Adopting An Experiential And Problem-Based Philosophy In Teaching Business Statistics<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />A...
Outline<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br />Experien...
Experiential Learning<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Experiential Learning<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />Guide ...
Career internship
Community study or service learning
Community service (volunteering)
Interactive games
Practical experience
Concern for fellow humans
Effective team dynamics
 Self motivation (initiative)
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Experiental & Problem-Based Teaching

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Experiental & Problem-Based Teaching

  1. 1. Adopting An Experiential And Problem-Based Philosophy In Teaching Business Statistics<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Associate Professor, Statistics & Operations Management<br />Wilkes University<br />Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania<br />The ‘New’ <br />Learner<br />Learning with Technology<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />Promoting Student Learning<br />…Pedagogy?<br />http://web.wilkes.edu/jennifer.edmonds/<br />
  2. 2. Outline<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />Learning with Technology<br />The New Learner<br />Promoting Student Learning<br />Research on Teaching Statistics<br />MY Teaching Philosophy<br />
  3. 3. Experiential Learning<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Experiential Learning<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />Guide & encourage<br />Facilitate learning through the experience<br />Provides minimum necessary structure<br />Learning through discovery<br />…………………….reflection on doing<br />Competency = content + actions<br />Focus on the learning process for the individual<br />Relevant skills are prerequisite<br />Dynamic & emergent learning<br />(Itin, 1999)<br />(Chapman et. al., 1995)<br />(Govekar & Rishi, 2007)<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br /><ul><li>Outdoor adventure
  4. 4. Career internship
  5. 5. Community study or service learning
  6. 6. Community service (volunteering)
  7. 7. Interactive games
  8. 8. Practical experience
  9. 9. Concern for fellow humans
  10. 10. Effective team dynamics
  11. 11.  Self motivation (initiative)
  12. 12.  Psychological growth
  13. 13.  Moral reasoning
  14. 14. Changes in judgment, feelings or skills though living</li></ul>(Estes, 2004)<br />(Conrad & Heden, 1981)<br />(Govekar & Rishi, 2007)<br />(Chickering, 1976)<br />(Moore, 1998)<br />
  15. 15. Problem-Based Learning<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />instructION<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />…roots in medical education<br />Student determined goals<br />Real world challenges<br />Inductive learning<br />Constructivist <br />Current learning = f(past learning)<br />‘Minimal’ guidance<br />Probing <br />JIT content knowledge<br />Coaching <br />Small class size<br />(Kirschner et al, 2006)<br />(Merrill, 2002)<br />(Hmelo-Silver et. al., 2007)<br />(Albanese & Mitchell, 1993)<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br /><ul><li>Case studies (w/ complex tasks)
  16. 16. Relevant & meaningful
  17. 17. Open-ended (ambiguous )
  18. 18. Collaborative investigations
  19. 19. Greater understanding
  20. 20. Deeper learning
  21. 21. Accountability
  22. 22.  Research skills</li></ul>(Bell, 2010)<br />(Moreno, 2004)<br />(Dochy et. al., 2003)<br />(Gultekin, 2006)<br />(Hmelo-Silver et. al., 2007)<br />
  23. 23. The Opposition<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Discovery-based learning<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />…Cognitive Concerns<br />…to Discovery-based Learning<br />Working memory challenges if not rehearsed<br />Cognitive inventory = 7 items ( 2)<br />Cognitive inventory = 4 items ( 1)<br />Heavy working memory load = <br />no learning<br />Minimal guidance + cognitive activity<br />Construction of useful knowledge<br />Novice learners need directed instructional guidance<br />Discovery learning only works if prerequisite knowledge<br />Pure discovery + minimal feedback = <br />frustration<br />Documented success of the ‘worked example’ method<br />(Peterson & Peterson, 1959)<br />(Miller, 1956)<br />(Cowan, 2001)<br />(B&C, 1994)<br />(Cooper & Sweller, 1987)<br />(Mayer, 2004)<br />
  24. 24. Learning With Technology<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Learning with Technology<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />instruction<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />Computer classroom<br />Clickers<br />Multimedia class experiences<br />Collaborative culture<br />A sense of community & belonging (for LMSs)<br />(Ellis et. al., 2004)<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br /><ul><li>(A)synchronous discussions
