Experiental & Problem-Based Teaching

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  • 1. Adopting An Experiential And Problem-Based Philosophy In Teaching Business Statistics
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Associate Professor, Statistics & Operations Management
    Wilkes University
    Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
    The ‘New’
    Learner
    Learning with Technology
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    Promoting Student Learning
    …Pedagogy?
    http://web.wilkes.edu/jennifer.edmonds/
  • 2. Outline
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    PHILOSOPHY
    INSTRUCTOR
    ASSIGNMENTS
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    Learning with Technology
    The New Learner
    Promoting Student Learning
    Research on Teaching Statistics
    MY Teaching Philosophy
  • 3. Experiential Learning
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Experiential Learning
    PHILOSOPHY
    INSTRUCTOR
    Guide & encourage
    Facilitate learning through the experience
    Provides minimum necessary structure
    Learning through discovery
    …………………….reflection on doing
    Competency = content + actions
    Focus on the learning process for the individual
    Relevant skills are prerequisite
    Dynamic & emergent learning
    (Itin, 1999)
    (Chapman et. al., 1995)
    (Govekar & Rishi, 2007)
    ASSIGNMENTS
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    • Outdoor adventure
    • 4. Career internship
    • 5. Community study or service learning
    • 6. Community service (volunteering)
    • 7. Interactive games
    • 8. Practical experience
    • 9. Concern for fellow humans
    • 10. Effective team dynamics
    • 11.  Self motivation (initiative)
    • 12.  Psychological growth
    • 13.  Moral reasoning
    • 14. Changes in judgment, feelings or skills though living
    (Estes, 2004)
    (Conrad & Heden, 1981)
    (Govekar & Rishi, 2007)
    (Chickering, 1976)
    (Moore, 1998)
  • 15. Problem-Based Learning
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    instructION
    PHILOSOPHY
    …roots in medical education
    Student determined goals
    Real world challenges
    Inductive learning
    Constructivist
    Current learning = f(past learning)
    ‘Minimal’ guidance
    Probing
    JIT content knowledge
    Coaching
    Small class size
    (Kirschner et al, 2006)
    (Merrill, 2002)
    (Hmelo-Silver et. al., 2007)
    (Albanese & Mitchell, 1993)
    ASSIGNMENTS
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    • Case studies (w/ complex tasks)
    • 16. Relevant & meaningful
    • 17. Open-ended (ambiguous )
    • 18. Collaborative investigations
    • 19. Greater understanding
    • 20. Deeper learning
    • 21. Accountability
    • 22.  Research skills
    (Bell, 2010)
    (Moreno, 2004)
    (Dochy et. al., 2003)
    (Gultekin, 2006)
    (Hmelo-Silver et. al., 2007)
  • 23. The Opposition
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Discovery-based learning
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    …Cognitive Concerns
    …to Discovery-based Learning
    Working memory challenges if not rehearsed
    Cognitive inventory = 7 items ( 2)
    Cognitive inventory = 4 items ( 1)
    Heavy working memory load =
    no learning
    Minimal guidance + cognitive activity
    Construction of useful knowledge
    Novice learners need directed instructional guidance
    Discovery learning only works if prerequisite knowledge
    Pure discovery + minimal feedback =
    frustration
    Documented success of the ‘worked example’ method
    (Peterson & Peterson, 1959)
    (Miller, 1956)
    (Cowan, 2001)
    (B&C, 1994)
    (Cooper & Sweller, 1987)
    (Mayer, 2004)
  • 24. Learning With Technology
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Learning with Technology
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    instruction
    PHILOSOPHY
    Computer classroom
    Clickers
    Multimedia class experiences
    Collaborative culture
    A sense of community & belonging (for LMSs)
    (Ellis et. al., 2004)
    ASSIGNMENTS
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    • (A)synchronous discussions
