It is about health at work place.About health problems arising from work and their preventionAbout promoting and maintaining the health of the working population.
Physical hazards.- Heat – Direct & indirect effect ofhigh temperature, radiant heat, heat stagnation.Comfort zone – 20 -27 degree C.Light- Acute & chronic effect of bright & dim light & glare.Radiation – ultra violet, ionizing: x-rays, radio isotopes- cobalt 60, phosphorus 32.Permissible level of radiological exposure – 6 rem / year.Noise – Auditory & non auditory effect.Vibration- hazardous in the frequency range of 10- 500HzChemical hazardsA.Local action: - irritants, sensitizers, B. Inhalation:– Dusts – organic , Inorganic Gases – Simple asphyxiants : Methane, Nitrogen, Carbon dioxide.Chemical asphyxiants : CO, Hydrogen sulphide, HCNIrritant gases: Ammonia, SO2,Anesthetic gases: Chloroform, Ether, Trichloroethylene.Metallic compounds:Ingestion :Metallic compounds : Arsenic, Antimony, Beryllium, Chromium, Cadmium, Cobalt, Lead, Mercury, Manganese, Zinc.
Cold: General & local cold injury general –hypothermia – numbness, loss of sensation, desire to sleep, hallucination, coma, death.Trench foot [ wet – cold injury] in temp above freezing point, Frost bite –[ Dry - cold injury] below freezing point, tissues freeze and ice crystals form between the cells, leads to tissue damage in prolonged exposure, part may need amputation.Prevention: adequate clothing. Affected part can be warmed using water at 44 deg. C, WARMING FOR 20 MIN. AT A TIME, DRINKING HOT FLUID.
Heat stroke: Failure of heat regulating mechanism. temp – upto 110 deg F [ 44 deg. C, Skin dry, hot , no perspiration, delirium, convulsions partial / complete loss of consciousness, death in 40 % cases if not treated in time. TREATMENT : Rapid cooling of body in ice water till rectal temp falls to 39 deg C [ 102 deg F.]Heat hyperpyrexia : This is also due to impaired functioning of temp regulation mechanism but less severe than H. stroke.Heat exhaustion: Milder condition due toinadequate replacement of water and salt due to excessive perspiration / sweating. Occurs afterseveral days of exposure to high temp. Body temp may be normal or mod. High, not more than 102 deg F. – DIZZINESS, WEAKNESS, FATIGUE. Treatment NORMALISING FLUID AND ELECTROLYTE BALANCE. Heat cramps : occur in people who are doing heavy muscular work in high temp.
5. Measures for women and children.Developing embryo is more susceptible to noxious agents than the xposed mother.Females are less suited for some tasks and pregnancy put certain limitaions on work capacity.Females tend to restrict their nourishment in difficult economic circumstances.Infant mortality is higher among the children of women employed in industries.
Occupatinal health hazards
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH<br />OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS<br />
Occupational health<br /><ul><li> refers to the potential risks to health and safety for those who work outside the home</li></ul>Hazard <br /><ul><li> something that can cause harm if not controlled.</li></ul>Occupational disease<br /><ul><li>Disease directly caused by a person’s occupation.</li></li></ul><li>Ecological approach<br /><ul><li> it seeks to ensure a dynamic equilibrium between the industrial worker and his occupational environment.</li></ul>Workplace<br /><ul><li> setting in which many people spend the largest proportion of their time.
exposes many workers to health hazards</li></li></ul><li>Definition: 4Ps.<br />Aims at the PROMOTION AND MAINTENANCE of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well being of workers in all occupation;<br /> the PREVENTIONofill-health among workers caused by their working conditions; <br />the PROTECTIONof workers in their employment from risk resulting from factors that adversely affect health;<br /> the PLACING AND MAINTENANCE of the worker in an occupational environment adapted to his physiological and psychological ability.<br />
Ergonomics - “Fitting the job to the worker”.<br />Integral part of occupational health services.<br />Greek word ‘Ergon’ means ‘Work’, <br /> ‘Nomos’ means ‘Law’ .<br /> It is the ADAPTATION, MODIFICATION, MANIPULATION of MACHINERY, WORK ENVIRONMENT, WORK & REST SCHEDULE and JOB DEMANDS to suit the CAPACITY, LIMITATIONS & EXPECTATIONS of the workers.<br />
Occupational Environment<br />Sum of external conditions and influences prevailing at the place of work which have a bearing on the health of the working population.<br />Three types of interactions in the work place:<br /><ul><li>Man and physical, chemical, & biological agents.
