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EMC 3130             Lecture OneDigital Video – How Does This Work?           Pixels to Scenes          Edward Bowen
How Television Workshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UivqdpliyA0
How Digital Cameras Workhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VP__-EKrkbk
Digital Camera Deconstructedhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/37727-deconstructed-digital-cameras-video.htm
What is Video?Video is electronically captured and  disseminated sequential still images  (frames) in rapid enough success...
What is Video?Video is electronically captured and  disseminated sequential still images  (frames) in rapid enough success...
Analog• A wave is recorded or used in its original form• Light or sound are converted to a fluctuating electrical wave tha...
Digital• The analog wave is sampled at some interval, and then turned  into numbers that are stored in the digital device•...
Digitalhttp://youtu.be/kR7227_ndqQ
Digitalhttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xkgkkv_dr-michio-kaku-on-the-conversion-from-analog-to-digital_tech
Digital
Digital• Sampling/Quantizing• Compression and Codecs (Compression-  Decompression, Encoding-Decoding)• Downloading and Str...
Basic Image FormationCompression• CODEC – a device or program for encoding and/or  decoding digital information  (DivX, Xv...
Digital Compressionhttp://vimeo.com/1172256
Digital Compressionhttp://youtu.be/nH3nmBEPIHY
What is Video?Video is electronically captured and  disseminated sequential still images  (frames) in rapid enough success...
Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up  video are “frames.”
Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up  video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of m...
Pixels• The individual pictures that make up  video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of millions of  electrically e...
Pixelshttp://youtu.be/ugV6cLgwomo
Pixelshttp://youtu.be/DCTRk5a0aJg
Pixelshttp://vimeo.com/18881890
Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up  video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of m...
Scanning  High speed video showing the fluorescent screen of  CRT television being scanned by electron gun.http://youtu.be...
Scanninghttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xjoyzr_cbs-entertainment-productions-london-films-persistence-of-vision-mgm-telev...
Scanning• Interlaced Scanning - Two fields  comprise a frame.
Scanning• Interlaced Scanning             Misaligned fields
Scanning• Progressive Scanning (Computers and  Most Digital Video)• Refresh Rate: Frames scanned per  second.
Scanning• Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
Scanning• Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
Scanning  • Progressive v Interlaced Scanninghttp://youtu.be/gbtBP8QxGg8
Scanninghttp://video.answers.com/how-ntsc-interlaced-video-works-291907666
ResolutionStandard Television• 480i (480 horizontal lines visible, interlaced;  30 frames per second)
ResolutionDigital Television (DTV)• Higher Picture Resolution• Truer Color• Wider Contrast RatioFour prominent systems:• 4...
Resolution
Resolution720p                1080p
Resolution
ResolutionAdditional Systems24p - 1080 lines of resolution, 24 frames per second.• For use in conjunction with motion pict...
Resolutionhttp://vimeo.com/3388256
ResolutionAdditional Systems2K, 4K and 5K – 2000, 4000 and 5000 lines ofresolution• For use in theatrical screening and 35...
ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixels•   VHS - 20...
ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixelsAnalog and e...
ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixelsDigital• 720...
What is Video?Video is electronically captured and  disseminated sequential still images  (frames) in rapid enough success...
Frame Rates(frames per second)    Shutter Speed(fraction of a second)
Frame RatesThe number of frames captured in a             second      (frames per second)           Shutter Speed -The tim...
Frame Rates                  (frames per second)Higher frame capture and playback rates result in more information and hig...
Frame Rates                (frames per second)  Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/e54Q1KXRmX0
Frame Rates                (frames per second)  Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/-nU2_ERC_oE
Frame Rates                 (frames per second)  Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/3xsSSsVqSA0
Frame Rates                 (frames per second)               Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same f...
Frame Rates                  (frames per second)                Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same...
Frame Rates                  (frames per second)                Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same...
Frame Rates                      (frames per second)                    Impact on Video Speed   When video is played back ...
