionof that land through his writings and told about the rocks, mountains, streets etc in a detailform.When they reached at the Sufi centre they left their shoes outside in the presence of man andpaid for that pair of shoes. Inside of the shrine was full of people. People were sleeping hereand there because they had come from far and for the poor people there were no more placesto stay. It was an only shelter for them and the babies were on the floor in a pathetic situationamong the flies. The appearance of the shrine was so impressive. They went on to the Suficentre, where it was feeding time for the poor. The condition of that centre was too bad anddirty, everywhere there was muddy water.One person in the blue gown was there to take them. He was one of the authoritative and heled them to a guest room, which was in a good condition, to stay for some time. That persontold him the pir of the shrine was out and would be back in three hours whereas in Pakistanitime the meant of three hours is not three. One little boy came to their room to serve food andNaipaul thought that it is so cruel that he has sacrificed his all life for this service. He had no
  9. 9. specific purpose in his life and was blindly following this service. The man in the blue gowncame to their room and asked what he wanted to know about this shrine then he himself toldabout him that he was doing this service just to please Allah and for a better status in theworld hereafter. The murshid of the shrine has a better status in front of Allah so I want tomeet Allah through the help of my murshid that why I m here from too many years.He told him that there are different kinds of believers. Some want money and some wantgood afterlife. He was serving them just to please his murshid because he loved him. Hecame to know that the shrine was getting money from its followers, who came from all overthe world to fulfill their wishes. Later they visited the kitchen, where the food was preparingfor the people. Different people were there to perform different works but they were happybecause they knew they served poor and God. At last they start their journey back to Karachihe was very excited after his visit to the interior and wanted to share his feelings with Ahmed.When he got to Karachi he found that it was Ahmed who had cancelled his booking at thecircuit house. At start he was very kind to him but later on may be he came to know about histrue nature. Naipaul liked him at the start but later he made him unhappy and anxious to leaveKarachi.In this part of the text Naipaul travelled the session court in Karachi. He told about thecondition of the court that was situated just beyond the central bazaar. He told about severecondition of the prisoners and about the condition of the court. The condition of the prisonerswas so pity they were tied up with chains attached to their wrists. Some prisoners were tiedup with the ropes due to the lack of chains. They were in a relaxed mood followed by khakiuniformed policeman. He has given the complete description of inside the court that how thechairs and tables were arranged and the commissioners were present their for oaths. Naipaulwas followed by a journalist, Nusrat, short man of about thirty with thick moustache. Hevisited all the rooms of court with Nusrat and only the one magistrate was present there. In alittle room some spectators were present waiting for the magistrate. Different people werepresent there with their different problems but no one was there to listen their problems andsolve them.He told about the problems of different people in detailed form firstly he told aboutthe four chained boys waiting for their turn without any anxiety and sharing their adventurewith each other. In a small room an unveiled woman sat with her very thin young daughter inthe case of a property. The condition of that woman was so weak and bad. She was coming tothe court from the last three days but still there was no magistrate to listen her. A plump manfrom swat was there but he was at ease because according to him he did not do anythingwrong that‟s why he was relaxed. The police arrested him because the police had found a gunin his possession. In a storehouse of files it was all recorded but that shelves were in badcondition with torn and dusty ledgers.He talked about the Islamic laws in a detailed and tone way. A set of ten Islamic lawshad been passed by the government including the laws of drinking, theft and illicit sex. Hesaid these were hardly laws because they were more about punishments. As the law of thedrinking was it would be punished by eight stripes. The punishment for illicit sex was to be
  10. 10. stoned to death at a public place. For theft at first offence the amputation of the right hand, atsecond offence the amputation of the left foot and for third offence, imprisonment for life. Atanother occasion he said that if a holy man had been charged with raping the young girl ofone of his followers. The case against him could not get far because Islamic law required foureyewitnesses to the act. He asked a question that why four eyewitnesses must be required.Here he took a fact from the prophet life, to prove his point that, the incident of HazratAyesha innocence. Here the point which he discussing was that the Muslims followed Koranblindly. Same is the case with the legal marriage age for girls he said there are nine differentopinions about the marriage age of Hazrat Aisha but Muslims without knowing about the truefacts blindly followed Islamic laws.Analysis of the HyderabadThe main objective of the travel writings is to faithfully represent geographical,historical and social reality of the other cultures even the third world. The traveler writerusually used the colonial gaze to represent the cultures of others and observed them asprimitive and backward. One