AP WH Chap 08 PPT


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Lecture notes on Islam

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AP WH Chap 08 PPT

  1. 1. The Rise of Islam 600-1200 C.E.
  2. 2. Part One: Origins of Islam
  3. 3. Part 1: Origins of Islam Map of Arabia
  4. 4. Islam – Bellwork #1 5 Pillars of Islam 1) How would the following requirements help unite a group of people? 2) How would the Pillars dictate how one lived their life? 1) FAITH - There is no god worthy of worship except God and Muhammad is His messenger. 2) PRAYER - Salat is the name for the obligatory prayers which are performed five times a day, and are a direct link between the worshipper and God. 3) THE 'ZAKAT„ - One of the most important principles of Islam is that all things belong to God, and that wealth is therefore held by human beings in trust. 4) THE FAST - Every year in the month of Ramadan, all Muslims fast from first light until sundown, abstaining from food, drink, and sexual relations. 5) PILGRIMAGE (HAJJ) - The annual pilgrimage to Makkah - the Hajj - is an obligation only for those who are physically and financially able to perform it.
  5. 5. Part 1: Origins of Islam A. Arabian Peninsula Before Muhammad  Most Arabs were settled people.  Nomads a minority, but important in caravan trade that linked Yemen to Mesopotamia and Mediterranean.  Caravan trade gave rise to and supported merchants of caravan cities such as Petra and Palmyra.  Brought Arabs into contact with the Byzantine and Sasanid civilizations.
  6. 6. Part 1: Origins of Islam B. Nomads and Caravan Cities  Nomads were polytheists who worshipped natural forces and celestial bodies, but they were also familiar with other religions including Christianity.  Mecca was a caravan city between Yemen and Syria.  Mecca was also a cult center that attracted nomads to worship the idols enshrined in a small cubical shrine called the Ka‟ba.
  7. 7. Part 1: Origins of Islam Ka’ba in Mecca
  8. 8. Part 1: Origins of Islam Map of Arabia
  9. 9. Muhammad’s Life 570 A.D. – Muhammed was born in Mecca 620 A.D. – He received visions & began to teach 622 A.D. – He and his followers moved to Medina 630 A.D. – Muslims defeated Mecca and returned 632 A.D. – Muhammed died
  10. 10. Muhammad’s Life Father died before he was born Mother died when he was 6 years old Muhammad’s 1st wife was 40 yrs old, he was 25 One wife, Aisha, was 6 yrs old when they married Married between 11 & 13 wives Had 6 children: 4 daughters & 2 sons His sons did not survive past infancy
  11. 11. Part 1: Origins of Islam C. Muhammad in Mecca  Muhammad:  Born in Mecca  Grew up as an orphan  Got involved in the caravan trade  In 610 C.E. he began receiving revelations that he concluded were the words of his god, Allah.  Others in his community thought he was possessed by a spirit.
  12. 12. Part 1: Origins of Islam Muhammad
  13. 13. Part 1: Origins of Islam Muhammad  Message of Muhammad‟s revelations was that there is one god, Allah and that all people ought to submit to him.  At the final judgment, those who had submitted to Allah would go to paradise; those who did not, to hell.
  14. 14. Part 1: Origins of Islam Muhammad - Revelations  Muhammad‟s revelations were considered to be the final revelations, following and superseding the earlier revelations of God to Noah, Moses, and Jesus (The Bible).
  15. 15. Quiz – Part 1 Muslims 1. The followers of Islam are called _____________________. Qur'an 2. The most sacred book of Islam is _____________________. Muhammad 3. The man who founded Islam was named _______________. 4. The pilgrimage to Mecca which all followers of Islam should Hajj make is called ____________________ . 5. Mecca, the holiest city of Islam, is located in what country? Saudi Arabia ___________________.
  16. 16. Part 1: Origins of Islam Origins of Islam Video
  17. 17. Quiz – Part 2 Multiple Choice: Choose the correct answer: 1. The Arabic word Islam means: a. Win at all costs b. Surrender c. Freedom 2. Approximately how many Muslims are there in the world today? a. One million b. More than one billion c. One hundred million 3. Muslims believe they should pray: a. Whenever it is convenient b. Only on Saturday c. Five times each day
  18. 18. Quiz – Part 2 4. Muslims believe they should: a. Keep all the wealth God gives them b. Give a portion of what they have to the poor c. Give alms only when they have more than they need 5. Mohammed, the founder of Islam was: a. Born a prince in India b. Found by a Pharaoh's daughter c. Orphaned at a young age
  19. 19. Quiz – Part 2 True or False: Write TRUE or FALSE after each statement. 1. Mohamed is believed by Muslims to be directly FALSE descended from the Angel Gabriel. _____ 2. Muslims believe they should live their lives in a way TRUE that will please their creator. _____ TRUE 3. Fasting is one of the five pillars of Islam. _____ 4. Mosques are visually richly furnished as a sign of FALSE respect to God. _____ 5. Perhaps the strongest form of Islamic artistic TRUE expression is its architecture. _____
  20. 20. Part 1: Origins of Islam D. The Formation of the Umma  Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Medina in 622.  In Medina, Muhammad‟s Meccan followers and converts from Medina formed a single community of believers, the umma.
