EMC 3130/2130 Lecture One - Image Digital

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EMC 3130/2130 Lecture One - Image Digital

  1. 1. EMC 3130 Lecture One Digital Video – How Does This Work? Pixels to Scenes Edward Bowen
  2. 2. A Concise Explanation of Television http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UivqdpliyA0
  3. 3. Digital Camera Deconstructed http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nSF3xdIWrPI
  4. 4. What is Video? Video is sequential still images (frames), electronically captured, stored and disseminated in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, synchronized with sound.
  5. 5. What is Video? Video is sequential still images (frames), electronically captured, stored and disseminated in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, synchronized with sound.
  6. 6. Sequential Still Images (Frames) • The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.”
  7. 7. Sequential Still Images (Frames)
  8. 8. Sequential Still Images (Frames)
  9. 9. Sequential Still Images (Frames) • The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.” • The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements)
  10. 10. Pixels
  11. 11. Pixels http://youtu.be/ugV6cLgwomo
  12. 12. Pixels Paper Pixels http://youtu.be/DCTRk5a0aJg
  13. 13. Pixels Pantone Pixels http://vimeo.com/18881890
  14. 14. Pixels • The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.” • The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements) • For color, each pixel is comprised of three parts (red, blue, green)
  15. 15. Pixels This Is Not Yellow http://youtu.be/R3unPcJDbCc
  16. 16. Aside – A History Lesson The Man Who Turned Paper into Pixels https://vimeo.com/98345492
  17. 17. Sequential Still Images (Frames) • The individual pictures that make up video are “frames.” • The frames are comprised of millions of electrically excitable “pixels” (picture elements) • For color, each pixel is comprised of three dots (red, blue, green) • Individual images (frames) are drawn by scanning along these pixels from left to right, top to bottom.
  18. 18. Scanning High speed video showing the fluorescent screen of CRT television being scanned by electron gun. http://youtu.be/zVS6QewZsi4
  19. 19. Scanning http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xjoyzr_cbs-entertainment-productions- london-films-persistence-of-vision-mgm-television_shortfilms
  20. 20. Scanning • Interlaced Scanning - Two fields comprise a frame.
  21. 21. Scanning • Interlaced Scanning Interlaced Artifacts
  22. 22. Scanning • Interlaced Scanning Interlaced Artifacts
  23. 23. Scanning • Progressive Scanning (Computers and Most Digital Video)
  24. 24. Scanning • Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
  25. 25. Scanning • Progressive v Interlaced Scanning
  26. 26. Scanning • Progressive v Interlaced Scanning http://youtu.be/gbtBP8QxGg8
  27. 27. Scanning http://video.answers.com/how-ntsc-interlaced-video-works-291907666
  28. 28. Scanning Progressive VS Interlaced Video Modes and Pixel Aspect Ratio Part 1 http://youtu.be/9D8cRFMedGY
  29. 29. Scanning 1080i vs 1080p [interlaced vs progressive] 1080p FULL HD http://youtu.be/j29b7B6CSNM
  30. 30. Scanning The Joy of Interlacing https://vimeo.com/1513146
  31. 31. Resolution The quality of the image, a result of the number of lines, therefore the number of pixels, often measured in megapixels, that comprise an individual frame. Pixel count is the number of horizontal lines multiplied by the number of vertical lines. One megapixel is ROUGHLY 1 million pixels.
  32. 32. Resolution • The more lines, the more pixels. • The more pixels, the more information. • The more information, the higher the resolution. • Resolution is defined as the number of horizontal lines of pixels in an image.
