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2012 (Spring) - Mobile technology Adoption - Developing Countries
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2012 (Spring) - Mobile technology Adoption - Developing Countries


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  • According to UNESCO (2009), there are currently 793 million individuals who lack basic reading and writing skills. Surprisingly, despite the importance of reading and writing skills, almost as universal as reading and writing is access to mobile phones.
  • Explain the diffferences and the evolution from OSS to OCW and Free Culture.
  • However, as discussed by Mark Waschauer, without taking into account the context and the needs of the local community, as well as including the community in the process of technology transfer and adoption, the investment could have a marginal impact and take away resources from other sectors where it could be of greater benefit to society.
  • Haiti ReliefGrameen PhoneFastest adoption - Ubiquity
  • World Bank ICT – Mobile World Publication70% of World Bank Projects Include ICT
  • Transcript

    • 1. Information and Communication Technologies (Use of Smart Phones) For Education (Distribution of Low Cost / High Quality Educational Content)
    • 2. Community Technology Centers
    • 3. Canadian Council on Learning - Pillars of Learning Literacy, Numeracy, General Knowledge, Learning to Know and Critical Thinking Technical, Hands-On Skills that Are Closely Learning to Do Tied to Occupational Success Civic Engagement, Respect and Concern forLearning to Live Together Others Social and Inter-Personal Skills Development of the Mind, Body and Spirit Learning to Be Through Personal Discovery, Creativity and Achieving a Healthy Balance in Life Inspired by the Four Pillars of Learning for UNESCO by Jacques Delors
    • 4. Educational Project Implementation• Small loan to community members to trade their “dumb” or “feature” phones for smart phones.• They will be required to explain what educational activity (formal or informal) they will use the phone for.• Agreement with telecommunication companies to allow their use without data plan or subsidized data plan.• CTCs will be use as a WIFI hub for content download, suggestions, and OER use and development courses
    • 5. - Rural Connectivity Program- Community Technology Center Program- Program- Red Wan Program- Virtual Areas for Education (AVES)- Software development – ITLA - INTEC
    • 6. Dominican Comparison - Variables Republic Group Primary Enrollment 116 104 (GER) - 2008 (Region)Secondary Enrollment 89 75 (GER) - 2008 (Region)Public Expenditure as 2.2 4.5 % of GDP - 2007 (120th) (World) Literacy Rate 91.0 88.2 (+15) - 2008 (Region) Literacy Rate 96.9 95.8 (Under 15) - 2008 (Region)
    • 7. The Dominican Republichas a cell phone use rateof 0.91 cellular phones perperson in the DominicanRepublic (INDOTEL,2010)
    • 8. Rodger’s Diffusion of Innovation
    • 9. Gartner’s Hype Cycle
    • 10. Factor Technology Assessment: Smart Phones Merges a desktop or laptop computer with the conveniences of an older Relative mobile phone (“dumb” or “feature” phone). Mobile phones allowed Advantage countries to leapfrog the infrastructure development requirements of landline phones. Mobiles phone can be considered the most widely adopted technology worldwide, smart phones will likely retain the same compatibility withCompatibility local populations. Integrating the internet, picture taking capabilities, banking capabilities and other features they may be even more compatible. The basic features of the phone are simple to use, and its touch sensitiveComplexity or user interface has contributed to its commercial success, expansion and Simplicity rapid improvement. Adding voice commands increases access and its simplicity for some users. Unlike a desktop computer, a smart phone does not have a loading time Trialability as it boots as soon as it is activated. It can be used seconds after it is powered on. They are attractive and filled with social features, and a powerful processing engine. With over 400,000 applications for Android alone, orObservability over 500,000 for iOS, app use and exploration can captivate individuals of different interests and ages. The applications are also linked to a virtual account and can be re-downloaded if a device is upgraded.