of the types of travel writing is intellectual analytic in which thenarrator emerged as a kind of intellectual social commentator. V.S.Naipaul is among thoseintellectual social commentators who used many strategies in his writings that make hiswritings very accurate and convincing. That no one can help himself to deny those realitieswhich he presents in his writings. He observed very keenly every aspect of others culture andanalyzed them in a very specific tone that reader accepts that aspects as a reality and can nothelp themselves to escape from his strategies that he used in order to convinced his readers.He used different strategies to convince his readers and that strategies are the Naipaulianassumptions, his narrative authority and his travel strategies. He used these strategies in avery intellectual way that by using these strategies he actually depicted the negative aspectsof society but he presented in such a convincing way that reader thinks he feels unsatisfiedand pity for it.There was some assumption and ordered plan in his mind which he has presented inhis writings. Firstly he traveled some specific country, took notes, then back to his centre,rethinks, reorganizes and reinvent of his travel experience and then presents that experiencein his writing according to his own assumptions. He spent his time in the city of Hyderabadand he visited many places included famous shrines of that city and met with different kind ofpeople. When he returned back after spent a long time there then he rethink and reorganizedhis travel experience and presented them according to his own assumptions which he had inhis mind for others. He depicted all of them as primitive, backward and dirty people whohave no sense of life.Naipaul used narrative authority in his writings in order to convince his readers. Heconvinced his readers by giving an eye_ witness experience, descriptions, contextualization,acute observations and pleasing and convincing narrative. He gives eye witnesses in his textas he said that “and when I got to the circuit house, where I thought I was staying, there wastrouble. Two civil servants greeted me and told me that… my booking has been cancelled.”Another example is that “one man took our request inside; another man came out to answer
  11. 11. it. He said the great man received only in the mornings.” He gives another eye witness in hiswritings by saying that “we left our shoes with the man who sat below a sheet awning. Hewas turbaned and dignified, brisk, a professional; he tied up each pair of shoes and chargedhalf a rupee a pair”. By giving these eye witnesses to his readers he convinced them veryintellectually.He gives descriptions in a detailed form and observed each and every aspect verykeenly. But point is that by giving these descriptions and through acuity of observations hedid not present the positive aspects. In spit of it he presented just negative imagery of theirlives and took them as a primitive and other. He focused just on the dirty and filthy areas inhis writings whereas if there are some negative points then positive points are also there buthe did not bother about them. As he said in the text “Hyderabad _ a nondescript desert townwith low, ochre distempered concrete buildings baked. But there were pools of stagnant waterhere and there: the desert was waterlogged.” Another example is “the marble floor wasgrimy; there were babies, and many flies, seeking always to settle on the floor and thebodies.” At another place he said that “the stone was heart shaped… people passed theirhands over the stone, caressed it, and then brought their hands to their lips and eyes, ortouched their heart; or they appeared to hug themselves.” He has given all of thesedescriptions and has keenly observed their cultures in order to convince his readers. He usedsuch convincing elements in his writings for a way of giving authority to his travel narrativeas an objective reality.Naipaul used particular travel writing strategies in his writings in which differenttechniques and approaches are included. As journalistic techniques, detailed ethnographicreporting, historical perspectives, autobiographical features and philosophical inquiry. Insome of his travel texts he completely focused on one of these techniques while sometimes heused two or more than two. In this part of the text he has used detailed ethnographic reportingin which he has given the detailed descriptions of landscape, geographic, and humanobservation. Colonial gaze is usually used behind this ethnographic method and this stylebrings narrative authority to bear. As he said in text “beyond Hyderabad there were patchesof cultivation; patches of scrub, patches of sand. The brightness hurt the heat hurt. Villagedogs stood still in yellow waterlogged pools. We were in one of the famous river valleys ofearly civilization. But there was no feeling of a valley; the land felt like an immense plain,until you noticed that the flat land was at different levels and that the upper levels werecapped with rock… town with the shrine.”There are fictional elements used by Naipaul in his travel writings that are actuallyVulcanization or a new genre according to Santiago that is travelon.First element used byNaipaul is tone. His tone is satirical. He continuously criticized Pakistani regions specificallyas he has used the words dirt, old, dusty street, hot, filthy, sandy tracks etc.His main purposewas just to degrade Pakistani regions. If we analyze his writing critically we can say that hecan give the positive description as Pakistani regions have good areas, open n cool climatebut he has just pointed out negatively. Second element is characterization as he has givencomplete description of every one to whom he met. He considered himself as a socialreformer and thinks that it‟s his duty to make order out of chaos.