  21. 21. Part 1: Origins of Islam Umma in Medina  The umma in Medina developed into the core of the Islamic state that would later expand to include all of Arabia and lands beyond in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, and Central Asia.
  22. 22. Part 1: Origins of Islam Spread of Islam
  23. 23. Part 1: Origins of Islam E. Caliphates  Muhammad‟s father-in-law Abu Bakr took over leadership of the umma as the successor or caliph of Muhammad.  Faced two tasks:  Standardization of Islamic religion  Consolidation of Islamic state  Successfully reestablished Muslim authority over the Arabs and oversaw the compilation and organization of the Quran.
  24. 24. Part 1: Origins of Islam Caliphates  Disagreements over the question of succession to the caliphate emerged following the assassination of the third caliph, Uthman.  Civil war was fought between those who supported keeping the caliphate in Uthman‟s clan (the Ummaya) and those who supported the claim of Muhammad‟s first cousin and son-in-law Ali.  Ummaya forces won and established the Umayyad Caliphate in 661.
  25. 25. Part 1: Origins of Islam Caliphates  Led to development of two rival sects in the Muslim community.  Shi‟ites supported Ali‟s claim to the caliphate and believed the position of caliph belonged to descendents of Ali. (minority)  Sunnis believed the first three caliphs had been correctly chosen and supported the Umayyan Caliphate. (majority)
  26. 26. Part II 632-1258 C.E. Rise and Fall of the Caliphate
  27. 27. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate A. Islamic Conquests 634-711 C.E.
  28. 28. Dome of the Rock Dome of the Rock The first important Islamic shrine to be built was the celebrated Dome of the Rock, begun in 691 in Jerusalem by the caliph Abd al-Malik on the spot where faithful Muslims believe that Muhammad began his Night-Journey as he ascended to heaven. Both the octagonal shape of the centralized plan and the lavishly ornamented interior demonstrate the influence of Byzantine architecture. The shrine is capped by a gilded dome. (Sonia Halliday Photographs) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  29. 29. Great Mosque at Cordoba, 786 Great Mosque at Cordoba, 786 C.E. When the Abbasids attempted to massacre 800 family members of the Umayyad dynasty at a dinner of peace, a few of them escaped, fled to Spain, and established Cordoba as their capital. The Great Mosque of Cordoba, begun in 786, contains all of the usual features of a mosque, but it is best known for its interior double set of horseshoe-shaped arches, one above the other, which are mounted on the capitals of granite and marble columns. (Christopher Rennie/Robert Harding Picture Library) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
  30. 30. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate A. 1. Conquests  Conquests of areas outside Arabia began in the seventh century.  First wave of conquest:  Arabs took Syria, Egypt, and Sasanid Empire.  Late seventh and early eighth centuries:  Islamic forces took Tunisia, Spain, Algeria, Morocco, and Sind.
  31. 31. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate A.2. The Advance of Muslims  Reason for advancing rapidly:  Lust for booty  Religious conversion  Weakness of enemies  Most convincing explanation finds the causes of Muslim expansion in the talent of the Muslim leaders and societal structure.
  32. 32. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate A.3. Arab Forces  During expansion Arab forces were organized into regular, paid armies  Kept military camps and garrison towns so that they did not overrun the countryside.  Arab Muslims became minority rulers, thinly spread over non-Muslim societies they dominated and taxed.  Did not try to convert conquered peoples.
  34. 34. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate B.1. Umayyads  Ruled an Arab empire, not a Muslim empire.  Administered territory through established Sasanid and Byzantine apparatus, gradually bringing in Muslim bureaucrats and Arabic language.  Rebellions overthrew the Umayyads in 750  one branch of the family retained power in Spain
  35. 35. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate B.2. The Fall of Umayyads  The family of Abbas, an uncle of Muhammad, took over and established the Abbasid Caliphate.  Provided renewed religious leadership combined with style of ruling and royal ceremony derived from the Sasanids.  Held caliphate until 1258.
  36. 36. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate Literature and Learning  Thrived under the Abbasids.  Translated Greek texts and secular Arab poetry.  Baghdad was center of Abbasid culture  Other areas shared this culture to varying extents  Acceleration of the rate of conversion of non-Muslim subjects to Islam at this time.
  37. 37. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate C. Political Fragmentation 850-1050 C.E.
  38. 38. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate C.1. Decline of Abbasid Power  Second half of ninth century as the caliphs found it impossible to maintain control over their vast territory.  Factors in decline:  Difficulty of transportation and communications  Dissatisfaction of non-Muslim provincial populations with a political and economic system that was centered on Baghdad.