Man and man.- </li></li></ul><li> OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />Physical hazards<br />Chemical<br />Biological<br />Psychosocial<br /> a. Psychological and behavioral changes.<br /> b. Psychosomatic ill-health<br />
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />1. Physical hazards<br />Heat – Direct & indirect effect of high temperature, radiant heat, heat stagnation.<br />Cold –General & local cold injury<br />Light – Acute & chronic effect of bright & dim light & glare.<br />Radiation<br />Ionizing -X-rays,gammarays,betaparticles, alpha particles<br />Non-ionizing -microwaves, infrared, and ultra-violet light<br />Noise –Auditory & non auditory effect.<br />Vibration –hazardous in the frequency range of 10- 500Hz<br />
Diseases due to Biological Agents<br />Hepatitis B Virus<br />Hepatitis C Virus<br />Tuberculosis – particularly among Healthcare Workers<br />Asthma – among persons exposed to organic dust<br />Blood-borne Diseases – HIV/AIDS<br />Anthrax<br />Brucellosis<br />Tetanus<br />Leptospirosis<br />
OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS<br />4. Psychosocial hazards<br />Work-related stress – excessive working time and overwork<br />Violence – from outside the organization<br />Bullying – emotional and verbal abuse<br />Sexual Harassment<br />Mobbing<br />Burnout<br />Exposure to unhealthy elements – tobacco, uncontrolled alcohol<br />
Disorders due to Psychosocial Agents<br />MSDs and work-related psychosocial factors such as high workload/demands, high perceived stress levels, low social support, low job control, low job satisfaction and monotonous work. <br />Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)<br /><ul><li> can affect the body’s muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments and nerves. As well as the back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs; less often they affect the lower limbs.
develop over time and are caused either by the work itself or by the employees' working environment.</li></li></ul><li>Psychosocial Hazards<br />Psychological hazards<br /><ul><li>basically causing stress to a worker. This kind of hazard troubles an individual very much to an extent that his general well-being is affected.</li></ul>Psychological reactions <br /><ul><li>the individual may feel frustrated, impatient, anxious or irritable. If the situation is not addressed, the individual may become unmotivated, depressed and apathetic.</li></li></ul><li>Psychosocial Hazards<br />Psychological causes<br />Directly related to the job itself:overwork, poor work organization, poor opportunity for promotion, low job responsibility and boring work.<br />Outside pressures:financial problems, family difficulties, transport difficulties.<br />Problems with work colleagues:conflict or bullying.<br />
Disorders due to PsychologicalAgents<br />Psychological Hazards resulting from stress & strain:Depression Discouragement Boredom Anxiety Memory loss Dissatisfaction Frustration Irritability Discouragement Pessimism<br />
PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES.MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS.<br />Nutrition.<br />Communicable disease control.<br />Environmental sanitation.<br />Water supply <br />Food<br />Toilet<br />Proper garbage & waste disposal.<br />General plant cleanliness.<br />Sufficient space.<br />Lighting.<br />Ventilation.<br />Protection against hazards.<br />
PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES.MEASURES FOR HEALTH PROTECTION OF WORKERS.<br />4. Mental health: <br /> GOALS:<br /> To promote health and happiness of workers.<br /> To detect signs of stress and strain and take necessary measures.<br /> Treatment of employees suffering from mental illnesses.<br /> Rehabilitation of those who become ill.<br />5. Measures for women and children.<br />6. Family planning services<br />7. Health education.<br />
PREVENTION OF OCCUPATIONAL DISEASES MEDICAL MEASURES:<br />1. Pre –placement examination.<br />2. Periodical health check up.<br />3. Medical and health care facilities.<br />4. Supervision of work environment.<br />Water supply , food, general plant cleanliness <br />Toilet. Proper garbage & waste disposal.<br />Sufficient space.<br />Lighting.<br />Ventilation.<br />Protection against hazards.<br />5. Notification<br />6. Maintenance and analysis of records.<br />7. Health education and counseling.<br />