  12. 12. He used different themes and imagery in his writings to make its accurate andauthentic. The theme which he mostly discussed dealt with themes of poverty, desolation,decay, inability and decadence. He presented totally negative imagery that is dark, sharp,dirty and filthy, not pleasing. The imagery he has used in text is like this “but the place theytook me to _ in spite of the central air conditioning rough and dark, with a broken lavatoryseat in my bathroom.” At another occasion he said “the marble floor was grimy; there werebabies, and many fly, seeking always to settle on the floor and the bodies.” He used satiricaltone in his text to criticize others as he said in text “he said that the pir was out and would beback in three hours. In Pakistan the standard unit of stated delay was half an hour; three hoursmeant not that day”. Naipaul makes Among the Believers an ultimate travel or fiction journeyby making the travel narrative feel like fiction at many places, not only by the imagery andtone, but by the intense dramatic dialogue that he used. So by all these fictional elements andstrategies he depicts completely negative picture of the third world countries. Apparently itseems that he is trying to make order in the things and feels unsatisfied but in reality he usedall these dark images, tone and strategies in order to convince his readers that readers alsofinds its difficult to know that what is the reality and unable to take it as a wrong perception.BasicsIn this chapter Naipaul has visited twin cities Islamabad and Rawalpindi. There hemet a doctor who was the chief medical officer of a small oil company. The doctor was ashia, they are the supporters of Ali. Doctor introduces his son to the writer, who was a youngman age of 28. The doctor said him a rebel and a rationalist. He was interested in Englishliterature. we can see his rational approach in his poems and in his views. In the end of thischapter he gives his views about the religion of the shia people.AnalysisHe gives ethnographic details in his travel writings. “six or seven hundred miles northeastof Karachi. In the foot hills were the small “twin cities” of Rawalpindi and Islamabad.”We also see ironic tone in his travel writings. “But the doctor had not mentioned theafterlife or hereafter as one of the articles of his faith. Wasn’t that essential for aMuslim?”He gives acute and minor details about individuals. “Doctor a man of fifty, small and finefeatured was aware of the dignity of the house.” We also find some statements in his travelwritings which show biesenes and cynicism. “The west is emotionally rejected. Itundermines: it threatens. But at the same time it is needed for its machines, goods andmachines….” In this chapter he refers back to the history of Hazrat Ali who was khalifa ofthe muslams. He gives his own assumptions and views in his travel writings.“No religion is more worldly than Islam. In spite of its political incapacity, no religionkeeps men’s eye more fixed on the way the world in run. And in the poetry of doctorsson, in his fumbling response to the universal civilization.”
