Ergonomics

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Ergonomics

  1. 1. DR. VAIBHAV GUPTA MPH 1st year Student Dept. of community medicine JSSMC 09/01/2013 MODERATOR: DR. MADHU B.
  2. 2.  INTRODUCTION  OBJECTIVES  BENIFITS  TRANING  FACTORS  PRINCIPLES  BASICS OF ERGONOMICS  CONTROL & PREVENTION
  3. 3. Derived from two Greek words: “Ergon” meaning work “Nomos” meaning principles of laws Ergonomics is the science of work. DEFINITION: “The science of designing uses interaction with equipment and work place to fit the job.”
  4. 4. International Ergonomics Association Executive Council, “Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of the interactions among human and other elements of a system and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.”
  5. 5.  Know how to recognize injury risks  Understand how the body works  Realize how to eliminate or reduce injuries  Know how to stretch and warm up  Improve quality of life
  6. 6.  Reduce worker discomfort  Improve & increase general health awareness  Improve morale  Reduce fatigue related costs  Decrease errors and product defects  Decrease time required to perform tasks  Financial savings YOU JUST FEEL BETTER
  7. 7.  The purpose of training and education in Ergonomics is to ensure that employees are sufficiently informed about the ergonomic hazards to which they may be exposed and with that information actively participate in their own protection.
  8. 8. 1.The Human Factor • People are different  Biological :everyone has their limitations  Shapes and sizes  Tall and short  Congenital defects, vision, hearing  Emotional & physical stress  Educational level  Physical restrictions
  9. 9. Behavioral: People have predictable reaction  Attitude  Lifestyles  Job satisfaction or employer relationships  Time pressures (stress) ( No time for stretching, breaks, lunch)  Work culture  Interaction with co-workers  Personal problems
  10. 10.  Lifestyle influences  Obesity  Lack of physical fitness  Age and gender  Leisure/hobbies/sports  Smoking  Medical/psychological factors  Previous injuries & illness  Stress
  11. 11. Musculoskeletal Disorders Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries or illnesses to soft body tissue such as:  Muscles  Nerves  Tendons  Ligaments  Joints  Cartilage  Spinal Discs
  12. 12. CONTD………. MSDs do not include injuries caused by slips, trips, falls or other similar accidents. MSDs can differ in severity from mild, periodic symptoms to severe, chronic and debilitating conditions.
  13. 13. MSDs – Signs & Symptoms  Aching  Burning  Cramping  Loss of Color  Numbness
  14. 14. COTND.........  Pain  Swelling  Stiffness  Tingling  Weakness
  15. 15. Risk Factors are the elements of workstation design or employee action that can result in MSDs  Environmental Factors  Psychosocial& behavioural  Activity Factors
  16. 16.  Heat  Effects blood circulation & causes cramps, burns/rashes and general discomfort  Cold  Effects the body’s blood circulation, causes hypothermia,  loss of flexibility, distraction
  17. 17.  Lighting Poorly lighted areas contribute to trip and fall hazards and poor coordination  Under and over lighted areas can cause: • Headaches • muscle strains • fatigue • eye strain
  18. 18.  Vibration  Excessive vibration causes pain to muscles, joints and internal organs  Soft tissue trauma to the hands, arms, feet and legs
  19. 19.  Noise Noise peaks above 100 decibels cause  headaches  increased blood pressure  muscle tension  fatigue  irritability and distraction  Noise levels above 85 decibels need to adhere to the Hearing Conservation Program
  20. 20.  Job Dissatisfaction  Depression/Anxiety  Home problems  Psychological "distress”  Intensified work load, work pressure, fatigue, rotating shifts  Increased physical pain from stress with muscle tightness and tension
  21. 21. Force & Exertion  Force: Lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, poor body mechanics & posture  Forceful exertions: Pinching, grasping, keying, moussing, writing, stapling
  22. 22.  Manual Material Handling – Lifting Use good body mechanics  Walking surfaces are level, wide enough, clean and dry  Know your limits  Weight  Size  Repetition  Twisting, Bending
  23. 23. Lifting  Assess the load (weight & size) and plan your lift  Bend your knees – do not bend at the waist  Tighten your stomach muscles  Keep the load close to your body  Keep your back upright & head up  Avoid twisting – Move toes before the nose Stretch before the lift
