Basic principles of Industrial Hygiene

OSH Officer at Departmental of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)
Oct. 1, 2016

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Basic principles of Industrial Hygiene

  1. Basic Principles of Industrial Hygiene HAMIDI SAIDIN
  2. Introduction to Industrial Hygiene What is industrial hygiene? • occupational hygiene; health hygiene. • to prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases and injuries in industries. • Hazards- Anticipate,Recognize, Evaluate & Control • sciences and arts: physics,chemistry, human anatomy, mathematics and physiology; creativity, curiosity and communication skills
  3. History of industrial hygiene 4th century BC Hippocrates He recognised and recorded the problem of lead poisoning among miners. 1st century AD Pliny the Elder He described exposure to zinc and sulphur among labourers in the “Natural History” series. Besides that, he also devised a protective mask for miners made from an animal bladder to be tied over the mouth to prevent inhalation of dust and lead. 2nd century AD Galen This Greek physician recognised the hazards of copper mining as the miners were exposed to acid mist.
  4. History of industrial hygiene 1473 Ulrich Ellenbog He published a pamphlet about occupational diseases and illnesses among gold miners. He discussed toxic fumes and vapours, and described ways of coping with the hazards. 1556 George Bauer (Georgius Agricola) This mining town physician in Joachimcal, a place where silver mining was one of the primary occupations, wrote a 12-series volume set named De Re Metalicca (Latin for On the Nature of Metals). The book covered mining geology, environmental contamination, management technique, mine ventilation, ergonomics and illnesses suffered by miners. The book described the injuries and sicknesses of the miners, and it also discussed treatments and preventive measures for the occupational diseases. He also discussed silicosis, a lung disease caused by inhaling silica dust.
  5. History of industrial hygiene 1567 Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohemheim (Paracelsus) In Miners ‘Sickness and other Diseases of Miners, Paracelsus described the differences of the employees’ conditions between “chronic” and “acute” poisoning. He also described the physical and behavioral effects of mercury exposure. He uttered the phrase “All substance are poisons; there is none which is not poison. The right dose differentiates a poison and a remedy” 1700 Bernardino Ramazzini He is known as the Father of Industrial Hygiene. He wrote a book titled De Morbis Artificum (Diseases of Employees). He is the first person to make a connection between occupations and diseases by urging physicians to include important questions such as “Of what trade are you?”
  6. History of industrial hygiene Late 1770s Sir George Baker He correctly found the link “Devonshire Colic” to lead poisoning in cider, the traditional drink of Devonians. 1833 Percival Pott He is the first to link cancer to chemical exposure. He observed the development of scrotal cancer in London chimney sweepers. He found out that the cancer was caused by the soot that the sweepers rarely washed away. Early 1990s British Government English Factory Act The Act focused on compensation rather than safety practices. It led to improvements in safety as the Act also gave employers financial incentives to prevent accidents.
  7. Alice Hamilton History of industrial hygiene Early 1990s This American physician emphasised on employees welfare. She identified hazards and illnesses and recommended prevention measures. She also raised public consciousness about employee safety. Her work can be found in these two publications: Industrial Poisons in the United States (1925) and Exploring the Dangerous Trades (1943). 2016
  8. The Importance of Occupational Hygiene • 2,000,000 work-related deaths per year. • 386,000 deaths each year from exposure to airborne particulates. • 152,000 deaths per year from carcinogens in the workplace. • 37% of Lower Back Pain is attributed to occupation. The World Health Organisation estimates that globally there are:
  9. Development of industrial hygiene in Malaysia
  10. Definition of Industrial Hygiene • According to OSHA (1998), industrial hygiene is defined as the science and art devoted to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of environmental factors or stresses.
  11. • Industrial hygienist is a person having college or university degree(s) in engineering, chemistry, physics, medicine, or related physical and biological sciences, who has also received specialized training in recognition, evaluation, and control of workplace stressor and therefore achieved competence in industrial hygiene. Industrial Hygienist?
  12. Factors or stresses :  Chemical agents  Dust, mists, vapours, gases, fumes.  Physical agents  Ionising, non-ionising radiation, noise, vibrations and temperature extremes.  Biological agents  Insects, molds, yeast, fungi, bacteria, viruses.  Ergonomic agents  Monotony, fatique and repetative motion
  13. Scope of Industrial Hygiene Anticipation /Recognitio n Evaluatio n Control • Commitment • Planning • Design • Training • Hazard Identification • Exposure Asessment • Monitoring • Studies • Observations • Elimination • Substitution • Engineering • Administration • Personal protective equipment
  14. What is Industrial Hygiene Exposure Work Activity Disease Occupational Hygiene Occupational Medicine Occupational Health
  15. Industrial Hygiene Duties
  16. Occupational Physician • Utilize the exposure evaluation and workplace assessments; • Identify the possible impact on the employee; and • Provide proper diagnosis and treatment.
  17. Industrial Hygiene Profession • Registered Competent Person • Assessor • Hygiene Technician • IAQ Competent Person • Noise Monitoring Competent Person • Mineral Dust Competent Person • Lead Competent Person
  18. 1) Examination of the industrial environment; 2) Interpretation of gathered data from studies made in the industrial environment; 3) Preparation and proper implementation of control measures; 4) Creation of regulatory standards for work conditions; Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
  19. 5) Presentation of competent and meaningful testimony when called upon to do so by boards, commissions, agencies, courts, or investigative bodies; 6) Performance of epidemiological studies to uncover the presence of occupation-related diseases; 7) Education of the working community in the field of industrial hygiene; and 8) Preparation of adequate warnings and precautions where dangers exist. Responsibilities of an Industrial Hygiene
  20. Applied science and application of IH Diciplines Application in IH Physics, mathematics, human anatomy, and physiology Hazard evaluation of noise, illumination, lasers, non- ionising radiation, ionising radiation, and ergonomics. Chemistry, anatomy and physiology, toxicology Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of carcinogenic hazard assessments and reproductive hazard assessments. Toxic chemical exposure evaluation of carcinogenic hazard assessments and reproductive hazard assessments.
  21. Applied science and application of IH Diciplines Application in IH Statistics, epidemiology, physics, chemistry, anatomy and physiology, toxicology, language skills Measuring exposures to chemical and physical agents. Interpreting laboratory analytical reports. Using direct-reading instruments. Language skills Interaction with employees, management, and clients; report writing; preparing manuscripts of original research studies for publication; and design and delivery of employee education programmes.
  22. Industrial Hygiene Programme • Programme for the employees health protection and safety. • source of information for the physician or nurse relative to the employees working conditions, including the possible causes of, or factors contributing to, the employees symptoms. • medical surveillance programme. 1) Periodic hearing tests to detect noise-induced hearing loss; 2) An examination of the respiratory system including a chest x-ray; and 3) Lung capacity measurements to detect scarring of the lungs due to asbestos exposure.
  23. Basic elements of IH Programme Elements Examples Anticipation/ recognition of health hazards • Watching • Asking questions • Observing work practices • Reviewing chemical inventories Evaluation of health hazards • Air sampling • Noise exposure • Ergonomic stress Control of health hazards • Determining appropriate and effective control measures
  24. Basic elements of IH Programme Elements Examples Recordkeeping • Keeping accurate and complete industrial hygiene records • Requiring regulation • Source of information for trending exposure Employee training • Hazard communication programme • New employee orientation • Industrial hygiene responding to specific questions • Evaluating new materials proposed for use in a process Periodic programme reviews, changes, and updates • Changes in regulatory requirements • New information about the toxic properties of a chemical or • physical agent • Changes in a process