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Occupatinal health hazards

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Occupatinal health hazards

  1. 1. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH<br />OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS<br />
  2. 2. Occupational health<br /><ul><li> refers to the potential risks to health and safety for those who work outside the home</li></ul>Hazard <br /><ul><li> something that can cause harm if not controlled.</li></ul>Occupational disease<br /><ul><li>Disease directly caused by a person’s occupation.</li></li></ul><li>Ecological approach<br /><ul><li> it seeks to ensure a dynamic equilibrium between the industrial worker and his occupational environment.</li></ul>Workplace<br /><ul><li> setting in which many people spend the largest proportion of their time.
  3. 3. exposes many workers to health hazards</li></li></ul><li>Definition: 4Ps.<br />Aims at the PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupation;<br /> the PREVENTIONofill-health among workers caused by their working conditions; <br />the PROTECTIONof workers in their employment from risk resulting from factors that adversely affect health;<br /> the PLACING AND MAINTENANCE of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological ability.<br />
  4. 4. Ergonomics - “Fitting the job to the worker”.<br />Integral part of occupational health services.<br />Greek word ‘Ergon’ means ‘Work’, <br /> ‘Nomos’ means ‘Law’ .<br /> It is the ADAPTATION, MODIFICATION, MANIPULATION of MACHINERY, WORK ENVIRONMENT, WORK & REST SCHEDULE and JOB DEMANDS to suit the CAPACITY, LIMITATIONS & EXPECTATIONS of the workers.<br />
  5. 5. Occupational Environment<br />Sum of external conditions and influences prevailing at the place of work which have a bearing on the health of the working population.<br />Three types of interactions in the work place:<br /><ul><li>Man and physical, chemical, & biological agents.
  6. 6. Man and machine.
  7. 7. Man and man.- </li></li></ul><li> OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />Physical hazards<br />Chemical<br />Biological<br />Psychosocial<br /> a. Psychological and behavioral changes.<br /> b. Psychosomatic ill-health<br />
  8. 8. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />1. Physical hazards<br />Heat – Direct & indirect effect of high temperature, radiant heat, heat stagnation.<br />Cold –General & local cold injury<br />Light – Acute & chronic effect of bright & dim light & glare.<br />Radiation<br />Ionizing -X-rays,gammarays,betaparticles, alpha particles<br />Non-ionizing -microwaves, infrared, and ultra-violet light<br />Noise –Auditory & non auditory effect.<br />Vibration –hazardous in the frequency range of 10- 500Hz<br />
  9. 9. Diseases due to Physical agents<br />Heat – Heat stroke, Heat hyperpyrexia, Heat syncope, Heat Exhaustion, Heat rash.<br />Light – Occupational cataract, Miners nystagmus.<br />Cold – Hypothermia, Frost bite, Trench foot.<br />Pressure – Air embolism, Blast injuries.<br />Vibration – Osteoarthritis, Reynauds disease [white fingers]<br />Noise – Occupational deafness.<br />Radiation-Cancer, genetic changes, Aplasticanaemia. <br />
  10. 10. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />2. Chemical hazards<br />Acids<br />Bases<br />Heavy Metals –Lead<br />Solvents– Petroleum <br />Particulates– Asbestos, Silica and other fine dust/fibrous materials<br />Fumes– noxious gases/vapors<br />Highly-reactive Metals <br />
  11. 11. Ways of acquiring Chemical Hazards<br />A. Local action:irritants, sensitizers<br />B. Inhalation: <br />Dusts – organic , Inorganic <br /> Gases – Simple asphyxiants: Methane, Nitrogen, CO2.<br /> – Chemical asphyxiants : CO, Hydrogen sulphide, HCN<br /> – Irritant gases: Ammonia, SO2,<br /> – Anesthetic gases: Chloroform, Ether, Trichloroethylene.<br /> Metallic compounds<br />C. Ingestion:<br />Metallic compounds: Arsenic, Antimony, Beryllium, Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Mercury, Manganese, Zinc.<br />
  12. 12. Diseases due to chemical agents<br />Gases– gas poisoning.<br />Inorganic dusts:<br /><ul><li> Coal dust - Anthracosis
  13. 13. Silica - Silicosis.
  14. 14. Asbestos - Asbestosis.
  15. 15. Iron - Siderosis</li></ul>Organic dusts :<br /><ul><li> Cane fiber - Bagassosis.