    • 25. Blog maintenance
    • 26. Peer critiques
    • 27. Role-playing virtual games
    • 28. Engaged in learning
    • 29. Peer assessments on collaborative skills
    • 30. Peer sharing
    • 31. Peer collaboration
    (Pearlman, 2010)
    (Li, 2003)
    (Sancho, et. al. 2009)
    (Merrill, 2008)
  • 32. The ‘New’ Learner
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Learning with Technology
    Experiential Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    DEMOGRAPHICS
    BEHAVIORS
    • Wealthier
    • 33.  diversity of student body
    • 34.  registered learning disabilities
    • 35.  adult learners
    • 36.  tardiness
    • 37. Fewer hours spent studying
    • 38. ~85% study using Internet
    • 39. Social networkers
    • 40. Bloggers, Internet researchers
    • 41. Peer evaluations
    • 42. Ability to work on own or in groups
    The ‘New’
    Learner
    (Pearlman, 2010)
    (Pryor et. al., 2006)
    •  percentage admitting their need for remedial math
    • 43.  importance on community leadership
    • 44. ~ half of undergraduate business students work more than 20 hours per week
    (Frear & Edmonds, 2011)
  • 45. Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Learning with Technology
    Promoting Student Learning
    Experiential Learning
    Promoting Student Learning
    Problem-Based Learning
    PHILOSOPHY
    instruction
    Integration of content to everyday life
    Activate previously learned material
    Content  Pedagogy  Technology
    Demonstrate the new skill
    New knowledge is applied by learner
    In-class ‘demonstrations’ (worked examples)
    Guidance
    Assessment criteria is transparent => rubric
    The ‘New’
    Learner
    (Moore, 1997)
    (Merrill, 2002, 2008)
    ASSIGNMENTS
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    • ‘Homework’ + Feedback
    • 46. A variety of activities
    • 47. Peer assessments
    • 48.  learning
    • 49. Active participation
    • 50. Can select desired performance target
    (Merrill, 2002)
  • 51. Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Research onTeaching Statistics
    Most research pertains to students in social sciences
    INSTRUCTOR
    STUDENT BEHAVIOR
    • Statistics anxiety (especially the novice)
    • 52. Intentional delayed enrollment (procrastination)
    • 53. “pace too fast”
    • 54. “exams too difficult”
    • 55. Students see no connection to daily (or professional) life
    • 56. anxiety if  pre-college math grades
    • 57. Mentor, guide, facilitator…but directed
    • 58. Fosters active learning
    • 59. Incorporate more data, fewer recipes
    • 60. Incorporate more technology
    • 61. Flexible & frequent office hours
    (Pan & Tang, 2005)
    (Murtonen et al, 2008)
    ASSIGNMENTS
    (Birenbaum & Eylah, 1994)
    • Short, frequent exams
    • 62. Community service project
    • 63. Consulting projects for student clubs
    • 64. Data driven research projects
    (Moore, 1997)
    (Root & Thorme, 2001)
  • 65. Course Structure
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Descriptive statistics
    Inferential statistics
    • INSTRUCTION
    ASSIGNMENTS
    • Computer classroom (LWT)
    • 66. Present concepts using a 3- or 4- item framework
    • 67. PowerPoint + Whiteboard + Excel (LWT)
    • 68. Note-taking aid (SCL)
    Textbook = workbook
    • Excel templates (LWT + SCL)
    • 69.  Complexity =  Rehearsals
    Overlap between topics
    • A priori
    • 70. In class participation
    (via article discussions)
    • Frequent homework (SCL)
    • 71. Short quizzes (SCL)
    • 72. Case study presentations (PBL)
    (closed + open ended tasks)
    • Individual & group assignments (TNL)
    • 73. Course-long research project (EL + PBL)
  • Course Structure
    Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD
    Descriptive statistics
    Inferential statistics
    • OBSTACLES
    STUDENT OUTCOMES
    •  grading load
    • 74.  class sizes
    • 75. Less material covered overall
    • 76.  Self motivation (initiative) (EL)
    • 77. Greater understanding, Deeper learning
    (PBL)
    •  Research skills (PBL)
    • 78. Engaged in learning
    • 79. Peer sharing & collaboration (LWT)
    • 80. Ability to work on own or in groups