    • 11. Factor Technology Assessment: Open Education It is cheaper, customizable, and localizable. Depending on the license they allow for “remix, reuse, revise, and redistribution”. Open textbooks are Relative increasingly being adopted in the United States and open content has Advantage reached billions. By being digital and easy to replicate there is no “Tragedy of the Commons”. Many individuals today first learn about a topic by “searching” for it online. Google and its products are successful partly because they are to a great extent open projects (open to use not all are open source). Wikipedia, aCompatibility fully open site, is the 6th most visited site on the Internet. Being open means that anyone with an Internet connection should be able to access it and/or download it. Learning how to use them is simple, to edit them or to find them can be aComplexity or bit more complicated. A basic search and an advanced editing course Simplicity through the Community Technology Center will help reduce its complexity. While most people understand what is “free”, they may not know how to Trialability tell if something is free on the internet or not. They may have used Wikipedia before but be unaware of the broader open movement. Internet browsing is an individual activity and unless an individual decides to share his or her internet activity most will be unaware of what site thatObservability person visit or how he or she acts in the internet. However, if individuals are using their learning materials through their mobile devices, they will likely receive other’s attention.
    • 12. WHY ICT?
    • 13. Aleph Molinary – R.I.A.
    • 14. 10010101011010110101101001010101010101011011010101010101010101001010101010101010101010110111010110011010101001001010110101010100101011110011010010111010101001010101001010101010110100101010101010101001010101010100101010101010101010101001010101010101001010101010101010100101010101010101010011110100101010101010100101010101 Without Current Information010100101010101010101001010101010101011100101101010100101010101010010101011010101001010101010101010110010101011010110101101001010101010101011011010101010101010101001010101010101010101010110111010110011010101001001010110101010100101011110011 It is Difficult to Build On the Shoulders of Giants01001011101010100101010100101010101011010010101010101010100101010101010010101010101010101010100101010101010100101010101010101010010101010101010101001111010010101010101010010101010101010010101010101010100101010101010101110010110101010010101010101001010101101010100101010101010101010101010010101101101101010010101001010101100101010110101101011010010101010101010110110101010101010101010010101010101010101010101101110101100110101010010010101101010101001010111100110100101110101010010101010010101010101101001010101010101010010101010101001010101010101010101010010101010101010010101010101010101001010101010101010100111101001010101010101001010101010101001010101010101010010101010101010111001011010101001010101010100101010110101010010101010101010101100101010110101101011010010101010101010110110101010101010101010010101010101010101010101101110101100110101010010010101101010101001010111100110100101110101010010101010010101010101101001010101010101010010101010101001010101010101010101010010101010101010010101010101010101001010101010101010100111101001010101010101001010101010101001010101010101010010101010101010111001011010101001010101010100101010110101010010101010101010101100101010110101101011010010101010101010110110101010101010101010010101010101010101010101101110101100110101010010010101101 Sir Isaac Newton0101010010101111001101001011101010100101010100101010101011010010101010101010100101010101010010101010101010101010100101010101101010110101010101010101010101010101
    • 15. Do We Need to Learn How to Use the Internet and Computers to be a Part of the 21st Century? Ginny - (CC BY-SA 2.0)
    • 16. Yes in the U.S.
    • 17. Ubiquity in Access to Information ITU Statistics Global ICT developments, 2001-2011* ( 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011* Mobile-cellular telephone subscriptions 15.5 18.4 22.2 27.3 33.9 41.8 50.6 59.9 68.3 78.0 86.7 Internet users 8.0 10.7 12.3 14.1 15.7 17.5 20.6 23.5 26.3 29.7 34.7 Fixed telephone lines 16.6 17.2 17.8 18.7 19.3 19.2 18.8 18.6 17.8 17.2 16.6 Active mobile-broadband subscriptions 4.0 6.3 7.8 12.6 17.0 Fixed (wired)-broadband subscriptions 0.6 1.0 1.6 2.4 3.4 4.3 5.3 6.1 6.9 7.6 8.5
    • 18. Information is Everywhere! SI decimal prefixes Binary Name Value usage (Symbol) 3 10 kilobyte (kB) 10 2 6 20 megabyte (MB) 10 2 9 30 gigabyte (GB) 10 2 12 40 terabyte (TB) 10 2 15 50 petabyte (PB) 10 2 18 60 exabyte (EB) 10 2 21 70 zettabyte (ZB) 10 2 24 80 yottabyte (YB) 10 2
    • 19. Digital Natives / Digital Immigrants <5,000 Hours Reading Books10,000 Hours 200,000Playing Video Emails Games Digital Natives >10,000 >20,000hours Talking Hours on the Watching TV Cellphone >500,000 Commercials Watched
    • 20. Learning and EducationEducator Learner
    • 21. Why OER and otherInternet Resources?