  33. 33. How A Camcorder Works How-a-Digital-Camera-Works---CMOS-chip.mov http://youtu.be/Z3co311bBqY
  34. 34. Resolution Old Style Standard Television • 480i (480 horizontal lines visible, interlaced; 30 frames per second)
  35. 35. Resolution Digital Television (DTV) • Higher Picture Resolution • Truer Color • Wider Contrast Ratio Four prominent systems: • 480p (progressive, 480 visible lines, 60 frames per second) • 720p (progressive, 720 visible lines, 60 frames per second, High Definition Television [HDTV] (Roughly 1 Megapixel) • 1080i (interlaced, 60 fields/30 frames per second, High Definition Television [HDTV] (Roughly 2 Megapixels) • 1080p (progressive, 60 frames per second, [HDTV] (Roughly 2 Megapixels)
  36. 36. Resolution
  37. 37. Resolution 720p 1080p
  38. 38. Resolution
  39. 39. Resolution 800 Megapixel Panorama of Milky Way http://youtu.be/MH9R6MpC3AQ http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2009/09/panorama/
  40. 40. Resolution Dubai 45,000 Megapixel Photo - World's Largest Photo http://youtu.be/1r6z21aEJJ0 http://www.engadget.com/2010/05/10/gigapan-epic-pro-helps-create-44-880-megapixel-panorama-of-dubai/
  41. 41. Resolution Skybox Imaging Captures World’s First High-Resolution, HD Video of Eartrh from Space http://youtu.be/fCrB1t8MncY http://www.skyboximaging.com/news/FirstHigh-ResolutionHDVideoofEarth
  42. 42. Resolution Additional Systems 2K, 4K and 5K – 2000, 4000 and 5000 lines of resolution • For use in theatrical screening and 35mm scanning
  43. 43. Resolution Resolution – The Detail an Image Contains • Horizontal lines of pixels times vertical lines of pixels Digital • 720×480 :DVD, miniDV • 1280×720 (-1MP) : HD DVD, Blu-ray, HDV (miniDV) • 1440×1080 (1.5 MP) : HDV (miniDV) • 1920×1080 (2MP) : HDV (miniDV), AVCHD, HD DVD, Blu-ray, • 2048×1080 : 2K Digital Cinema • 4096×2160 : 4K Digital Cinema • Sequences from newer films are scanned at 2,000, 4,000, or even 8,000 columns, called 2K, 4K, and 8K, for quality visual- effects editing on computers
  44. 44. Resolution – It’s Always More Complicated What is the Resolution of the Eye? http://youtu.be/4I5Q3UXkGd0
  45. 45. What is Video? Video is sequential still images (frames), electronically captured, stored and disseminated in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, synchronized with sound.
  46. 46. Digital • Step 1 – Light enters the camera
  47. 47. Digital • Step 1 – Light enters the camera • Step 2 – It is converted to electrical signals
  48. 48. Digital • Step 1 – Light enters the camera • Step 2 – It is converted to electrical signals • Step 3 – The electrical signal is copied or converted and stored. When accomplished digitally, the result is a computer file.
  49. 49. Analog • A wave is recorded or used in its original form • Light or sound are converted to a fluctuating electrical wave that is directly recorded, usually to a magnetic tape medium, mirroring the original stimulus. • It produces an electrical copy of an original stimulus. • Analog signal fluctuates exactly like the original stimulus. • Analog signal is continuous.
  50. 50. Analog • Light as it enters a camera is always analog. But, you know, who cares? Everything is digital now anyway.
  51. 51. Digital Conversion • The analog wave is sampled at some interval, and then turned into numbers that are stored in the digital device • Light and sound are recorded not as an identical copy of the original stimulus, but as discrete on-and-off pulses, zeros and ones, binary digits. • It is a representation rather than a copy. • Discontinuous. Signal is sampled. • Advantage: Resists data distortion and error in duplication. No generational loss. • Advantage: Allows for manipulation of sound and image.
  52. 52. Digital Analog or Digital? (1993) http://youtu.be/kR7227_ndqQ
  53. 53. Digital http://on.aol.com/video/dr--michio-kaku-on-the- conversion-from-analog-to-digital-517068293
  54. 54. Digital
  55. 55. Digital
  56. 56. Digital • Sampling/Quantizing – The electrical signal is sampled.
  57. 57. Digital Lots of Codecs - http://youtu.be/wRwBlb_23Ug
  58. 58. Digital • The resulting computer information is compressed. • Compression reduces computer file size, usually by discarding hopefully unneeded information – Frame (Remove frames) – Picture (Remove redundancy between frames) – Color (Reduce variety of colors) – Sound (Reduce frequencies) • This compression is accomplished by a CODEC. • CODEC – a device or program for encoding and/or decoding digital information (DivX, Xvid, H.264, WMV, etc.)