  13. 13. In this chapter he refers to the book which was given to him by the doctor. The maxims ofAli. It was the book on the famous sayings of hazrat AliIn The Kaghan ValleyThis chapter is about Naipauls visit to the Kaghan valley. The writer went to thenorth where there are high Himalayas. They were covered with snow. He hired a jeep andwent to kunhar river. He was accompanied by a young university student Masood. Masoodaccompanied and guided him throughout his journey to the Kaghan valley. Masoos was a thintall man with moustache. His moustache hinted at his military background. Then they went toAbbottabad through Taxila. They saw the dry bright hills of Abbottabad. Then they arrived atBalakot and bargained a jeep from the government travel office. Masood bargained for thejeep and at last they got the jeep for 700 rupees. The jeep driver was a very handsome man ina strong physique. He took the boy with him for the Balakot bazaar. Then both of themarrived at the bazaar and they saw the blackened dirt area with blackened shops.The writer arrived with the boys at Kunhar River. They stopped to listen the sound ofwater. The place was very pleasing and comforting. He saw the Afghans in turbans andwomen in baggy trousers and covered heads. The houses were near the hill sides and roofswere made of mud. There were many trees around. Somewhere houses were seen earthen andtheir roofs leveled with the road.They stopped at a village near by. The writer met some school boys and a young man.The boys relatives belonged to different areas of Pakistan and Saudi Arabia. As they were afew hours away from Rawalpindi, the writer noticed small heighted people and two floorhouses of the landlords. He also saw some Gujars. He had a negative image of them. Thenthey saw a river dropped below the road. The hills were cultivated with maize.Masood told the writer about the wedding traditions and dowry common among those people.The scene of pale green river and sound of water was fascinating. The writer also saw anAfghan camp with animals and fire lit for cooking. The boy took them to the camp where agirl was preparing tea in the manner of the subcontinent. He noticed Afghan women whowere old and lined by face.AnalysisChapter 8 "In the Kaghan valley" of the novel starts with the Ethnographic details.The writer gives a good description of the Himalayas. As it is said, "Just to the north themountains began, and less than a hundred miles away were the high Himalayas. InSeptember began migration of the herdsman and their families and their flocks fromtheir high summer pastures to the lowlands".V.S Naipaul falls into thr third category of travel writing in which he gives acuteobservations and depth of analysis. He also overlaps with the second category in which hefocuses on geographical, economical and ethnographic details of a man and says: "He was a
  14. 14. tall, thin melancholy man with glasses and a walrus moustache. The moustache hintedat his military background".The colonial gaze is also described in the chapter by V.S Naipaul. Colonial Gaze islooking down on people and their landscapes and studying, observing them as primitive orbackward. As it states in the chapter "Gujars; the original inhabitants of the valley, not verybright, rather backward in fact, and keeping to themselves". Hence the writer is looking downon the gujars and representing them negatively.Naipauls narrative authority is seen in Among the Believers where the writer as aneye witness demonstrates acuity of observations. In the novel the writer is the eye witness ofthe acute observations of the pine trees in Balakot. He says:"The pines seeded themselveson the hill sides, the seedlings, after their first horizontal thrust, straightened up andlooking for the light, they were the tallest pines I had ever seen".Naipaul has also given fictional elements like theme, imagery and use of dialogue.These elements can be found in Among the Believers. Theme of poverty is seen in the novelas he describes the poor condition of Afghanis "tea had been brewed or stewed, in themanner of the subcontinent; dirty little china cups lay on the ground". On anotheroccasion the writer says about the afghani women in these words: "Busy, the women,private, shut away in their migrant life, grimy with their bright colors, underfed,exhausted by the work and the walking, their faces tanned and lined".Use of light and dark imagery is also found in the novel. As it says "The mountainsun had given wonderful dark warmth to their white skins". We can also find the use ofdialogue employed by Naipaul in his novel. As the writer says, “what do they do with themoney?" Masood said: "They have their dependents. They have daughters or sons tomarry off".Concluding we can say that the writer with the use of certain stylistic features likefictional elements, autobiographical elements, ethnographic details and themes has made hisnovel a master piece in travel writing literature.Agha BaburChapter starts with the description of condition of Pakistan. Writer said that inRawalpindi, newspaper carried news about Govt. no new jobs were created and no salaryrises for the people of Baluchistan in job. Twenty nine officials of weight and measurementdepartment were dismissed and Govt. should provide them alternative jobs to save them andtheir families from frustration and starvation.Minibuses between Rawalpindi and Islamabad had gone on a one day strike to protestagainst police. Drivers told that police demanded higher bribes and police complaint aboutbad behavior of drivers with passengers. In The Pakistan Times a retired army man wrote anarticle about indiscipline. He discussed social evils and domestic atmosphere and their impacton children. He said that children growing up in a domestic atmosphere and when they see
