An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers
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An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers

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Government, business, and the general public increasingly agree that the polluter should pay. Carbon dioxide and environmental damage are considered viable chargeable commodities. The net effect of ...

Government, business, and the general public increasingly agree that the polluter should pay. Carbon dioxide and environmental damage are considered viable chargeable commodities. The net effect of this for data center and cloud computing operators is that they should look to “chargeback” the environmental impacts of their services to the consuming end-users. An environmental chargeback model can have a positive effect on environmental impacts by linking consumers to the indirect impacts of their usage, facilitating clearer understanding of the impact of their actions. In this paper we motivate the need for environmental chargeback mechanisms. The environmental chargeback model is described including requirements, methodology for definition, and environmental impact allocation strategies. The paper details a proof-of-concept within an operational data center together with discussion on experiences gained and future research directions.

Curry, E.; Hasan, S.; White, M.; and Melvin, H. 2012. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers. In Huusko, J.; de Meer, H.; Klingert, S.; and Somov, A., eds., First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers. Madrid, Spain: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg.

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  • Technology Stack uses tool from across the DERI house
  • Low—level analysis of the energy usage of a person. Across multiple energy consumption areas…office, IT, business travel, DC usage, building usage etc

An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers Presentation Transcript

  • Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center & Cloud Computing Consumers Edward Curry, Souleiman Hasan, Mark White, Hugh Melvin ed.curry@deri.org - www.edwardcurry.org 1st International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centres, Madrid, 2012 Copyright 2011 Digital Enterprise Research Institute. All rights reserved. Digital Enterprise Research Institute National University of Ireland, Galway Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Motivation for Environmental Chargeback  Environmental Chargeback Model  Requirements  Definition Methodology  Allocating Impacts  Proof of Concept at DERI  Related Work  Conclusions & Future Work Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • The Impact of Search?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Figures and Image from www.google.com/green Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Cost of Other Services?Digital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Figures and Image from www.google.com/green Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Google’s Carbon FootprintDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Is Google solely responsible for these emissions? What about the 1 billion users that use Google’s services everyday? Do the users bear some responsibility? Figures and Image from www.google.com/green Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Google’s Carbon FootprintDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Figures and Image from www.google.com/green Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • DC Service Supply ChainDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Zero Provide CO2 Intensity Supply Power Services IaaS PaaS SaaS Home User Renewable Energy BPaaS XaaS Cause of Cause of High Environmental Server 1 Environmental CO2 Intensity Impacts Impacts Service … Service … Service N Corporate CSR Coal Power Plant User Power Generation Data Center End Consumers (Utility or On-site) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • The Polluter PaysDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Principle of ‘The Polluter Pays’  Acceptance by governments, businesses, and public  End-users IT needs are reason for existence of DC  Little information flows to consumers on the environmental impacts of their service usage  Little opportunity to change behavior to be more ecologically sound  The Challenge: Tie emissions back to point of usage, so consumer are better informed  Solution: An Environmental Chargeback Model Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Empowering the ConsumerDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Raising Consumer Awareness of Envir. Impacts  Understand the relationships between actions and impacts  Induce Efficient Usage of Data Center Resources  Improving access to resource consumption information – Can reduce usage (i.e. paper, energy)  Empower end-users to make sustainable choices: – Could the service be scheduled (invoked) when renewable power sources are available? – Could it be invoked less often?  Embed Service Usage within Sustainable IT Practices  Include environmental impacts in business and decision-making processes Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Motivation for Environmental Chargeback  Environmental Chargeback Model  Requirements  Definition Methodology  Allocating Impacts  Proof of Concept at DERI  Related Work  Conclusions & Future Work Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Model RequirementsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Equitable  Consumer only charged for the impacts they cause. One consumer should not subsidize the impacts of another consumer  Accuracy & Auditability  Charge for actual impacts, and maintain records to handle inquiries  Understandable  Consumer must understand the charging process & methodology  Controllable & Predictable  Ability to control or predict the cost of performing activity  Flexible & Adaptable  Support multiple service types (i.e. PaaS, IaaS, SaaS) and dynamic cost models (i.e. include capital impacts, operational impacts  Scalable  Capacity to handle small- and large-scale services  Economical  Inexpensive to design, implement, deploy, and run, including data collection, processing and reporting to consumers Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Definition MethodologyDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Step 1. Identify service and define environmental system boundary:  Identify the target service  Define the system boundary of the model  Define functional units (CO2, kWh, cost per use, etc)  Step 2. Identify billable Items and, for each one, identify the smallest unit that will be available as a service to consumers  Find a reasonable easily understood unit of measurement:  Billable Service Items: resources which consumers will be charged – Consumers will be able to purchase these items – Servers, virtual machines, storage, email, search, etc.  