Frame Rates                 (frames per second)               Impact on Image Speedhttp://vimeo.com/11648907
Frame Rates                 (frames per second)               Impact on Image Speedhttp://youtu.be/kgdyBvHdNKY
Shutter Speed                 (fraction of a second)  Generally, shutter speed must be at least half of theframe rate. At ...
Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
Shutter Speed                   (fraction of a second)                  Impact on Motion Blurhttp://vimeo.com/18873243
Shutter Speed                    (fraction of a second)                   Impact on Motion Blurhttp://youtu.be/gFjbVZJ275k
Shutter Speed                   (fraction of a second)                  Impact on Motion Blurhttp://vimeo.com/20310729
What is Video?Video is electronically captured and  disseminated sequential still images  (frames) in rapid enough success...
The Illusion of Motion  • Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3veFqnnob0A
The Illusion of Motion• Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenon
The Illusion of Motion• Flicker Fusion and Frequency - the  flickering of light rapidly enough to  merge or fuse the image...
Basic Image Formation•   Scanning•   Fields / Frames•   Flicker Frequency: Flashes per second•   Apparent motion•   Frames...
Realityhttp://youtu.be/6jzNw4_2YGQ
Basic Image FormationRecording Media• Film Stock• Analog Video Cassette tape• Digital Video Cassette tape• DVD discs• Digi...
NTSC  National Television System Committee• http://www.ehow.com/video_4751914_  what-ntsc-video.html• http://www.ehow.com/...
NTSCNational Television System Committee
NTSCNational Television System Committee
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital
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Transcript of "EMC 3130 Spring 2012 Lecture One Image Digital "

  1. 1. EMC 3130 Lecture OneDigital Video – How Does This Work? Pixels to Scenes Edward Bowen
  2. 2. How Television Workshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UivqdpliyA0
  3. 3. How Digital Cameras Workhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VP__-EKrkbk
  4. 4. Digital Camera Deconstructedhttp://videos.howstuffworks.com/science-channel/37727-deconstructed-digital-cameras-video.htm
  5. 5. What is Video?Video is electronically captured and disseminated sequential still images (frames) in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, stored either analog or digitally, and synchronized with sound.
  6. 6. What is Video?Video is electronically captured and disseminated sequential still images (frames) in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, stored either analog or digitally, and synchronized with sound.
  7. 7. Analog• A wave is recorded or used in its original form• Light or sound are converted to a fluctuating electrical wave that is directly recorded, usually to a magnetic tape medium, mirroring the original stimulus.• It produces an electrical copy of an original stimulus.• Analog signal fluctuates exactly like the original stimulus.• Analog signal is continuous.
  8. 8. Digital• The analog wave is sampled at some interval, and then turned into numbers that are stored in the digital device• Light and sound are recorded not as an identical copy of the original stimulus, but as discrete on-and-off pulses, zeros and ones, binary digits.• It is a representation rather than a copy.• Discontinuous. Signal is sampled.• Advantage: Resists data distortion and error in duplication. No generational loss.• Advantage: Allows for manipulation of sound and image.
  9. 9. Digitalhttp://youtu.be/kR7227_ndqQ
  10. 10. Digitalhttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xkgkkv_dr-michio-kaku-on-the-conversion-from-analog-to-digital_tech
  11. 11. Digital
  12. 12. Digital• Sampling/Quantizing• Compression and Codecs (Compression- Decompression, Encoding-Decoding)• Downloading and StreamingAdvantages• Lossless Copying• Compression• Manipulation
  13. 13. Basic Image FormationCompression• CODEC – a device or program for encoding and/or decoding digital information (DivX, Xvid, H.264, WMV, etc.)• Container of Wrapper Format (AVI, FLV, QuickTIme, MPEG, MP4, etc.)• Lossy vs. Lossless• Lossy - Permanently removes information, such as repeated pixels.• Lossless - Compresses and decompressed without loss of information.• Compression Ratio - the higher the ratio, the smaller the file; the lower the ratio, the higher the quality.