  15. 15. the social evils around them, such as bribery, black-marketing, and corruption etc. theyshould not be expected to accept any discipline and they try to project the atmosphere ofhome to the educational institution.There was a review, in The Pakistan Times, of an art exhibition in an art council andthe artist was Hameed Sagher. When someone enters into the hall of the council‟s premises,the eye was caught by a number of bright panels and the mind is gripped by conflictingreactions to these panels. Hameed Sagher was a poet for some time and then he started thevocation of art in the commercial field with a professional experience, as his guide. As a poethe is fascinated by ideas and as an artist he captures those ideas in colors. The manresponsible for the Hameed Sagher‟s exhibition was Agha Babur, a humorous middle-agedman with a fringe of white hairs, slender and attractive as well. Agha Babur wrote a shortnote about Hameed Sagher‟s work, that it is important for our artists that they should havethese brochures of their exhibition when they go abroad.Naipaul said that, Agha Babur was in the army before he joined the Arts Council. Heasserts himself as a man of ideas and he gives us example that the 1975 was the year oftourism, he wrote the letter to all embassies to get their tourist poster, when he got poster theyheld an International Exhibition of touristic posters. When he wrote a letter to the ministerthat this is what he had done and minister‟s department is sleepy they don‟t know that what todo and when. He said that these ideas came in my mind when I heard that our president inHavana, that this is the fourteen century of Islamic Hijra, and fourteen years ago a revolutiontake place and an idea came into his mind that when we enter into the new Hijra and he wasgoing to arrange an exhibition on the calligraphy of the Holy Koran.Agha Babur asserts about Hameed Sagher that he utilizes a poetic atmosphere inhis paintings where translation of agony and nostalgia is represented in a naïve style. Writertalked to Agha Babur and asked him about place of English in Pakistan. First Agha Baburdisagree with the statement that many people cannot speak English language but afterwardshe accept it, and said that spoken language may be dying but not the spoken language. AllArabs and Persian countries have English and it would be bad if we lose it.Agha Babur mentioned one of his friends that Caro-leen was my guide in the UnitedStates. He said that she was my guide in the United States; I was a cultural guest of the StateDepartment. Caro-leen said to him that some time people only visited some places in UnitedStates and they claim that they‟ve seen the United States.In the next, writer talks about a ceremony in which Iraqian ambassador was come tomake the opening speech and cut the ribbon. Time for ceremony was 5:30 and writer reachedat 6:05 and speeches had already been made. Agha Babur was an army man and he cares fortime so much and that‟s why he was not used to waste the time. When writer reached guestswere in the section of paintings. Hall was full; Agha Babur had done it again that in the socialdesert of Rawalpindi he had created another occasion. Many of his paintings were sold,different ambassador purchase his paintings. He also met a man who was the teacher of theartist; a young man with him was also a teacher. That young man was in army but he had left
  16. 16. and became a teacher. When writer talked to him he told that he want to go to England to dohis thesis on Graham Greene, Forster, Conrad. Young man wants to do a thesis and want toprove these novels as political novels. Writer asks him that Shakespeare attracted young manbut People considered him as unnatural.Analysis of Agha BaburIn his book Among the Believers Naipaul has used different formal aspects that makeshis writing more authentic. These aspects are Naipaul‟s assumption, narrative authority andhis travel strategies. The main objective of the travel writings is faithful representation ofgeography, history and social reality of the other cultures. While talking about Naipaulassumptions by reading Among the Believers, we can say firstly that, Naipaul hasassumptions in his mind but after completing his tour of Pakistan and knowing about thegeography and lives of Pakistani people Naipaul has stated them all according to his ownwish. He obviously has spent long time in Pakistan several months and given every minutedetail but same as there was everything. It is said about Naipaulian assumption that actualtext must be produced in Vitro (separated from) the actual experiential context. Here in thistext even the time and space arrangement are not