Concept of occupational health and safety in Nepal


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Concept of occupational health and safety in Nepal

  1. 1. Concept of occupational healthand safety in Nepal PREPARED BY: Presented with: Sagun PAudel Samjhana Gurung(B) LA GRANDEE International college, simalchour pokhara 1
  2. 2. OCCUPATIONAL HEALTHThe joint international labor organization committeeon Occupational health, 1950 defined occupationalhealth as:“The highest degree of physical, mental and socialwell-being of workers in all occupations.”It represents a dynamic equilibrium between theworker and his occupational environment. 2
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  5. 5. INTRODUCTION OF OSH• OSH is the science of anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of hazards arising in or from the workplace which could impair the health and well-being of workers, also impacts the surrounding communities and the environment.• Though the International Labor Organization (ILO) has maintained and developed a system of international labor standards since 1919 which aimed at promoting opportunities for decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and dignity. 5
  6. 6. CONT…• It is relatively new and very few industries maintain occupational standards.• OSH is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with the safety, health and welfare of the people at their workplace.• Although various institutions and individuals have defined occupational safety and health differently but all of them agreed on the same meaning is that protecting and promoting the health and well-being of the workers as well as protecting the general environment through preventive actions in the workplace (Pun, 2011) 6
  7. 7. Occupational health and safety is a discipline with a broad scope involving many specialized fields. In its broadest sense, it should aim at:• PROMOTION and MAINTENANCE of the well being of workers in all occupations• PREVENTION of departures from health caused by working conditions• PROTECTION from risks resulting from factors adverse to their health• PLACING and MAINTENANCE of the worker in an environment adapted to their physiological and psychological condition International Labour Organization: 1950 7
  8. 8. • The concept of occupational safety and health is still new in Nepal.• It has not been a hot agenda in industrial field where only about 7 percent of the labour force are involved (CBS, 2009) where this provision is insignificant in other sectors other than industry• The high illiteracy among the workers, lack of awareness, poor performance or inattention of the concerned government authorities in implementation of OSH related policies and activities have shadowed these issues. 8
  9. 9. • According to Nepal labor force survey, 2008, the total number of currently employed persons increased from 9463 thousand in 1998/99 to 11779 thousand in 2008.• Moreover based on the classification of industry, 73.9 percent of people are working in the agricultural sector and 26.1 percent in non-agriculture.• It is estimated that each year approximately 20000 workers meet accidents at workplace which lead to about 200 lives lost in Nepal. 9
  10. 10. Table I. Trends of industrial injuriesJoshi SK et al./ International Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, Vol 1(2011) 19 –26 10
  11. 11. Table: 2 Currently Employed Population aged 15 years and More by Industry 11
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  13. 13. The major causes of occupational hazards found in different work sectors were:1. Unsafe working conditions2. Lack of supervision and training3. Use of old machinery and equipment4. Lack of sufficient maintenance5. Bad house-keeping practices6. Violation of safety rules7. Overcrowded production units with very congested space 13
  14. 14. Some work activities were noted to have high risks;1. Working with machine and equipment2. Use of electricity3. Building and Construction works4. Use of chemicals in industries , various services and agriculture5. Dusty worksites6. Congested and dark work places. 14
  15. 15. Barriers for sound OSH condition in Nepal :1. Lack of knowledge and awareness among workers.2. Lack of awareness and commitment in employers and management.3. Fear of change and cost increase(management)4. Poor consultation system5. Majority of untrained people both in management and labour6. No safety-friendly work culture (both workers and management)7. Lack of research and data- base on occupational diseases and health hazards. 15
  16. 16. KEY PRINCIPLES OF OHS:1. All workers have protection rights.2. OHS policies must be established.3. There is need for consultation with the social partners ( that is ,employers and workers ) and other stakeholders4. Prevention and protection must be the aim of OHS programmes and policies5. Information is vital for the development and implementation of effective programmes and policies. 16
  17. 17. 6. Health promotion is the central element of occupational health practices.7. Occupational health services covering all workers should be established.8. Compensation, rehabilitation and curative services must be made available to workers who suffers occupational injuries , accidents and work related diseases.9 .Education and training are vital components of safe , healthy working environments.10. Workers ,employers and competent authorities have certain responsibilities, duties and obligations 17
  18. 18. Application of OHS• Works plays a central role in people’s lives. Since most workers spend at least eight hours a day in the work place, whether it is on plantation , in an office, factory etc . So that work environments should be safe and healthy.• Everyday workers all over the world are faced with a multitude of health hazards , such as :dusts, gases, noise, vibration, extreme temperatures etc. 18
  19. 19. Applied in:• To improve the fundamental rights of workers.• For the establishment of the OHS polices.• To get compensation,rehabilation and curative services.• In training of the workers , safety education, risk reduction and preventive measures of different diseases.• To inform the authorities to enforce the laws and regulations regarding occupational setting. 19
  20. 20. Also it’s application on:• Occupational medicine• Occupational hygiene• Public health• Safety engineering• Health physics• Ergonomics• Toxicology• Epidemiology• Environmental health• Public policy• Industrial sociology• Medical sociology• Social law• Labour law and occupational health psycology 20
  21. 21. REFERENCES• Ali, B. O. (2001). Fundamental Principles of Occupational Health and Safety. Genava: ILO.• Carter, W. S. (2010). Introducing occupational health in an emerging economy: A Nepal experience. Retrieved from:• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (1999). Nepal labour force survey 1998/99. Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2003). Population monograph of Nepal I. Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2008). Census of manufacturing establishments 2006/2007. Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2009). Nepal labour force survey 2008. Kathmandu: CBS.• CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) (2010). Survey of small manufacturing establishments (2008-2009). Kathmandu: CBS.
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