  25. 25. Blog maintenance
  26. 26. Peer critiques
  27. 27. Role-playing virtual games
  28. 28. Engaged in learning
  29. 29. Peer assessments on collaborative skills
  30. 30. Peer sharing
  31. 31. Peer collaboration</li></ul>(Pearlman, 2010)<br />(Li, 2003)<br />(Sancho, et. al. 2009)<br />(Merrill, 2008)<br />
  32. 32. The ‘New’ Learner<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Learning with Technology<br />Experiential Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />DEMOGRAPHICS<br />BEHAVIORS<br /><ul><li>Wealthier
  33. 33.  diversity of student body
  34. 34.  registered learning disabilities
  35. 35.  adult learners
  36. 36.  tardiness
  37. 37. Fewer hours spent studying
  38. 38. ~85% study using Internet
  39. 39. Social networkers
  40. 40. Bloggers, Internet researchers
  41. 41. Peer evaluations
  42. 42. Ability to work on own or in groups</li></ul>The ‘New’ <br />Learner<br />(Pearlman, 2010)<br />(Pryor et. al., 2006)<br /><ul><li> percentage admitting their need for remedial math
  43. 43.  importance on community leadership
  44. 44. ~ half of undergraduate business students work more than 20 hours per week</li></ul>(Frear & Edmonds, 2011)<br />
  45. 45. Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Learning with Technology<br />Promoting Student Learning<br />Experiential Learning<br />Promoting Student Learning<br />Problem-Based Learning<br />PHILOSOPHY<br />instruction<br />Integration of content to everyday life<br />Activate previously learned material<br />Content  Pedagogy  Technology<br />Demonstrate the new skill<br />New knowledge is applied by learner<br />In-class ‘demonstrations’ (worked examples)<br />Guidance<br />Assessment criteria is transparent => rubric<br />The ‘New’ <br />Learner<br />(Moore, 1997)<br />(Merrill, 2002, 2008)<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />STUDENT OUTCOMES<br /><ul><li>‘Homework’ + Feedback
  46. 46. A variety of activities
  47. 47. Peer assessments
  48. 48.  learning
  49. 49. Active participation
  50. 50. Can select desired performance target</li></ul>(Merrill, 2002)<br />
  51. 51. Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Research onTeaching Statistics<br />Most research pertains to students in social sciences<br />INSTRUCTOR<br />STUDENT BEHAVIOR<br /><ul><li>Statistics anxiety (especially the novice)
  52. 52. Intentional delayed enrollment (procrastination)
  53. 53. “pace too fast”
  54. 54. “exams too difficult”
  55. 55. Students see no connection to daily (or professional) life
  56. 56. anxiety if  pre-college math grades
  57. 57. Mentor, guide, facilitator…but directed
  58. 58. Fosters active learning
  59. 59. Incorporate more data, fewer recipes
  60. 60. Incorporate more technology
  61. 61. Flexible & frequent office hours</li></ul>(Pan & Tang, 2005)<br />(Murtonen et al, 2008)<br />ASSIGNMENTS<br />(Birenbaum & Eylah, 1994)<br /><ul><li>Short, frequent exams
  62. 62. Community service project
  63. 63. Consulting projects for student clubs
  64. 64. Data driven research projects</li></ul>(Moore, 1997)<br />(Root & Thorme, 2001)<br />
  65. 65. Course Structure<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Descriptive statistics<br />Inferential statistics<br /><ul><li>INSTRUCTION </li></ul>ASSIGNMENTS<br /><ul><li>Computer classroom (LWT)
  66. 66. Present concepts using a 3- or 4- item framework
  67. 67. PowerPoint + Whiteboard + Excel (LWT)
  68. 68. Note-taking aid (SCL)</li></ul>Textbook = workbook<br /><ul><li>Excel templates (LWT + SCL)
  69. 69.  Complexity =  Rehearsals</li></ul>Overlap between topics<br /><ul><li>A priori
  70. 70. In class participation </li></ul>(via article discussions)<br /><ul><li>Frequent homework (SCL)
  71. 71. Short quizzes (SCL)
  72. 72. Case study presentations (PBL)</li></ul>(closed + open ended tasks)<br /><ul><li>Individual & group assignments (TNL)
  73. 73. Course-long research project (EL + PBL)</li></li></ul><li>Course Structure<br />Jennifer J. Edmonds, PhD<br />Descriptive statistics<br />Inferential statistics<br /><ul><li>OBSTACLES</li></ul>STUDENT OUTCOMES<br /><ul><li> grading load
  74. 74.  class sizes
  75. 75. Less material covered overall
  76. 76.  Self motivation (initiative) (EL)
  77. 77. Greater understanding, Deeper learning </li></ul>(PBL)<br /><ul><li> Research skills (PBL)
  78. 78. Engaged in learning
  79. 79. Peer sharing & collaboration (LWT)
  80. 80. Ability to work on own or in groups</li>

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