Human Relations Chapter 6

5,885 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
0 Comments
4 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
5,885
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
224
Comments
0
Likes
4
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Human Relations Chapter 6

  1. 1. Nonverbal Communication CHAPTER TOPICS 6 • Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Influences on Nonverbal Communication • Types of Nonverbal Communication Looking Out/Looking In Thirteenth Edition
  2. 2. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication • Messages expressed by nonlinguistic terms • This rules out the written word and sign language • Includes all vocal means that do not involve language • Sighs, laughs, etc. • Nonlinguistic dimensions • Volume, rate, pitch NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 2
  3. 3. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Skills are Vital • Nonverbal encoding and decoding skills are strong predictor of • Popularity • Attractiveness • Socioeconomic status • Nonverbal skills are vital to emotional intelligence • All behavior has communicative value NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 3
  4. 4. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication is Relational • Identity Management • Defines the kinds of relationships we want to have with others • When you’re at a party how do you act? • Which emotions are you displaying? • Friendly, attractive, easygoing NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 4
  5. 5. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication is Relational • Nonverbal communication is better suited towards conveying emotion • How do you express the following nonverbally • • • • • You’re tired You’re in favor of capital punishment You’re attracted to another person in the group You think prayer in schools should be allowed You’re angry at someone in the room NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 5
  6. 6. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication Serves Many Functions • Repeating • When someone asks for directions, you often repeat your answer with a gesture • Complementing • Expressions that match thoughts and emotions • Substituting • When someone asks, “What’s up?” You may just shrug your shoulders NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 6
  7. 7. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication Serves Many Functions • Accenting • Nonverbal devices in oral messages • “It was your idea!” • Regulating • Influencing the flow of verbal communication • Contradicting • Sending mixed messages • “Angry? I’m not angry!” NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 7
  8. 8. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communicators Offer Deception Clues • Leakage • Nonverbal cues that send signals a person is deceiving you • When someone is bluffing a hand of poker, a player may nervously tap their finger or fidget in their chair • The voice also offers leakage clues NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 8
  9. 9. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communicators Offer Deceptions Clues • Three findings: • We are accurate in detecting deception only slightly more than half the time • We overestimate our ability to detect others’ lies • We have a strong tendency to judge others’ messages as truthful NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 9
  10. 10. Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication is Ambiguous • What does a kiss mean? • In some situations it can be a way of saying hello • In another situation is could be the first step to a more romantic relationship • When your significant other pulls away • Is this a sign of trouble • Or a suggestion to pursue NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 10
  11. 11. Characteristic of Nonverbal Communication • Nonverbal Communication is Ambiguous • Service with a Smile • Twelve Safeway Employees filed grievances over the smile-and-make-eye-contact policy • The clerks claimed shoppers thought their smiles and eye-contact was flirting • Nonverbal Leaning Disorder (NVLD) • Reading facial expressions, tone of voice and other cues is dramatically more difficult NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 11
  12. 12. Influences on Nonverbal Communication • Gender • Research shows that, compared to men, women: • • • • • • Smile more Use more facial expression Use more head, hand and arm gestures Touch others more Stand closer to others Make more eye contact NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 12
  13. 13. Influences on Nonverbal Communication • Culture • Nonverbal behaviors can have different meanings depending on the culture • The “OK” gesture: • A cheery affirmation in American culture • Means you’re worth zero in France and Belgium • Is a vulgar sexual invitation in Greece and Turkey • Americans are comfortable conducting business at a distance of four feet • Middle Easterner’s stand much closer NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 13
  14. 14. Influences on Nonverbal Communication • Culture • The use of time depends greatly on culture • Monochronic • Emphasizing punctuality, schedules and completing one task at a time • Polychronic • Flexible schedule in which multiple tasks are pursued at the same time NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 14
  15. 15. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Body Orientation • The degree to which we face toward or away from someone with our body, feet and head • Posture • By paying attention to the postures around your own, you’ll find another channel of communication • Gestures • Movements of the hands and arms NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 15
  16. 16. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Gestures • Illustrators • Movements that accompany speech but do not stand on their own • Emblems • Deliberate nonverbal communication that has precise meaning • Adaptors • Unconscious body movements in response to the environment NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 16
  17. 17. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Face and Eyes • At least eight distinguishable positions of the eyebrows and forehead • Eight of the eyes and lids • Ten for the lower face • Multiplied together you can understand why it is nearly impossible to compile a dictionary of facial expressions NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 17
  18. 18. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Body Movement • Face and Eyes • Microexpressions • Expressions that happen quickly and are difficult to detect • Can be very effective in identifying emotion • Eyes • Communicate positive or negative attitude • Pupils grow larger based on the interest in the object NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 18
  19. 19. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Voice • Paralanguage • Describes nonverbal, vocal messages • Note how many meanings come from a single sentence, just by shifting the emphasis • “This is a fantastic communication book.” • “This is a fantastic communication book.” • “This is a fantastic communication book.” • Unintentional Pause • Vocalized Pause NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 19
  20. 20. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Touch • Haptics • Touch can communicate many messages • What makes a given touch more or less intense? • Several Factors: • • • • • Which part of the body does the touching Which part of the body is touched How long does the touch last How much pressure is used The situation in which the touch occurred NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 20
  21. 21. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Appearance • Physical Attractiveness • Men and women whom others perceive as attractive are rated as: • • • • • Being more sensitive Kind Strong Sociable Interesting • Physically attractive professors receive higher evaluations from their students NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 21
  22. 22. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Appearance • Clothing • One writer suggests that clothing can covey at least ten types of messages to others: Economic background Economic level Educational level Educational background Level of sophistication NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS Level of success Moral character Social background Social position Trustworthiness 22
  23. 23. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Physical Space • Proxemics • The study of the way people and animals use space. • We each carry an invisible bubble of personal space wherever we go • We feel uncomfortable with this bubble is violated • Different cultures develop different bubbles • It is important to choose distances based on the receiver of your message NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 23
  24. 24. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Proxemics • Hall’s Four Spatial Zones • Intimate distance • Ranges out about eighteen inches • Personal distance • Ranges from eighteen inches to four feet • Social distance • Four feet to twelve feet • Public distance • Distances beyond twelve feet NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 24
  25. 25. Types of Nonverbal Communication • Time • Chronemics • The study of how humans structure time • In a culture that values time highly, waiting can be an indicator of status • Time can be a marker of relationships • The amount of time spent with a relational partner sends important messages about value • Time is also valued in mediated communication • Email NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 25
  26. 26. Chapter Review • Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication • Influences on Nonverbal Communication • Types of Nonverbal Communication NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION: MESSAGES BEYOND WORDS 26

×