  59. 59. Digital http://www.lynda.com/Premiere-Pro-tutorials/use-codecs/149702/154476-4.html?vid=6&fatoc=1 The Use of Codecs – Lynda.com
  60. 60. Digital Video Codecs 101 http://youtu.be/7YQ1mikDhIo
  61. 61. Basic Image Formation Compression • The CODEC is a device or program for encoding and/or decoding digital information. It converts and compresses the video computer file –(DivX, Xvid, H.264, WMV, etc.) • Additionally, the file exists in a Container or Wrapper Format (AVI, FLV, QuickTIme, MPEG, MP4, etc.). This will be the file’s extension (.mov, .mpeg, etc.) • Compression Ratio - the higher the ratio, the smaller the file; the lower the ratio, the higher the quality.
  62. 62. Basic Image Formation Compression • Lossy vs. Lossless • Lossy - Permanently removes information, such as repeated pixels. High compression ratio. • Lossless - Compresses and decompresses without loss of information. Low compression ratio.
  63. 63. Digital Compression http://vimeo.com/1172256
  64. 64. Digital Compression As Art http://youtu.be/nH3nmBEPIHY Plus De Deux
  65. 65. Digital Compression http://nofilmschool.com/2013/02/compression-encoding-basics-artifact-removal-tutorials/
  66. 66. Digital Compression Basics of Video Compression - http://www.larryjordan.biz/basics-of-video-compression-video/
  67. 67. What is Video? Video is sequential still images (frames), electronically captured, stored and disseminated in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, synchronized with sound.
  68. 68. Frame Rates (frames per second) Shutter Speed (fraction of a second)
  69. 69. Frame Rates The number of frames captured in a second (frames per second) Shutter Speed - The time light is allowed to strike the image sensor to create a single image. (fraction of a second)
  70. 70. Frame Rates (frames per second) Higher frame capture and playback rates result in more information and higher picture quality with increased sharpness, less stutter and flicker, and less motion blur.
  71. 71. Frame Rates (frames per second) Video Basics: Frame Rate http://youtu.be/8c8DrVvELe4
  72. 72. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motion Video Frame Rate Comparison http://youtu.be/e54Q1KXRmX0
  73. 73. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motion GoPro HD Hero 30fps vs. 60fps http://youtu.be/-nU2_ERC_oE
  74. 74. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Quality and Smoothness of Motion 30vs60.wmv http://youtu.be/3xsSSsVqSA0
  75. 75. Frame Rates Additional Systems 24p - 1080 lines of resolution, 24 frames per second. • For use in conjunction with motion picture film • Or to create a “film look.”
  76. 76. Resolution The_24p_Conspiracy http://vimeo.com/3388256
  77. 77. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal.
