Hyperactivation<br />the nitro boost<br />Abhranil Das<br />
Capacitation<br />In the female reproductive tract or appropriate in vitro environment<br />Requires several hours<br />Pr...
Influx of extracellular calcium
Destabilization of sperm membrane in preparation for acrosomal reaction
Hyperactivation</li></li></ul><li>What is Hyperactivation?<br />Increased sperm motility, characterized by<br />High ampli...
How does it happen?<br />The flagellum has ion channels formed by a protein called CatSper<br />Selectively allows Ca2+ io...
How does it help?<br />Greater propulsion through the viscous medium<br />Enables escape from mucosal pockets in the ovidu...
Hyperactivated Bovine Sperm<br />Hyperactivated sperm<br />Normal sperm<br />
Hyperactivated Bull Sperm<br />A Normal bull sperm <br />BHyperactivatedsperm<br />CMaximal form of hyperactivation<br />E...
Hyperactivated Hamster Sperm<br />Normal<br />Hyperactivated<br />c/o Si Y, Okuno M BiolReprod Jul 1999<br />
Morphology v/s Hyperactivation<br />According to <br />Steven Green and Simon Fishel<br />Morphology comparison of individ...
Morphology v/s Hyperactivation<br />
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Hyperactivation

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Hyperactivation

  1. 1. Hyperactivation<br />the nitro boost<br />Abhranil Das<br />
  2. 2. Capacitation<br />In the female reproductive tract or appropriate in vitro environment<br />Requires several hours<br />Principal processes<br /><ul><li>Removal of steroids and seminal proteins
  3. 3. Influx of extracellular calcium
  4. 4. Destabilization of sperm membrane in preparation for acrosomal reaction
  5. 5. Hyperactivation</li></li></ul><li>What is Hyperactivation?<br />Increased sperm motility, characterized by<br />High amplitude of movement<br />Deep bends formed by tail<br />Assymetrical beating pattern<br />Figure 8 patterns<br />Frequent Direction Changes<br />First reported by Yanagimachi, 1970.<br />
  6. 6. How does it happen?<br />The flagellum has ion channels formed by a protein called CatSper<br />Selectively allows Ca2+ ion to enter<br />Channels open, influx of Ca2+ ion<br />The rise in calcium levels allows the tail to form deeper bends<br />
  7. 7. How does it help?<br />Greater propulsion through the viscous medium<br />Enables escape from mucosal pockets in the oviduct<br />Increases chance of finding the egg due to frequent direction changes<br />Hyperactivated motility necessary for penetrating zonapellucida<br />
  8. 8. Hyperactivated Bovine Sperm<br />Hyperactivated sperm<br />Normal sperm<br />
  9. 9. Hyperactivated Bull Sperm<br />A Normal bull sperm <br />BHyperactivatedsperm<br />CMaximal form of hyperactivation<br />Each image represents two flashes of a stroboscope, spaced 1/60 sec apart. Scale bar = 10 μm <br />c/o BiolReprod<br />
  10. 10. Hyperactivated Hamster Sperm<br />Normal<br />Hyperactivated<br />c/o Si Y, Okuno M BiolReprod Jul 1999<br />
  11. 11. Morphology v/s Hyperactivation<br />According to <br />Steven Green and Simon Fishel<br />Morphology comparison of individually selected hyperactivated and non-hyperactivated human spermatozoa<br />Human Reproduction <br />vol. 14 no. 1 1999<br />
  12. 12. Morphology v/s Hyperactivation<br />
  13. 13. Credits<br />humrep.oxfordjournals.org<br />Wikipedia<br />www.biolreprod.org<br />
  14. 14. Reference Papers<br />Carmen R. Stauss, Timothy J Votta, Susan S Suarez<br />Sperm Motility Hyperactivation Facilitates Penetration of the Hamster ZonaPellucida<br />Biology of Reproduction 53 1999, 1280-1295<br />Steven Green and Simon Fishel<br />Morphology comparison of individually selected hyperactivatedand non-hyperactivated human spermatozoa<br />Human Reproduction vol. 14 no.1 1999 p. 123-130<br />

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