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A First Look at Interpersonal Communication

A First Look at Interpersonal Communication

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  • 1. A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER TOPICS 1 • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator Looking Out/Looking In Thirteenth Edition
  • 2. Why We Communicate • Physical Needs • Identity Needs • Social Needs • Practical Goals A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 2
  • 3. Why We Communicate • Physical Needs • Social isolation increases risk of: • Coronary disease • Rivals cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and lack of physical activity • Catching the common cold • Premature death • Positive communication and strong social ties lead to better health A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 3
  • 4. Why We Communicate • Identity Needs • Identity comes from how we interact with others • Acting human is a learned process • Messages influence our identity throughout our lives A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 4
  • 5. Why We Communicate • Social Needs • Communication is used to: • Obtain pleasure, affection, companionship, relaxation, esc ape and control • Create happier relationships and social lives • Theorists argue that positive relationships may be the most important source of human satisfaction and emotional well-being A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 5
  • 6. Why We Communicate • Practical Goals • Getting others to behave in ways we want • Communication is the tool that: • Lets you explain your needs to the hair stylist • Helps you negotiate household duties • Is essential in virtually every career • Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physical, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self- Actualization A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 6
  • 7. The Process of Communication • A Linear View • Communication is “done to” a receiver Figure 1.1 Page 10 A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 7
  • 8. The Process of Communication • Linear Communication • The model • Suited to radio and television • Created by scientists interested in electronic media • Affected the way we think and talk about communication • Is there really only one sender and one receiver? A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 8
  • 9. The Process of Communication • A Transactional View • Communication as a uniquely human process Figure 1.2 Page 11 A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 9
  • 10. The Process of Communication • Transactional Communication • The model • Messages are sent and received at the same time • Sender/Receiver become communicators • Environments • Physical location • Personal experiences and cultural backgrounds • Noise • Internal as well as external noise is represented • Channels retain significant role A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 10
  • 11. Principles and Misconceptions • Principles • Some communication is clearly intentional • Communication can be unintentional • Overhearing another's conversation • How does the meaning change? • Nonverbal Communication • Unaware of your expressions • Sour face, restlessness, sighs of boredom • Unknowingly being observed A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 11
  • 12. Principles and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is irreversible • It is impossible to “unreceive” a message • Think about “unsqueezing” a tube of toothpaste • Words said and deeds done are irretrievable • It’s impossible not to communicate • Intentional and unintentional behaviors send a message • People who decode your message may not interpret it accurately A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 12
  • 13. Principles and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is unrepeatable • Communication is an ongoing process • It is impossible to repeat the same event • If attempted, the act of repetition will change the intended meaning • Both communicators have changed because they have lived longer • The “same” words and behaviors are different each time they are spoken or performed A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 13
  • 14. Principles and Misconceptions • Principles • Content and relational dimension • Content dimension • Involves the information being explicitly discussed • Relational dimension • Involves how you feel about the other person • Like or dislike • In control or subordinate • Comfortable or anxious A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 14
  • 15. Principles and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • More communication is not always better • Excessive communication can be unproductive and can also backfire • Pestering a potential employer about a job prospect • Texting too many “call me” messages • Meanings are not in the words • Saying something is not the same as communicating it A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 15
  • 16. Principals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • Communication and shared understanding • Successful communication doesn’t always involve shared understanding • Being deliberately vague • Sacrificing clarity to spare another's feelings • More satisfying relationships can sometimes come from less-than-perfect understanding A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 16
  • 17. Principals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • People/Events do not cause another’s reaction • Communication is transactional, ongoing and collaborative • Communication does not occur in a vacuum • Communication will not solve all problems A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 17
  • 18. The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • Two Views of Interpersonal Communication • Quantitative Communication • Any interaction between two people, usually face to face • Can be considered routine or impersonal • Qualitative Communication • Occurs when we treat others as unique individuals regardless of context or the number of people involved A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 18
  • 19. The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • Aspects of Qualitative Communication • Uniqueness • Irreplaceability • Interdependence • Disclosure • Intrinsic Rewards • The scarcity of quality interpersonal communication contributes to its value A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 19
  • 20. The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Channels • Instant Messaging, emailing, blogging, Twittering • Social networks • Facebook • MySpace • The difference between face-to-face and virtual relationships is eroding A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 20
  • 21. The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Benefits • Internet users have more social networks than nonusers • Computer-based communication encourages offline interaction by keeping relationships active • Text-only messages can: • Bring people closer by minimizing the perception of differences • Stimulate both self-disclosure and direct questioning A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 21
  • 22. The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Challenges • Leaner Messages • Face-to-face messages are rich with nonverbal cues • Without nonverbal cues, online communicators can create idealized images of one another • Disinhibition • Sending messages without considering the consequence • Messages tend to be more direct and often critical • Permanence • Messages can be archived virtually forever A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 22
  • 23. What Makes an Effective Communicator • Communication Competence • There is no ideal way to communicate • A variety of communication styles can be effective • You can always learn new styles of communication • Competence is: • Situational • Relational • Competence varies from one situation and person to another A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 23
  • 24. What Makes an Effective Communicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Behaviors • Possessing a wide range of behaviors • Ability to chose appropriate behavior based on: • Context • Goals • Knowledge of the other person • Skill at performing behaviors A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 24
  • 25. What Makes an Effective Communicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Cognitive Complexity • The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue or situation • Empathy • Feeling and experiencing another's situation • Self-Monitoring • High Self-Monitoring • Low Self-Monitoring A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 25
  • 26. What Makes an Effective Communicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Intercultural Communication • National Differences • Ethnic Differences • Co-cultures • Age • Occupation • Sexual orientation • Religion • Physical disability A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 26
  • 27. What Makes an Effective Communicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Motivation • The desire to communicate successfully • Tolerance and Open-mindedness • Communicating across cultures can be confusing • Knowledge and Skill • Passive observation • Active strategies • Self-disclosure A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 27
  • 28. Chapter Review • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION 28