    • 22. A Few Terms• Free Culture• Open Access• Open Source Software• Open Data• Open Education Resources• Open Content• Open Course Ware
    • 23. Classification of OER
    • 24. More and More Low Cost Quality Open Information
    • 25. Who Uses MIT OCW and OER? (2005) OCW is accessed by a broadly international population of educators and learners. • 61% of OCW traffic is non-US; East Asia-22%, Western Europe- 15%, South Asia-6%, Latin America-5%, other regions-13% • 49% of visitors are self learners, 32% students, 16% educators The OCW site is being successfully used by educators, students and self learners for wide range of purposes.Source: • Educator uses: planning a course (26%), preparing to teach aMIT OpenCourseWare class (22%), enhancing personal knowledge (19%) • Student uses: complementing a course (38%), enhancingEvaluation – 2005 personal knowledge (34%), planning course of study (16%) • Self learner uses: enhancing personal knowledge (56%), keeping current in field (16%), planning future study (14%) • 41% are completely successful; 51% are somewhat successful
    • 26. Open Textbooks Flat World Knowledge recently released information that 800 colleges will utilize its open textbooks this year (2010), saving 150,000students $12 million or more in textbook expenses. – ( Flat World Knowledge Erik Frank, Nicolle Allen (2011) The Estado de Los Libros Abiertos
    • 27. Open Access – SOAP - A Few StatsSOAP Symposium, Berlin - January, 2011
    • 28. Arguments for Open Education• Many kids who will not be going to schools – SS Africa – 76% will not have the privilege to attend the last 3 years of secondary education – We do not have enough money, we need to find a better way to increase access to secondary education and higher education
    • 29. Power of Open- Free Culture - Wikipedia Openness- OSS - GNU, Linux, Apache- Creative Commons OC- OCW, Connexions- Khan’s Academy, and Sophia OER- Flatworld Knowledge (Open Textbooks)- DIY U and Open Education- Parts of Google (Android, Apps Development) OCW- Aris – Wisconsin-Madison- MOOCs – Downes, Groom, and Siemens- Sebastian Thrun (Udacity)- OERU and the University of the People- It is Financially Viable (Freemium and Other Models) - 2% Model- Education is to Share- Openness can Increase Opportunities For All
    • 30. Concern With ICT and Online Educational Resources
    • 31. Cultural E-learning Adaptation Process Model (Edmunsdon, 2009)Translation Usually from EnglishLocalization Add relevant examplesModularization Low levels of granularityOrigination Redesign by locals for locals
    • 32. Trans-national Implications OLPC - PERU DUMP - GHANA becerra-on-olpc-perus-long-term-impact pics-a-global-graveyard-for-dead-computers/ Relevance of Social InclusionMark Warschauer, Technology and Social Inclusion: Rethinking the Digital Divide The MIT Press (January 24, 2003)
    • 33. Aleph Molinary – R.I.A.
    • 34. Why Mobile?
    • 35. HAITIHaiti has adopted innovative mobile banking systems, as well asrelied on mobile phones to communicate during crises.
    • 36. Iqbal Quadir - “Connectivity is Productivity, whether is on a developing country or Wall Street” INDIA Grameen Phone, launched in 1997 in Bangladesh, outfits women entrepreneurs or “phone ladies” in rural villages with an off-the-shelf mobile phone and a solar recharger unit, the cost of which (approximately $175) is financed through microloans from Grameen Bank. The phone ladies retail the phone service to people in the villages where they live. The performance of Grameen Phone has been nothing but astounding.
    • 37. Potential of the Smart PhoneCredit: Apple
    • 38. Individualized Learning PlanConstruct your Personal Learning Environment Interests Music Drawing Math
    • 39. Learning at a Low Cost Arts andCrafts Reading Student’s Formal Informal ExperienceiTunes U Apps Learning Activity Knowledge
    • 40. iOs MarketA Sustainable Model
    • 41.
    • 42. Pedagogical Framework Mobile Learning
    • 43. Flexible Learning Mohammed Ally 2009
    • 44. Power of a Good Education Increase GDPIncrease SatisfactionIncrease Possibilities CC-BY - Alan Cleaver
    • 45. Leapfrog into which Future?