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Assessment & Feedback Literature Review

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Presentation by Dr Ann Ooms and Hendrik van der Sluis, Kingston University, at the "Improving Assessment and Feedback Practices in a Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning Environment: Theory and Practice" Event, 19th May 2010 at Kingston University. Part of the "Higher Education Academy : Evidence Based Practice Seminar Series 2010"

The presentation provides an overview of recent literature concerning assessment and feedback

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Assessment & Feedback Literature Review

  1. 1. Improving Assessment and Feedback Practices in a Technology-Enhanced Teaching and Learning Environment: An Overview of the Literature Dr Ann Ooms Faculty of Health and Social Care Sciences Kingston University and St. George’s University of London Hendrik van der Sluis Academic Development Centre Kingston University
  2. 2. Content <ul><li>Institutional context </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Value of formative assessment and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Effective feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology in formative assessment and feedback </li></ul>
  3. 3. Institutional context <ul><li>Decreased resources since 1980’s (Gibbs et al, 1996; Gibbs, 2006; Hounsell, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased student numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased large class sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased student-staff ratio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased contact hours, increased self-study time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less coursework </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less time per student for guidance and support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modular & semester (Gibbs, 2006; Hounsell, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased modular and semester structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small modules, more (small) ‘end-load’ summative assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter length of modules leaves less time to practice, more focus on content, less on progression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Student characteristics (Gibbs, 2006; Hounsell, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More part-time students (employed) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerns about coping with workload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservative in assessment approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Try to identify the hidden curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diminished belief that feedback ‘makes a difference’ </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Three strands in literature <ul><li>Value of formative assessment and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Good’ formative assessment and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Use of technology in formative assessment and feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Literature review </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Post 1998 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mainly post-secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90 publications </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions: Assessment <ul><ul><li>Assessment is all activities that educators and students undertake to get information that can be used diagnostically to alter teaching and learning (Black and Wiliam, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment for learning (Black and Wiliam, 1998; Chappuis, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learning-orientated assessment (Knight, 2006) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formal and informal processes teachers and students use to gather evidence for the purpose of improving learning (Chappuis, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Low stakes’ assessment judgement, “fuzzy and exploratory and conversational in character” (Knight, 2002: 277) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment of learning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessments that provide evidence of student achievement for the purpose of making a judgement about student competence or program effectiveness (Chappuis, 2009) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ High-stakes’, “the judgements need to be highly reliable” (Knight, 2006: 439) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Definitions: feedback <ul><ul><li>Formative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A dialogue between to provide information about students’ understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Informs both educators and students to measure effectiveness of learning activity and to adapt teaching if necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure to what extent learning outcomes have been achieved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Low-value’ - ‘high-value’ (Hounsell, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potential impact of the feedback on learning </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Value of formative assessment and feedback for students <ul><li>Identify gaps between desired and current knowledge, understanding, skills (Ramaprasad, 1983; Sadler, 1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information about the effectiveness of their learning strategies (Yorke, 2003; Sadler, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Significant learning gains (Black and Wiliam, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Particularly beneficial for lower achieving students (Black and Wiliam, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts student progression (Hodgson and Bermingham, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Improves conceptual development (Bell, 1995) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Value of formative assessment and feedback for students <ul><li>Enhances motivation (Orsmond et al, 2005, Nicol and MacFarlane-Dick, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages reflection (Orsmond et al, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Empowers students as self-regulated learners (Black et al, 2003; Nicol, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Improves self-esteem (Nicol and MacFarlane-Dick, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact general academic experience (Hodgson and Bermingham, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Impacts students employability (Yorke, 2005) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Value of formative assessment and feedback for educators <ul><li>Information (Black and Wiliam, 1998; Wiliam et al, 2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected through formative assessment provides information to educators about the effectiveness of teaching practices and learning activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educators can use this data diagnostically to alter teaching practices and learning activities when needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formative assessment is essential for good pedagogy and teaching (Black and Wiliam, 1998; Garrison and Ehringhaus, 2004) </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>Students  identify misunderstandings and weaknesses  diminish misunderstandings  tailor future study efforts  insight in own learning strategies Teachers  identify students’ misconceptions, challenges,  adapt teaching practices
  11. 11. Components of Effective Feedback <ul><li>Rapid/timely (Tilson et al 1998, Yorke 2007, Yorke 2005, Scheeler et al 2006, Di Battista et al 2004, Gibbs & Simpson 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Corrective (Scheeler et al, 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific comments (Bangert-Drowns, Kullick and Morgan, 1991; Elawar and Corno, 1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific areas / suggestions for improvement (Bangert-Drowns, Kullick and Morgan, 1991; Elawar and Corno, 1985) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourages students to focus their attention on their learning and understanding rather than on getting the right answer (Bangert-Drowns, Kullick and Morgan, 1991; Elawar and Corno, 1985) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 7 Principles for Good Feedback (Nicol and Macfarlane-Dick, 2004) <ul><li>Clarify what good performance is (goals, criteria, standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitate the development of reflection and self-assessment in learning </li></ul><ul><li>Deliver high quality feedback to students </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage educator and peer dialogue around learning </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage positive motivational beliefs & self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities to close the gap between current and desired performance </li></ul><ul><li>Provides information to educators that can be used to help shape future teaching </li></ul>
  13. 13. Use of Technology in Formative Assessment and Feedback <ul><li>Technologies used in online and face-to-face learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virtual Learning Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Discussion board & Test Manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Voting System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tablet PCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li> limited research-based literature </li></ul>
  14. 14. Discussion board: Examples <ul><li>Keppell et al, 2006; Gaytan & McEwen , 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential for peer feedback, sharing and responding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wickstrom, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-assessment, reflection & sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prins et al, 2005; Gaytan & McEwen , 2007 ; Nicol, 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General feedback, question – answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Handley & Williams, 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplar feedback (general feedback) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heinrich, et al, 2010 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarify assessment expectation and requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Defining and clarifying of assignment tasks and avoid duplication of students’ questions” </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Computer-Adaptive Testing <ul><li>Lilley and Barker (2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct errors in understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable student to identify what they need to achieve in order to increase understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased proficiency in summative assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Buchanan, (2000), Dibattista et al (2004) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Received instant feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peat & Franklin (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No differential effect on performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miller (2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderately effective student learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student use of feedback lower as expected </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Electronic Voting Systems <ul><li>Freeman, 1997; Cue, 1998; Wit, 2003; Boyle and Nicol, 2003; Draper and Brown, 2004; Ashton et al, 2004; Masikunas et al, 2008; Hudson & Bristow, 2006 ). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Useful for providing rapid feedback to students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enables students to compare their answers with their peers. Self-directed learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educators can use it as a diagnostic tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback students receive helps them to learn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Podcasts <ul><li>Ribchester et al, 2008, Middleton et al, 2009; Rodway-Dyer et al, 2009; (Rotheram, 2007) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ In the right circumstances, podcasting can enhance assessment feedback and, therefore, augment the student learning experience” (Ribchester et al, 2008) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral feedback on summative assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral feedback on formative assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater depth and detail of feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly personalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students felt more engaged with oral feedback than with feedback in writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused more on feedback than on mark </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge: feedback is separated from assignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feed forward </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Personal Digital Assistant <ul><li>Perry, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Palmtops have potential to act as a study aid via interactive quizzes and exercises for which rapid feedback can be provided </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Tablet PCs <ul><li>Cicchino and Mirliss, 2006 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used Tablet PCs for student presentations and peer feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers provided feedback in writing on Tablet PC, which was valued </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. References and contact info <ul><li>References see notes </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Ann Ooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hendrik van der Sluis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>

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