  24. 24.  Maintain the neutral position  Use the power position – knees bent and legs slightly staggered with one foot in front of the other  Stay within your reach zone  Promote the most effective work process  Maintain and use the correct tools and equipment  Provide and take adequate rest breaks  Control and reduce the duration, frequency and severity of exposures
  25. 25.  NEUTRAL POSITION 25PPT-010-02
  26. 26. Basics of Ergonomics  Awkward Posture  Chair  Keyboard  Mouse  Monitor
  27. 27.  Document Holder  Phone  Amount of Reach  Additional accessories  Tools, equipment and procedures
  28. 28.  Posture  Maintain the “S” curve in your spine  Feet flat on the floor  Legs should be parallel to the floor  Shoulders relaxed and elbows close to body
  29. 29.  Sitting Basics  Height of the chair – adjustable  Allows feet to be flat on the floor or on a foot rest  Adjustable backrest with lumbar support - back rest should move up and down  Good casters  Chair Tilt and seat pan angle
  30. 30.  Keyboard  Standard or split keyboard – adjustable at elbow height with straight wrists!!  Raise/lower the keyboard and workstation  Change the angle of the keyboard
  31. 31.  Mouse Move mouse closer to the keyboard Try alternate pointing devices –vertical mouse Do not use a wrist rest with the mouse
  32. 32.  Monitor  Face the monitor straight ahead  Top of monitor should be same as eye level with the head slanted downward ever so slightly  Tilt the monitor back – like reading a book  Adjust the work surface height  Move forward or backward – depends on vision  Avoid “turtle necking” - head forward
  33. 33.  Eye Strain ◦ Dry Burning Eyes ◦ Blurred Vision ◦ Delayed Focusing ◦ Altered Colour Perception ◦ Headaches ◦ Neck Pain
  34. 34.  Vision – Eye Strain  Move the monitor – improve line of sight  Set contrast /brightness –reduce glare  Increase/decrease lighting – task lighting  Colour of print (black print on white is the best)  Dust/clean screen  Avoid “turtle necking”, starring & blink often  Provide a document holder
  35. 35. 20-20-20 Rule  Every 20 Minutes -  Take a 20 second break  Look 20 feet away (Stretch/exercise during those 20 seconds)
  36. 36.  Additional Accessories  Large grip pen/pencils  Decrease stress on muscles/tendons  Footrest  Feet flat on the floor  Supply footrest if needed  Adjust the foot rest  Adjust the seat pan height
  37. 37.  Phone  Move the phone to the right (if left handed)  Move the phone to the left (if right handed)  Move phone closer to the operator  Provide head-rest or fixed head-set  Use speaker phone  Avoid cradling the hand set between your shoulder and head
  38. 38.  Tools and Equipment  Tools are selected to limit or minimize exposure to excessive vibration  Tools are powered where necessary and feasible  Tools are evenly balanced  The tool grip/handle prevents slipping during use
  39. 39. Hazard Control & prevention  Engineering Control  Design of tools, job workstations & work method  Administrative Controls  Work load  Job Rotation/Cross training  Ergonomic training  Work Practice Control  How worker approaches the job  Psychosocial issues/behaviour  Exercise  Personal Protective Equipment
  40. 40.  Re-design or modify the work station  Re-design of tools and stress proper tool for the task  Lighting modification – comfort & performance  Vibration control  Noise control  Automation/Mechanical lifting  Material flow and process
  41. 41. Administrative Controls  Employee job rotation  Adjustment of the work space  Re-design of work methods  Alternative tasks  Increase rest breaks  Increase workforce  Reduce workload  Monitoring work practices
  42. 42. Work Practice Controls  Work techniques & procedures  Conditioning period  Using proper body mechanics and proper body posture  Training in work techniques  Monitoring of work practices  Enforce use of Personal protective equipment (PPE)
  43. 43. Personal Protective Equipment(PPE)  Reduces the duration, frequency, or intensity of exposure  Gloves –vibration, heat, cold, cut/abrasive, chemical resistant  Knee pads  Respirators  Hearing Protection  Eye Protection  Footwear – comfortable/flexible, slip resistant, steel toe
  44. 44. Other Options for Improvement  Maintain your work zone  Reference - Outside of arm’s reach  Avoid twisting, bending and reaching  Rest and a healthy diet (stop smoking)  Drink water to help with joint function  Exercise and stretch
  45. 45. Ideas for Prevention  To increase circulation, use exercises while in the workplace such as:  The body stretch  Side bends  Upper body twist  Shoulder shrugs  Fingers stretch  Wrist stretch  Thumb stretch
  46. 46. THANK YOU

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