same, although it‟s different. He has used atool textualization that means putting order to things. Although by using this tool oftextualization we can say that he may not have presented the whole phenomena in the way inwhich he must have present it. He uses different literary strategies, travel writing strategies,and his fictional elements in his travel writing, Among the Believers.In Agha Babur, he has used narrative authority. Firstly he has given eye witnessexperiences as Naipaul said, “the minibuses plied between Rawalpindi and Islamabad hadgone on a one-day strike to protest against police harassment. The bus drivers told thenewspaper that police wanted higher bribes. The police said the drivers had been„misbehaving‟ with passengers”. The main purpose of using narrative authority is just toconvince the readers and making the text more pleasing. Naipaul has demonstrated acuity ofobservations as he minutely analyzes different ceremonies held in Pakistan. He gavedescription of art exhibition which held in Rawalpindi and he also went to another artexhibition arranged by Agha Babur, a retired Army officer. He describe the condition ofAgha Babur as in the text he said that, “Agha Babur in a light-grey suite, the artist in a fawn-colored woolen jerkin”. He gave minute description of everything and he keenly observes hissurroundings and by giving the minute description Naipaul actually has presented a readableand impressing text. Here main purpose of these eye witness experiences and demonstratedacuity is to control the minds of readers intellectually. These are tools for him through whomhe makes every positive reality as negative and readers start believing them.Naipaul has employed particular travelling strategies as one of them is detailedEthnographic reporting. He has explained ethnography of Pakistan in complete detail as hesaid that, “there were to be economies in Baluchistan: no new jobs were to be created, andthere were to be no salary rises for people in jobs.” On another place he quoted from anarticle that, “children growing up in a domestic atmosphere where smuggling, black-marketing and hoarding, bribery and corruption….. Are indulged in quite blatantly, should
  17. 17. not be expected to accept discipline in any form.” Naipaul only pointed out the bad things inPakistan. The main point is that if there is something bad then there is something good inPakistan. Naipaul should focus on those positive issues as well, but he only highlighted thenegative points that he found here.There are fictional elements used by Naipaul in his travel writings that are actuallyVulcanization or a new genre. First element used by Naipaul is tone. His tone is satirical. Hecontinuously criticized Pakistani regions specifically as he has used the words dirt,indiscipline, shame, old, dusty street, hot, filthy, sandy tracks, misbehaving with others,social evils etc. After reading the section “Pakistan” in this travel writing, Among theBelievers, his main purpose was just to depict the negative image of Pakistani regions. If weanalyses his writing critically we can say that he can give the positive description as Pakistaniregions have good areas, open and cool climate although he has just point out negatively.Second element is characterization as he has given complete description of every one towhom he met. In this chapter he gave the description of Agha Babur, a retired militaryofficer. He said that in an art exhibition, “Agha Babur in a light-grey suite, the artist in afawn-colored woolen jerkin”, he also describe the condition of Ambassador in thatexhibition, as he said that, “ambassador in a dark three peace suite, thickest, looked earnestand pained and listened with his head to one side”.Another element is of imagery he has used different type of images. At some placeshe used sharp images and sometimes he used light images. He uses images of mental agonyand starvation, frustration, domestic atmosphere, social evils and colorful panels. Anotherfictional element used in his travel writing is theme. He used different types of themes in hiswriting. The issues which he mostly discussed dealt with themes of poverty, desolation,decay, decadence, mental agony and frustration, and indiscipline. He presented totallynegative imagery that is dark, sharp, dirty and not pleasing. Although through his travelwriting and by using such fictional elements and travel writing strategies he makes hiswriting more pleasing but that mostly never based on reality. He uses different journalistictechniques in this chapter. He takes examples from different articles from differentnewspaper and historical books.The Salt Hills of DreamsChapter starts with the description of weather in Punjab, Pakistan; he said thatweather of Rawalpindi is cooler than the other areas of Punjab. Then he talks about thevillage of Raiwind, which stood in the middle of new desert, Lahore. There was a biggathering at Raiwind; from far away it was look like a fair: people were going on straightpath to a great tent city. It was a religious occasion in Pakistan, there had been Ramadan andthe festival at the end of the Ramadan. There had been the excitement of the pilgrimage toMecca and the festival of sacrifice was soon to come. The assembly of the Muslim shows thatevery Muslim was also a missionary for Islam.Many people come here from different parts of the World and Pakistan, they were notamong the poor, and many of them were traders. For three four days they listen to speeches,