  14. 14. Digital Compressionhttp://vimeo.com/1172256
  15. 15. Digital Compressionhttp://youtu.be/nH3nmBEPIHY
  16. 16. What is Video?Video is electronically captured and disseminated sequential still images (frames) in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, stored either analog or digitally, and synchronized with sound.
  17. 17. Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.”
  18. 18. Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements)
  19. 19. Pixels• The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements)• For color, each pixel is comprised of three parts (red, blue, green)
  20. 20. Pixelshttp://youtu.be/ugV6cLgwomo
  21. 21. Pixelshttp://youtu.be/DCTRk5a0aJg
  22. 22. Pixelshttp://vimeo.com/18881890
  23. 23. Sequential Still Images (Frames)• The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.”• The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements)• For color, each pixel is comprised of three dots (red, blue, green)• Individual images are drawn by scanning along these pixels from left to right, top to bottom.
  24. 24. Scanning High speed video showing the fluorescent screen of CRT television being scanned by electron gun.http://youtu.be/zVS6QewZsi4
  25. 25. Scanninghttp://www.dailymotion.com/video/xjoyzr_cbs-entertainment-productions-london-films-persistence-of-vision-mgm-television_shortfilms
  26. 26. Scanning• Interlaced Scanning - Two fields comprise a frame.
  27. 27. Scanning• Interlaced Scanning Misaligned fields
  28. 28. Scanning• Progressive Scanning (Computers and Most Digital Video)• Refresh Rate: Frames scanned per second.
  29. 29. Scanning• Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
  30. 30. Scanning• Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
  31. 31. Scanning • Progressive v Interlaced Scanninghttp://youtu.be/gbtBP8QxGg8
  32. 32. Scanninghttp://video.answers.com/how-ntsc-interlaced-video-works-291907666
  33. 33. ResolutionStandard Television• 480i (480 horizontal lines visible, interlaced; 30 frames per second)
  34. 34. ResolutionDigital Television (DTV)• Higher Picture Resolution• Truer Color• Wider Contrast RatioFour prominent systems:• 480p (progressive, 480 visible lines, 60 frames per second)• 720p (progressive, 720 visible lines, 60 frames per second, High Definition Television [HDTV]• 1080i (interlaced, 60 fields/30 frames per second, High Definition Television [HDTV]• 1080p (progressive, 60 frames per second, [HDTV]
  35. 35. Resolution
  36. 36. Resolution720p 1080p
  37. 37. Resolution
  38. 38. ResolutionAdditional Systems24p - 1080 lines of resolution, 24 frames per second.• For use in conjunction with motion picture film• Or to create a “film look.”
  39. 39. Resolutionhttp://vimeo.com/3388256
  40. 40. ResolutionAdditional Systems2K, 4K and 5K – 2000, 4000 and 5000 lines ofresolution• For use in theatrical screening and 35mm scanning
  41. 41. ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixels• VHS - 200 by 480• Mini-DV - 720 by 480• CineAlta 24p - 1920 by 1080• 35mm film - 4000 by 3000• Red One - 4520 by 2540
  42. 42. ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixelsAnalog and early digital• 300×480 : VHS,• 500×480 : Analog broadcast
  43. 43. ResolutionResolution – The Detail an Image Contains• Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixelsDigital• 720×480 :DVD, miniDV• 1280×720 (-1MP) : HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDV (miniDV)• 1440×1080 (1.5 MP) : HDV (miniDV)• 1920×1080 (2MP) : HDV (miniDV), AVCHD, HD DVD, Blu-ray,• 2048×1080 : 2K Digital Cinema• 4096×2160 : 4K Digital Cinema• Sequences from newer films are scanned at 2,000, 4,000, or even 8,000 columns, called 2K, 4K, and 8K, for quality visual- effects editing on computers
  44. 44. What is Video?Video is electronically captured and disseminated sequential still images (frames) in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, stored either analog or digitally, and synchronized with sound.