  16. 16. Cotton dust – Byssinosis.
  17. 17. Hay or grain dust – Farmer’s lung.</li></ul>Chemicals–Burns, dermatitis, cancer, respiratory illness<br />Metals – lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium cause poisoning<br />
  18. 18. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />3. Biological hazards<br /> Bacteria<br /> Viruses<br />Fungi – molds <br /> Insects– mosquitoes <br /> Hazardous Plants – Poison Ivy<br /> Birds<br /> Animals<br /> Blood-borne Pathogens<br />
  19. 19. Diseases due to Biological Agents<br />Hepatitis B Virus<br />Hepatitis C Virus<br />Tuberculosis – particularly among Healthcare Workers<br />Asthma – among persons exposed to organic dust<br />Blood-borne Diseases – HIV/AIDS<br />Anthrax<br />Brucellosis<br />Tetanus<br />Leptospirosis<br />
  20. 20. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />4. Psychosocial hazards<br />Work-related stress – excessive working time and overwork<br />Violence – from outside the organization<br />Bullying – emotional and verbal abuse<br />Sexual Harassment<br />Mobbing<br />Burnout<br />Exposure to unhealthy elements – tobacco, uncontrolled alcohol<br />
  21. 21. Disorders due to Psychosocial Agents<br />MSDs and work-related psychosocial factors such as high workload/demands, high perceived stress levels, low social support, low job control, low job satisfaction and monotonous work. <br />Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)<br /><ul><li> can affect the body’s muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves. As well as the back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs; less often they affect the lower limbs.
  22. 22. develop over time and are caused either by the work itself or by the employees' working environment.</li></li></ul><li>Psychosocial Hazards<br />Psychological hazards<br /><ul><li>basically causing stress to a worker. This kind of hazard troubles an individual very much to an extent that his general well-being is affected.</li></ul>Psychological reactions <br /><ul><li>the individual may feel frustrated, impatient, anxious or irritable. If the situation is not addressed, the individual may become unmotivated, depressed and apathetic.</li></li></ul><li>Psychosocial Hazards<br />Psychological causes<br />Directly related to the job itself:overwork, poor work organization, poor opportunity for promotion, low job responsibility and boring work.<br />Outside pressures:financial problems, family difficulties, transport difficulties.<br />Problems with work colleagues:conflict or bullying.<br />
  23. 23. Disorders due to PsychologicalAgents<br />Psychological Hazards resulting from stress & strain:Depression  Discouragement Boredom Anxiety Memory loss Dissatisfaction Frustration Irritability Discouragement Pessimism<br />
  24. 24. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES.MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS.<br />Nutrition.<br />Communicable disease control.<br />Environmental sanitation.<br />Water supply <br />Food<br />Toilet<br />Proper garbage & waste disposal.<br />General plant cleanliness.<br />Sufficient space.<br />Lighting.<br />Ventilation.<br />Protection against hazards.<br />
  25. 25. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES.MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS.<br />4. Mental health: <br /> GOALS:<br /> To promote health and happiness of workers.<br /> To detect signs of stress and strain and take necessary measures.<br /> Treatment of employees suffering from mental illnesses.<br /> Rehabilitation of those who become ill.<br />5. Measures for women and children.<br />6. Family planning services<br />7. Health education.<br />
  26. 26. PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES MEDICAL MEASURES:<br />1. Pre –placement examination.<br />2. Periodical health check up.<br />3. Medical and health care facilities.<br />4. Supervision of work environment.<br />Water supply , food, general plant cleanliness <br />Toilet. Proper garbage & waste disposal.<br />Sufficient space.<br />Lighting.<br />Ventilation.<br />Protection against hazards.<br />5. Notification<br />6. Maintenance and analysis of records.<br />7. Health education and counseling.<br />

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