  18. 18. live and pray together. Writer describe the land of Raiwind, he talks about fertility of theland. Then he mentioned that when he went to the tent area he listened that different peoplewere talking about different things. When he passed person to person he observes thateveryone was talking about different issues. When he came to main place of that ceremony hemeets a young scientist, about him he said that he had sad eyes, white forehead and with atender manner he came to the narrator and asked him about the afterlife. Young man said thatthe one aim of this gathering is to get people to think seriously of the afterlife.After this scientist told him that he was in England at the end of the war. And he hadseen the signs of dissatisfaction in West and he wants peace. He said that he didn‟t want to be„divided‟ as his father had been divided in British India: a Muslim at home and a Europeanaway from home. He wanted to be Muslim in the way the earliest Muslim had been. Then hesaid that he wanted to do everything according to the Order of Allah (S.W.T). Then he toldhim that stay for our prayers because sometime it has an effect for new comers.When he was going back from Raiwind, he stopped at a village and he observed thatno crops grew here and the village was full of stagnant pools, some quite large and it showsthe dirtiness of the people of that village. He said that there is no greenery in the village andat some walls there were cattle‟s dung cakes and fuel for drying. He said that there were verysmall houses of Muslims and he said that before Pakistan small houses were only belonged tothe Non-Muslim people and now Muslims were living in small houses. He said that there wasno fix time for prayer, at the prayer time got up and go to the Mosque.He talked about Ahmadis, who claimed that that they are the purest of Muslims. Therehad been repeated campaigns against the followers of Ahmadis; and in the Mr. Bhutto‟s timethe hated Ahmadis had been declared non-Muslims. Writer said that he met an Ahmadiwoman, civil servant, in Karachi. She married to a person in her own sect, her husband wasan army officer and writer inspired by her education, dignity, her acceptance of persecution,her acceptance of the fact that it might be necessary for her and her children to leavePakistan.Narrator met the son of a retired army officer; he met Colonel Anees, formerly of thePakistan Army. The Colonel was of the sect; he had left the army because he felt that theprejudices were now too strong. He said that it was harder to know about Ahmadis faith, ifsomeone wants to understand the Ahmadis it was necessary for to know a lot about Islam. Hehad taken the writer to meet the Lahore leaders of the sect. when they reached to the house oftheir one leader; writer gave a detailed description about their house. He said that when theyreached many men, of varying ages, were waiting for him, most of them were modernbusinessmen from their dress, education and manner. They had an extra authority: they weremen in their own estimation made tremendous by their faith. They said that a hundred yearsbefore there was only one Ahmad, one man, but now there were ten million Ahmadis all overthe world. They told that last year there was a conference in London and there were hundredof delegates from different parts of the world but the press ignored the conference.
  19. 19. Some Muslims believe that Christ will return to earth as the redeemer or the Mahdi.Ahmadis said that the prophecy has been misinterpreted, for this reason; Christ is not alive inheaven somewhere, waiting to comeback to the earth; Christ is dead. They said that the trueprophecy was that someone like Christ was going to comeback to earth as the PromisedMessiah, to cleanse religion at a time of darkness and restore the purity of Islam, and thatman was Ahmad, born in 1838 in a village Qadian, a British colony in India. Jesus was bornafter thirteen years of Moses, and Ahmad was born after thirteen years of the Prophet.Naipaul describe the information which he got from those people and he said that itwas a difficult story and he told us only those things which he wrote at that time and someinformation he got from Idrees, the Lahore Imam‟s brother. He said that Idrees was a littlenervous after outlawing the sect and anxious not to appear to be blaspheming and hisexplanation could be fine and detailed. The outlawing of the sect by Mr. Bhutto had beenprophesied, so had the punishment for Mr. Bhutto because it had been prophesied that a rulerwas going to declare them cafors. After that he discussed the condition of the Ahmadis beforeand after partition.Idrees told him that long before the partition, the second caliph had prophesied amigration similar to Christ‟s. He said that the land which we had been driving was flat, thehills were abrupt. They were the salt hills of the Punjab, they were low red hills, were redwith the dust. Beside the hills was the Chenab River, one of the rivers