Atomic Service Units: smallest unit of measurement – Consumer bill will detail how many units of a resource were used – Examples Server/VM uptime, transactions, MB/GB, etc… Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Definition MethodologyDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Step 3. Identify, analyze and document relevant environmental impacts:  Determine service resource use and associated environmental impacts within the model boundaries  Step 4. Define an environmental cost allocation strategy for each billable item:  Associating impacts to billable items  Can be fixed, variable, or mixed charging  Should reflect actual usage instead of allocation/reservation  Step 5. Identify, integrate, and deploy tools necessary to collect data and to calculate environmental chargeback:  Environmental data collection DC resource utilization, service workload, chargeback, and customer billing & reporting  Tools will vary based on the service and the data center. Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Allocating ImpactsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Capital Impacts – Initial Setup  Amortized over est. life of item as fixed charge  Building the data center facilities – Lifespan of 10 to 15 years  IT Equipment (Server, storage, cabling, etc.) – Servers have a lifespan of 3 to 5 years  Software i.e. cost of search index vs. user search – Lifespan in days, weeks, months,…  Operational Impacts – Running  Straightforward allocation by usage  Power generation and water for cooling Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Allocating ImpactsDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Environmental CO2 intensity Data Collection DC Resource kWh Chargeback CO2/atomic unit Billing Utilization Model Service Workload atomic unit Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Motivation for Environmental Chargeback  Environmental Chargeback Model  Requirements  Definition Methodology  Allocating Impacts  Proof of Concept at DERI  Related Work  Conclusions & Future Work Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Proof of ConceptDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Developed a proof of concept  Instantiation has been realized in the DERI data center  Steps 1-3  Service: Transaction-based data service  System boundary: carbon dioxide from power generation  Units: CO2 (gCO2), kilowatts (kW) and kilowatt-hours (kWh)  Billable Service Items: User accounts  Atomic Service Units: Single data transactions  Environmental Impacts: 27 servers, power supplied is mixture of fossil fuel & renewable sources (variable CO2) Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Proof of ConceptDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Step 4. Define allocation strategy for each billable item:  Computational workload of all transactions is similar, – Treat transactions as equal from impact allocation perspective Total Service Energy ´ CO2 Intensity CO2 per Transaction = Number of Transactions Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Proof of ConceptDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Step 5. Data collection and reporting  Leverages existing monitoring infrastructures – Real-Time Web Service for Power CO2 Intensity – DC Resource Energy Monitor – Data Service Workload Monitor  Charge calculated with real-time assessment sliding window – Encoded as rules within a Complex Event Processing (CEP) engine – CEP receives events allocates impacts in real-time  Billing System  Limitations  Network & data storage excluded due to insufficient metering  Approach ignores transactions initiated prior to the start of the window and those not completed prior at end of window  No Capital charges included in current version Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Chargeback in ActionDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Linked dataspace for Energy IntelligenceDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Uses W3C web Applications standards for sharing Decision Support Systems Energy Analysis Model Energy and Sustainability Dashboards Situation Awareness Apps and integrating Complex Events Services Support Entity Complex Event Data Provenance Search & energy data Management Service Catalog Query Processing Engine  Linked Data  Semantic Sensor Linked Data Networks Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Adapter Sources Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • iEnergy – Personal UsageDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • ExperienceDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Metering and Monitoring  Piggy-backed on existing infrastructure  Service & Infrastructure Complexity  Shared and federated across multiple data centers will be more difficult to allocate impacts  Stakeholder Collaboration  Require collaboration from more players, such as service managers and developers  Security and Privacy  Considered within wider area of security and privacy for data centers and cloud computing Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Motivation for Environmental Chargeback  Environmental Chargeback Model  Requirements  Definition Methodology  Allocating Impacts  Proof of Concept at DERI  Related Work  Conclusions & Future Work Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Related WorkDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Model complements existing research on DC EE  SLA@SOI, GAMES, FIT4Green, OPTIMIS, ALL4Green, etc, …  Green Grid Metrics  Power usage effectiveness (PUE), Data Center infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE), Water Usage Effectiveness (WUE), Carbon Usage Effectiveness (CUE), Data Center compute Efficiency (DCcE), The Data Center Productivity (DCP) framework  Focus on DC efficiency  Not Consumer-centric  Do not inform consumer of cost of their service usage  Do not give information necessary to change behavior to be more sustainable Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • OverviewDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Motivation for Environmental Chargeback  Environmental Chargeback Model  Requirements  Definition Methodology  Allocating Impacts  Proof of Concept at DERI  Related Work  Conclusions & Future Work Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Conclusion & Future WorkDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie  Environmental Chargeback Model  Correlate service utilization back to service consumers  Provide visibility into service & associated resource utilization  Enable consumers to understand environmental footprint  Bring transparency to sustainability of outsourced enterprise IT  Encourage use of green power with lower footprint  Future Work  User evaluation to determine if model can effectively change user behavior and reduce the impacts of services  Deployment challenges in different environments (i.e. homogenous & heterogeneous), at large scale (i.e. warehouse)  Methods for allocation of capital environmental impacts Enabling Networked Knowledge
  • Further ReadingDigital Enterprise Research Institute www.deri.ie Curry, E.; Hasan, S.; White, M.; and Melvin, H. 2012. An Environmental Chargeback for Data Center and Cloud Computing Consumers. In Huusko, J.; de Meer, H.; Klingert, S.; and Somov, A., eds., First International Workshop on Energy-Efficient Data Centers. Madrid, Spain: Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. www.edwardcurry.org Enabling Networked Knowledge