  78. 78. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed Capture) When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video capture speed is faster than it is played back, slow motion results, since the video is playing back at a SLOWER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Slow Motion 300fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Slow Motion
  79. 79. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) http://vimeo.com/11648907
  80. 80. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) Action Figure Slow Motion Punches http://youtu.be/kgdyBvHdNKY
  81. 81. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) http://youtu.be/EtsXgODHMWk
  82. 82. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) Ramesh Raskar: Imaging at a trillion frames per second http://youtu.be/Y_9vd4HWlVA
  83. 83. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) http://youtu.be/9RbLLYCiyGE
  84. 84. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) Two Forty from Brighton: Sony FS700 https://vimeo.com/42663128
  85. 85. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) Exploring Frame Rates and Resolutions on a Phantom Flex High Speed Camera - Video Blog https://vimeo.com/48571597
  86. 86. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Image Speed (High Speed Capture) The Slow Mo Guys https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCUK0HBIBWgM2c4vsPhkYY4w
  87. 87. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (Slowed in Post) When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video playback speed is altered in post production to a slower frame rate than it was captured, slow motion results, since the video is playing back at a SLOWER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture -30fps (or 50%) Playback: Slow Motion 60fps Capture - 6fps (10%) Playback: Slow Motion
  88. 88. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (Slowed in Post) Final Cut Pro X Super Slow Motion in Optical Flow https://vimeo.com/26626015
  89. 89. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (Slowed in Post) Twixtor Software 7D 1000 fps https://vimeo.com/13557939
  90. 90. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (Slowed in Post) Surfing –GoPro- Time Warp SlowMotion http://youtu.be/JWblwHPQZj4 TimeWarp Software
  91. 91. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video capture speed is slower than it is played back, fast motion results, since the video is playing back at a FASTER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Normal Motion 30fps Capture - 60fps Playback: Fast Motion 3fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Fast Motion
  92. 92. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed) When video is played back at the same frame rate as it was captured, motion appears normal. When video playback speed is altered in post production to a faster frame rate than it was captured, fast motion results, since the video is playing back at a FASTER speed than it was captured. 30fps Capture - 30fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture -60fps Playback: Normal Motion 60fps Capture -120fps (or 200%) Playback: Fast Motion 60fps Capture - 600fps (1000%) Playback: FAST Motion
  93. 93. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) Koyaanisqatsi http://youtu.be/mzsmU5sXM1M
  94. 94. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) Skywalker ranch timelapse test https://vimeo.com/8013220
  95. 95. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) "The City Limits" (Cities in fast motion accompanied with Hans Zimmers "Time" ) http://youtu.be/I1gxvG9roDM
  96. 96. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) Celestial Lights https://vimeo.com/40555466
  97. 97. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) Nightfall https://vimeo.com/47224216
  98. 98. Frame Rates (frames per second) Impact on Video Speed (High Speed / Time Lapse) Yosemite Range of Light https://vimeo.com/40802206
  99. 99. Frame Rates (frames per second) Lynda.com – Exploring Frame Rates – http://www.lynda.com/Final-Cut-Pro-tutorials/Exploring-frame-rate-choices/103707/109583-4.html?vid=6&fatoc=1
  100. 100. NTSC National Television System Committee • http://www.ehow.com/video_4751914_ what-ntsc-video.html • http://www.ehow.com/video_4751915_ what-difference-between-ntsc-pal.html
  101. 101. NTSC • The Americas, Japan Pretty Much Everywhere Else • 60 Hertz Electric Current 50 Hertz Electric Current • 24, 30 and 60 fps 25 and 50 fps PAL
  102. 102. What is Video? Video is sequential still images (frames), electronically captured, stored and disseminated in rapid enough succession to create the illusion of motion, synchronized with sound.
  103. 103. The Illusion of Motion • Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenon Muybridge-horse-in-motion.mov http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3veFqnnob0A
  104. 104. The Illusion of Motion • Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenon What is Persistence of Vision? (Mr. Wizard) http://youtu.be/YismwdgMIRc
  105. 105. The Illusion of Motion • Persistence of Vision, Beta Movement, Phi Phenomenon Thaumatropes & the Persistence of Vision https://vimeo.com/44274189
  106. 106. The Illusion of Motion What’s needed for Apparent Motion - Creating the illusion of motion • Flicker Fusion or Frequency – the number of flashes of light per second to merge or fuse the images, so that the flicker itself is invisible. At least 50 to 60 flashes per second. • Frame Rate – the number of images per second needed to create the illusion of motion. At least 16 images per second.
  107. 107. Basic Image Formation • Scanning • Fields / Frames • Flicker Frequency • Apparent motion • Frames per second http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/assignment-discovery- shorts-tv-tube-and-the-flicker-frequency.html
  108. 108. Overview Interlaced and Progressive Frame Rates Explained! : FRIDAY 101 http://youtu.be/xKMWjRlIvrY
  109. 109. Overview Progressive VS Interlaced Video Modes and Pixel Aspect Ratio http://youtu.be/9D8cRFMedGY
  110. 110. What is Video? http://youtu.be/buSaywCF6E8
  111. 111. Blur
  112. 112. What is Video? “Now in the real world things just happen … things just continuously happen.”
  113. 113. Reality http://youtu.be/6jzNw4_2YGQ Or do they?

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