  39. 39. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate C.2. Result of Decline  Ninth century local revolts carved the Abbasid realm into smaller Muslim states that did not pay taxes or homage to the caliphs in Baghdad.
  40. 40. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate Baghdad  Caliphs in Baghdad relied on Turkish slave troops called Mamluks.  Late ninth century – Mamulks not paid properly  They then took control of the caliphate  Chose the caliph  Dominated the government
  41. 41. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate The Fall of Abbasid Caliphate  945 – caliphate under control of Iranian Shi‟ite Buyids  Abbasid Caliphate declined  Various provincial regimes rose to power  Samanids in Bukhara  Fatimids in Egypt
  42. 42. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate C.3. Umayyads in Spain  Islamic, Roman, German, and Jewish cultures combined to form a unique Iberian variant of Islamic civilization.  Muslim Spain:  Substantial urbanization  Introduction of citrus crops  Diverse irrigated agricultural sector  Florescence of Muslim and Jewish intellectual activity
  43. 43. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate Political Diversity  Underlying the political diversity of the fragmented Muslim world was a strong sense of religious identity preserved by the religious scholars: the ULAMA.
  44. 44. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate Assault from Within and Without  In Central Asia and Middle East a nomad group called the Seljuk Turks took advantage of the decline of the Abbasids to establish the Suljik Sultanate.  Ruled a territory stretching from Afghanistan to Baghdad and took Anatolia from the Byzantines in 1071.
  45. 45. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate C.4. Collapse of Baghdad  Caused by:  Turkish depredations  Deterioration of the Tigris-Euphrates irrigation system  Insufficient revenue  Insufficient food resources
  46. 46. Part 2: Rise & Fall of the Caliphate Crusades  Put some pressure on the Islamic lands  Muslims able to unite under Saladin and his descendants to drive the Christians out.  Saladin‟s descendants were not able to restore unity and order to the Islamic world  Further invasions by:  Turkish in 1250  Mongols in 13th century
  47. 47. Part Three: Islamic Civilization
  48. 48. Part 3: Islamic Civilization A. Law and Dogma  Islamic Law – Shari‟a – evolved over time in response to the Muslim community‟s need for a legal system.  Shari‟a developed over a period of centuries.  Held that all Muslims are brothers and sisters and shared the same moral values.
  49. 49. Part 3: Islamic Civilization A. 1. Hadith  Most important source of law was the traditions of the Prophet (sunna) as revealed in the reports (hadith) about his words and deeds.  Specialists on Islamic law collected and edited tens of thousands of hadith  Discarded those that seemed to be dubious  Published those that were “good”
  50. 50. Part 3: Islamic Civilization Converts and Cities  Conversion and urbanization were related.  During early expansion, converts to Islam needed to learn about their new religion.  Found that best way to do so was to move to wealthy, expanding areas where Muslim populations were concentrated.  Discrimination in native rural non- Muslim villages also spurred new converts to move to cities.
  51. 51. Part 3: Islamic Civilization Urban Life  Urban social life and the practice of Islam itself were varied because the Muslims had no central authority to prescribe religious dogma.  Growing cities provided an expanding market for agricultural and manufactured products and contributed to an increase in trade.
  52. 52. Part 3: Islamic Civilization A.2. Academic Advances  Significant advances in medicine and astronomy.  Muslim scholars built on and surpassed the work of the Greek and Hellenistic civilizations.  Developed skills and theories far more sophisticated than those of Christian Europe.
  53. 53. Part 3: Islamic Civilization B. Islam and Women  Muslim women were veiled and secluded as they had previously been in the Byzantine and Sasanid Empires.  Women could be influential in the family, but only slave women could have a public role or appear in public before men.  Muslim men feared women committing sexual infidelity or meddling in politics.
  54. 54. Part 3: Islamic Civilization B.1. Rights of Muslim Women  Included:  Right to own property  Retain property in marriage  Right to divorce and remarry  Right to testify in court  Right to go on pilgramage
  55. 55. Part 3: Islamic Civilization Islam and Slaves  Muslims were not permitted to enslave their fellow Muslims, Jews, Christians, or Zoroastrians  Exception: when taken as prisoners of war.  Muslims could and did hold non- Muslim slaves, but the status of slaves was not hereditary.
  56. 56. Recentering of Islam  Decline of caliphate and factionalism with the ulama deprived Islam of a religious center.  During the 12th and 13th centuries two sources of religious authority developed:  Madrasas (religious colleges)  Sufi brotherhoods
  57. 57. Sufi Brotherhoods  Mystic fraternities whose members sought union with God through rituals and training.  Early Sufis were mystics who went into ecstasies and expressed ideas in poetry.  Later developed into more prosaic organizations of Muslim men.  Sufi brotherhoods provided their members with spiritual guidance and rules for everyday life.  Brotherhoods originated in the urban areas and then spread to the countryside.