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Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In
Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition
11Introduction to InterpersonalIntroduct...
22A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Why We CommunicateWhy We Communic...
33A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Why We CommunicateWhy We Communic...
44A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Why We CommunicateWhy We Communic...
55A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Why We CommunicateWhy We Communic...
66A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Why We CommunicateWhy We Communic...
77A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Process of CommunicationThe P...
88A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Process of CommunicationThe P...
99A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Process of CommunicationThe P...
1010A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Process of CommunicationThe...
1111A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principles and MisconceptionsPr...
1212A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principles and MisconceptionsPr...
1313A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principles and MisconceptionsPr...
1414A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principles and MisconceptionsPr...
1515A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principles and MisconceptionsPr...
1616A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principals and MisconceptionsPr...
1717A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Principals and MisconceptionsPr...
1818A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of InterpersonalThe ...
1919A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of InterpersonalThe ...
2020A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of InterpersonalThe ...
2121A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of InterpersonalThe ...
2222A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
The Nature of InterpersonalThe ...
2323A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
What Makes an EffectiveWhat Mak...
2424A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
What Makes an EffectiveWhat Mak...
2525A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
What Makes an EffectiveWhat Mak...
2626A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
What Makes an EffectiveWhat Mak...
2727A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
What Makes an EffectiveWhat Mak...
2828A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Chapter ReviewChapter Review
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  1. 1. Looking Out/Looking InLooking Out/Looking In Thirteenth EditionThirteenth Edition 11Introduction to InterpersonalIntroduction to Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication CHAPTER TOPICSCHAPTER TOPICS • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator
  2. 2. 22A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Physical Needs • Identity Needs • Social Needs • Practical Goals
  3. 3. 33A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Physical Needs • Social isolation increases risk of: • Coronary disease • Rivals cigarette smoking, high blood pressure and lack of physical activity • Catching the common cold • Premature death • Positive communication and strong social ties lead to better health
  4. 4. 44A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Identity Needs • Identity comes from how we interact with others • Acting human is a learned process • Messages influence our identity throughout our lives
  5. 5. 55A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Social Needs • Communication is used to: • Obtain pleasure, affection, companionship, relaxation, escape and control • Create happier relationships and social lives • Theorists argue that positive relationships may be the most important source of human satisfaction and emotional well-being
  6. 6. 66A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Why We CommunicateWhy We Communicate • Practical Goals • Getting others to behave in ways we want • Communication is the tool that: • Lets you explain your needs to the hair stylist • Helps you negotiate household duties • Is essential in virtually every career • Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physical, Safety, Social, Esteem and Self- Actualization
  7. 7. 77A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • A Linear View • Communication is “done to” a receiver Figure 1.1 Page 10
  8. 8. 88A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • Linear Communication • The model • Suited to radio and television • Created by scientists interested in electronic media • Affected the way we think and talk about communication • Is there really only one sender and one receiver?
