Sw asia religion, politics, and oil(2)Presentation Transcript
Chapter 22 Notes- HumanGeography of Southwest AsiaReligion, Politics, & Oil
Section 1: The Arabian PeninsulaIslam- based on the teachings of Muhammad.MonotheisticMosque- place of worshipAll Muslims (followers of Islam) perform the 5pillars.
Faith“There is no God but Allah, andMuhammad is the Messenger of Allah.”• all believers believe in this statement of faith
PrayerMuslims face toward Mecca and prayfive times a day• may be done in a mosque or elsewhere
Charity (Alms or Giving)responsible to support less fortunate bygiving money
FastingDuring Islamic holy month of Ramadan,Muslims do not eat or drink anythingbetween sunrise and sunset.This reminds Muslims that there are moreimportant things in life than food.Seen as sign of humility and self-control.
PilgrimageMuslims are expected to make a pilgrimageto Mecca at least once during their lifetimeCalled the Hajj
Spread ofMany people on Arabian Peninsulabegan to convert to Islam• spread religion• Muslims became leaders of conquered lands• Arabic language spread across lands(Asia, Africa, and Europe)
Types of IslamTwo main branches of IslamSunni Muslim- 83% of allMuslimsShi’ite Muslim (mostly in Iran)
Section 1: The ArabianPeninsulaTheocratic- religious leaders control thegovernment.many of the governments in the region arethis
Section 1: The ArabianPeninsulaArabic Women-Most cover themselves from head to toe in a burqa (Arabiccovering)• Modesty & being covered is believed to be pleasing to god.
Section 2: The EasternMediterranean3 major religions were all startedin Southwest AsiaJudaism, Christianity, & IslamAll 3 claim Jerusalem as a holy city.
JudaismEstablished 3,200 years ago.Basic laws and teachings comefrom the Torah.Jerusalem is the religious centerof Judaism.
Jews and the Holy LandTorah establishes claim toHoly LandJerusalem is holiest JewishcityBelieve Holy Land was giftfrom God to Abraham andLotKing David brought arkcontaining original TorahhereSite of King Solomons
Section 2:The Eastern MediterraneanThe Western WallHoliest site of Judaism - Western Wall (Wailing Wall)Whole area is known as the Temple Mount• First Temple built by King Solomon then destroyed• Temple was rebuilt• Second Temple destroyed by the Romans• Only piece left standing is known as the Western Wall• No Jewish temple on site since 70 A.D.
Western Walla.k.a. the Wailing Wallconsidered the holiest site in Israelpart of an ancient Temple of Solomon
ChristianityEvolved 2,000 years ago from JudaismBased on teaching of Jesus Christ, who Christiansbelieve to be the son of God.Teachings recorded in the Bible.Spread from Jerusalem
Christians and the Holy LandChristians cherishJerusalem as the site ofJesus’ life, death andresurrectionHome to original crossand stone of Christ’stombSite of sacred Church ofthe Holy SepulcherHolds variety of Christianshrines
IslamEstablished around 613 A.D.Based on teachings of prophetMuhammadHas close ties to the prophets andteachers of Judaism and ChristianityHoly book is the Qur’an.Two major sects are Sunni and Shiite.
Muslims and the Holy LandQur’an establishes claim thatboth Jews and Arabs are peopleof AbrahamIslam claims Jerusalem as 3rdmost holy city behind Mecca &MedinaDome of the Rock- spot whereMuslims believe the ProphetMuhammad rose into heavenNext to Western WallSite of frequent clashes betweenMuslims & Jews
Section 2: The EasternMediterraneanAfter WW1 Britain controlledPalestineZionism- goal of the creation &support of a Jewish homeland inPalestine
Section 2: The Eastern MediterraneanAfter WW2 world sentiment favored givingthe Jews a national homeland.May 14th, 1948 Israel was established.• Western nations (Europe and U.S.) supported thecreation of Israel• Most Arab nations are angered and upset about thecreation of a Jewish designated country in what ispredominately a Muslim occupied region.
ReactionArab countries (Egypt, Iraq,Jordan, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia,Syria) tried to destroy IsraelArab-Israeli War (1948)Six Day War (1967)Yom Kippur War (1973)
ResultsArab countries defeatedIsrael gained more territory• Military occupied Gaza Strip & West Bank• Palestine is no longer a country
Section 2: The EasternMediterraneanPalestine Liberation Organization(PLO)- formed to regain the land forArabsPolitical & Military means used
HamasHamas (Palestinian Nationalist group) demandsown territory, currently occupies Gaza StripConsidered a terrorist organization
Section 2: The EasternMediterraneanOttoman Empire-Muslim basedgovernment, startedin TurkeyLasted from 1520-1920 (‘til end of WW1)
Section 3: The NortheastThe Kurds- ethnic group in SouthwesternAsiaStateless nation5,000+ were gassed to death by SaddamHussein’s army.Saddam was executed for this
Section 3: The NortheastMesopotamia- many civilizations werestarted here in the “land between therivers” (AKA The Fertile Crescent)SumerBabyloniaAssyriaChaldeaHittitesPersia
Section 3: The NortheastTaliban- fundamentalist Muslim politicalgroup in Afghanistan
No television, music or moviesNo whistling or clappingNo dancingNo shortsNo photographyNo smokingMen must have a beard and wear ahead covering
Women:•No jobs, must stay at home•Must wear the burqa and be with a malerelative outside the house•No schooling/education•No revealing ankles/ no white socks•No treatment by male doctors•No make-up or brightly colored clothes
•No associating with maleshopkeepers•No laughing loudly•No high heels•No driving•No riding bicycles•No washing clothes next to a riverunless a male relative is present•Windows must be painted orcovered