  45. 45. Frame Rates(frames per second) Shutter Speed(fraction of a second)
  46. 46. Frame RatesThe number of frames captured in a second (frames per second) Shutter Speed -The time light is allowed to strike the image sensor to create a single image. (fraction of a second)
  47. 47. Frame Rates (frames per second)Higher frame capture and playback rates result in more information and higher picture quality with increasedsharpness, less stutter and flicker, and less motion blur.
  48. 48. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/e54Q1KXRmX0
  49. 49. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/-nU2_ERC_oE
  50. 50. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motionhttp://youtu.be/3xsSSsVqSA0
  51. 51. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video capture speed is faster than it is played back, slow motion results, since the video is playing back at a SLOWER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Slow Motion 300fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Slow Motion
  52. 52. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video capture speed is slower than it is playedback, fast motion results, since the video is playing back at a FASTER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion 30fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Fast Motion 3fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Fast Motion
  53. 53. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video SpeedWhen video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video playback speed is altered in post production to a slower frame rate than it wascaptured, slow motion results, since the video is playing back at a SLOWER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion60fps Capture -30fps (or 50%) Playback: Slow Motion 60fps Capture - 6fps (10%) Playback: Slow Motion
  54. 54. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal.When video playback speed is altered in post production to a fasterframe rate than it was captured, fast motion results, since the video is playing back at a FASTER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture -60fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture -120fps (or 200%) Playback: Fast Motion 60fps Capture - 600fps (1000%) Playback: FAST Motion
  55. 55. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speedhttp://vimeo.com/11648907
  56. 56. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speedhttp://youtu.be/kgdyBvHdNKY
  57. 57. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second) Generally, shutter speed must be at least half of theframe rate. At 30 frames per second, the shutter speed will be approximately 1/60th of a second. It can be faster is the camera allows. A higher frame rate requires a faster shutter speed. Shutter speed can be increased independent of the frame rate. A faster the shutter speed results in diminished blur A slower shutter speed results in added blur.
  58. 58. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
  59. 59. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
  60. 60. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
  61. 61. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
  62. 62. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)Impact on Motion Blur
  63. 63. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second) Impact on Motion Blurhttp://vimeo.com/18873243
  64. 64. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second) Impact on Motion Blurhttp://youtu.be/gFjbVZJ275k
  65. 65. Shutter Speed (fraction of a second) Impact on Motion Blurhttp://vimeo.com/20310729
  66. 66. What is Video?Video is electronically captured and disseminated sequential still images (frames) in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, stored either analog or digitally, and synchronized with sound.
  67. 67. The Illusion of Motion • Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenonhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3veFqnnob0A
  68. 68. The Illusion of Motion• Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenon
  69. 69. The Illusion of Motion• Flicker Fusion and Frequency - the flickering of light rapidly enough to merge or fuse the images• Apparent motion - Creating the illusion of motion
  70. 70. Basic Image Formation• Scanning• Fields / Frames• Flicker Frequency: Flashes per second• Apparent motion• Frames per secondhttp://dsc.discovery.com/videos/assignment-discovery- shorts-tv-tube-and-the-flicker-frequency.html
  71. 71. Realityhttp://youtu.be/6jzNw4_2YGQ
  72. 72. Basic Image FormationRecording Media• Film Stock• Analog Video Cassette tape• Digital Video Cassette tape• DVD discs• Digital Hard Drives• Digital Memory Cards
  73. 73. NTSC National Television System Committee• http://www.ehow.com/video_4751914_ what-ntsc-video.html• http://www.ehow.com/video_4751915_ what-difference-between-ntsc-pal.html
  74. 74. NTSCNational Television System Committee
  75. 75. NTSCNational Television System Committee
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