  9. 9. 99A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • A Transactional View • Communication as a uniquely human process Figure 1.2 Page 11
  10. 10. 1010A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Process of CommunicationThe Process of Communication • Transactional Communication • The model • Messages are sent and received at the same time • Sender/Receiver become communicators • Environments • Physical location • Personal experiences and cultural backgrounds • Noise • Internal as well as external noise is represented • Channels retain significant role
  11. 11. 1111A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Some communication is clearly intentional • Communication can be unintentional • Overhearing another's conversation • How does the meaning change? • Nonverbal Communication • Unaware of your expressions • Sour face, restlessness, sighs of boredom • Unknowingly being observed
  12. 12. 1212A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is irreversible • It is impossible to “unreceive” a message • Think about “unsqueezing” a tube of toothpaste • Words said and deeds done are irretrievable • It’s impossible not to communicate • Intentional and unintentional behaviors send a message • People who decode your message may not interpret it accurately
  13. 13. 1313A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Communication is unrepeatable • Communication is an ongoing process • It is impossible to repeat the same event • If attempted, the act of repetition will change the intended meaning • Both communicators have changed because they have lived longer • The “same” words and behaviors are different each time they are spoken or performed
  14. 14. 1414A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Principles • Content and relational dimension • Content dimension • Involves the information being explicitly discussed • Relational dimension • Involves how you feel about the other person • Like or dislike • In control or subordinate • Comfortable or anxious
  15. 15. 1515A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principles and MisconceptionsPrinciples and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • More communication is not always better • Excessive communication can be unproductive and can also backfire • Pestering a potential employer about a job prospect • Texting too many “call me” messages • Meanings are not in the words • Saying something is not the same as communicating it
  16. 16. 1616A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principals and MisconceptionsPrincipals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • Communication and shared understanding • Successful communication doesn’t always involve shared understanding • Being deliberately vague • Sacrificing clarity to spare another's feelings • More satisfying relationships can sometimes come from less-than-perfect understanding
  17. 17. 1717A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Principals and MisconceptionsPrincipals and Misconceptions • Misconceptions • People/Events do not cause another’s reaction • Communication is transactional, ongoing and collaborative • Communication does not occur in a vacuum • Communication will not solve all problems
  18. 18. 1818A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Two Views of Interpersonal Communication • Quantitative Communication • Any interaction between two people, usually face to face • Can be considered routine or impersonal • Qualitative Communication • Occurs when we treat others as unique individuals regardless of context or the number of people involved
  19. 19. 1919A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Aspects of Qualitative Communication • Uniqueness • Irreplaceability • Interdependence • Disclosure • Intrinsic Rewards • The scarcity of quality interpersonal communication contributes to its value
  20. 20. 2020A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Mediated Channels • Instant Messaging, emailing, blogging, Twittering • Social networks • Facebook • MySpace • The difference between face-to-face and virtual relationships is eroding
  21. 21. 2121A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Benefits • Internet users have more social networks than nonusers • Computer-based communication encourages offline interaction by keeping relationships active • Text-only messages can: • Bring people closer by minimizing the perception of differences • Stimulate both self-disclosure and direct questioning
  22. 22. 2222A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION The Nature of InterpersonalThe Nature of Interpersonal CommunicationCommunication • Mediated Interpersonal Communication • Challenges • Leaner Messages • Face-to-face messages are rich with nonverbal cues • Without nonverbal cues, online communicators can create idealized images of one another • Disinhibition • Sending messages without considering the consequence • Messages tend to be more direct and often critical • Permanence • Messages can be archived virtually forever
  23. 23. 2323A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Communication Competence • There is no ideal way to communicate • A variety of communication styles can be effective • You can always learn new styles of communication • Competence is: • Situational • Relational • Competence varies from one situation and person to another
  24. 24. 2424A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Behaviors • Possessing a wide range of behaviors • Ability to chose appropriate behavior based on: • Context • Goals • Knowledge of the other person • Skill at performing behaviors
  25. 25. 2525A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Cognitive Complexity • The ability to construct a variety of frameworks for viewing an issue or situation • Empathy • Feeling and experiencing another's situation • Self-Monitoring • High Self-Monitoring • Low Self-Monitoring
  26. 26. 2626A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Intercultural Communication • National Differences • Ethnic Differences • Co-cultures • Age • Occupation • Sexual orientation • Religion • Physical disability
  27. 27. 2727A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION What Makes an EffectiveWhat Makes an Effective CommunicatorCommunicator • Competent Communicator Characteristics • Motivation • The desire to communicate successfully • Tolerance and Open-mindedness • Communicating across cultures can be confusing • Knowledge and Skill • Passive observation • Active strategies • Self-disclosure
  28. 28. 2828A FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATIONA FIRST LOOK AT INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION Chapter ReviewChapter Review • Why We Communicate • The Process of Communication • Communication Principles and Misconceptions • The Nature of Interpersonal Communication • What Makes an Effective Communicator

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