of the Punjab, a riverof the Indo-Pakistan Subcontinent. Idrees told about the 2ndimmigration of the Ahmadis, thesecond Caliph had seen a landscape like this in a dream, and it did have a quality of dream,with the abruptness of red rocky hills. He told that 2ndCaliph seen that there was a huge floodand we are all drifting in it and ultimately we touched land at a place which was hilly andsome sandy area also. He said that hills were important in this immigration that resemble tothat of Christ. Promised Messiah himself had prophesied that times would be hard for hispeople, and he would be appear on the bank of the Nile to support them.After wards Naipaul said that Idrees brought him to the guest house because he wantsto meet me with the Imam. The Imam was grandson of Promised Messiah according to theIdrees. He was seventy and M.A from Oxford. After sometime Idrees told that Imam hadmany other matters, so meeting cannot be possible today with the Imam. He told that Imampermitted him to live in darkened waiting room; writer observed their family groups and hesaid that it was a somber family group with a bowed and black veiled women. In publicationsection he saw different booklets in stacks. Idrees showed him the translation of Koranlanguage by language, and title page by title page. He said that Ahmadis were active inAfrica: they had Korans in different languages. They were banned in many Muslim countriesbut the work went on elsewhere.Naipaul also discussed that salt rocks of Rabwah hills stored and radiated heat. Insummers the rocks never cooled down but Idrees was at peace: this land of salt, rocks andriver was his safe place. At the evening when they come back, he saw the sunset, waterlogged fields. He saw horse carriages and trucks without lights and then he said that “whenthe law is dishonored by the lawmakers, how can the common man obey?”
  20. 20. Analysis of the Salt Hills of a DreamIn The Salt Hills of a Dream, he has used narrative authority. Firstly he has given eyewitness experiences by given the description of weather as Naipaul said, that, “the eveningswere getting cooler in Rawalpindi; the summer was nearly over”, at another place he saidthat, “Lahore in the plains of the Punjab was to go down where it was still very hot.” Themain purpose of using narrative authority is just to convince the readers and making the textmore pleasing. At another place he mentioned that, “there was a big gathering at Raiwind:from far away it was look like a fair”. Naipaul has demonstrated acuity of observations as heminutely analyzes Muslims festivals. He makes plan to go for travelling around Raiwind,Lahore, as he said, “the village of Raiwind stood in the middle of an area of new desert…drive out to it from Lahore was to see lands hundreds of blighted square miles”. “It was areligious occasion: in Pakistan the religious excitement never abated, there had beenRamadan and the festival at the end of Ramadan; there had been the excitement of thepilgrimage to Mecca; the festival of sacrifice was soon to come.” By giving the minutedescription Naipaul actually has presented a readable and impressing text.Naipaul has employed particular travelling strategies as one of them is detailedEthnographic reporting. He has explained ethnography of Pakistan in complete detail as hesaid, “besides the hills was the Chenab River, one of the rivers of the Punjab, a river here ofthe Indo-Pakistan subcontinent”. “The salt rocks of Rabwah hills stored and radiated heat. Insummer the rocks never cooled down”.The traveler writers usually in their writings use the colonial gaze to represent thecultures of others and observed them as primitive and backward and low, although they mustbe pure and fair in their works. Naipaul is one that has presented the third world according tohis own wish in a complete negative way. While describing this part Naipaul has usednarrative authority in order to make his text more authentic. At one point he said that, “Ithought this was strange thing to say, until I understand that what was being said was that,before Pakistan, the house had belonged to non-Muslim, now the villages was all Muslim,pure and at prayer time- though no call time- two of the men got up to the Mosque”.Naipaul includes fictional elements in his travel writing as his tone towards Muslimhistory is quite satirical. In this chapter he talks about Ahmadis, who claimed that they arepurest Muslims. He said that Muslims are dividing into different sects and even one Muslim‟sby self not know the reality. At the end of this chapter he raises a question that in Pakistan“when the law is dishonored by the lawmakers, how the common man can obey?” Anotherelement is of imagery he has used as imagery of small houses, red hills, hot weather, andrivers, salt rocks, pools of dirt water, dung‟s cakes etc. He presented totally negative imagerythat is dark, sharp, dirty and filthy it‟s not pleasing. Although through his travel writing andby using such fictional elements and travel writing strategies he makes his writing morepleasing but that mostly never based on reality. He dealt with theme of religious conflicts,uncivilized people, poverty, disorder etc.

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