INTRODUCTION TO OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY            AND HEALTH
Occupational health is the application of biology,medicine, epidemiology, engineering, economics,education, politics, the ...
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH          Health ------------------------- Work         Work --------------------------- HealthSafety, ...
Disciplines under occupational safety and healthOccupational medicineOccupational safetyIndustrial hygieneErgonomicsToxico...
Agencies Involved In Occupational HealthDepartment of Occupational Safety and HealthSocial Security Organisation (SOCSO)Na...
Safety and health hazards in the workplacePhysical – noise, radiation, heat, pressureChemical- solvents, pesticides, heavy...
Occupational injuries and diseasesHand injuries, eye injuries, back injuriesLung disease: asbestosis, silicosis, occupatio...
OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYAccidents: End product of unsafe acts and unsafeconditionsFactors causing accidents - Working environme...
INDUSTRIAL HYGIENEIndustrial hygiene is an applied science that usesconcepts of physics, biology, chemistry, medicineand e...
Personal Protective EquipmentHelmetEar muffs, ear plugsEye gogglesRespirators – full face, half face             air suppl...
ERGONOMICSErgonomics – human factors engineeringFitting the job to the worker and the product to the user.ILO defines ergo...
Aim of Ergonomics in the WorkplaceAim of applying ergonomics in the workplace:Having a work environment that is safe and h...
Anthropometry in ergonomicsDetermine important body dimensionsDefine user populationDetermine principle to apply – design ...
Effects of poor ergonomics on healthMusculoskeletal problems – cervicobrachial disorders                           carpal ...
OSH Risk Assessment   Hazard identification   Exposure assessment   Risk characterisation
OSH Risk ManagementRisk acceptable – no actionRisk unacceptable – take action      Risk communication      Hierarchy of Co...
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Principles of Occupational Health

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Principles of Occupational Health

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Principles of Occupational Health

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION TO OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH
  2. 2. Occupational health is the application of biology,medicine, epidemiology, engineering, economics,education, politics, the law and other disciplines toprotect workers from diseases of the workplace. Anthony Robbins Former Director, NIOSH USA
  3. 3. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH Health ------------------------- Work Work --------------------------- HealthSafety, health and welfare of workers and other persons at place of work. Work has both positive and negative effects Occupational injuries Occupational diseases Work related diseases
  4. 4. Disciplines under occupational safety and healthOccupational medicineOccupational safetyIndustrial hygieneErgonomicsToxicologyOccupational epidemiologyOccupational health nursing
  5. 5. Agencies Involved In Occupational HealthDepartment of Occupational Safety and HealthSocial Security Organisation (SOCSO)National Institute of Occupational Safety and HealthOccupational Health Unit, Ministry of HealthRoad Transport DepartmentMinistry of DefenceMinistry of Higher Education (Universities)Ministry of Agriculture (Pesticides Board)Professional Associations (eg SOEM, MSOSH,MOHNA)Employer organisations (MEF,FMM)Employee unions (MTUC, CUEPACS)
  6. 6. Safety and health hazards in the workplacePhysical – noise, radiation, heat, pressureChemical- solvents, pesticides, heavy metalsBiological – virus, bacteria, snakes, insectsPsychosocial – stress, overtimeErgonomic – manual handling, shift workMechanical hazards – sharp edges, slippery floor
  7. 7. Occupational injuries and diseasesHand injuries, eye injuries, back injuriesLung disease: asbestosis, silicosis, occupationalasthmaOccupational cancer: mesothelioma (asbestos),hemangiosarcoma (vinyl chloride)Skin: Irritant contact dermatitis; Allergic contactdermatitisNervous system: Wrist drop, Neurobehaviouraldisorders
  8. 8. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETYAccidents: End product of unsafe acts and unsafeconditionsFactors causing accidents - Working environment,technical equipment and worker (man, machine andenvironment interface)Accidents can cause injuries. Injury defined as anydamage or harm to the body resulting in impairmentor destruction of health.Safety is the absence of risk to injury or harm.
  9. 9. INDUSTRIAL HYGIENEIndustrial hygiene is an applied science that usesconcepts of physics, biology, chemistry, medicineand engineering to anticipate, identify, evaluateand control health hazards in the workplace.
  10. 10. Personal Protective EquipmentHelmetEar muffs, ear plugsEye gogglesRespirators – full face, half face air supplying, air purifyingGownGlovesSafety shoes
  11. 11. ERGONOMICSErgonomics – human factors engineeringFitting the job to the worker and the product to the user.ILO defines ergonomics as application of humanbiological sciences in conjunction with engineeringsciences to the worker and his environment so as toobtain maximum satisfaction for the worker which at thesame time enhances productivity.
  12. 12. Aim of Ergonomics in the WorkplaceAim of applying ergonomics in the workplace:Having a work environment that is safe and healthy bydesigning workplace, work facilities, work equipment andwork load that are suitable for the worker.Workplace, work facilities and work equipment designed to fitthe majority of persons taking into considerationanthropometry of the “average” person and variations fromsmall women to large men (5th percentile of female to 95thpercentile of men).
  13. 13. Anthropometry in ergonomicsDetermine important body dimensionsDefine user populationDetermine principle to apply – design for extreme, foradjustable range or for average person.Select whether want to accommodate 90 or 95% of userpopulation.Design, test and use equipment.
  14. 14. Effects of poor ergonomics on healthMusculoskeletal problems – cervicobrachial disorders carpal tunnel syndrome low back painFatigueAdverse reproductive outcomes of pregnancy – preterm labour, spontaneous abortions
  15. 15. OSH Risk Assessment Hazard identification Exposure assessment Risk characterisation
  16. 16. OSH Risk ManagementRisk acceptable – no actionRisk unacceptable – take action Risk communication Hierarchy of Controls Elimination / Substitution Isolation / Enclosure Engineering controls Administrative control Personal protective equipment

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