Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study

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There are growing arguments that linked data technologies can be utilised to enable user-oriented exploratory search systems for the future Internet. Recently, search over linked data has been studied …

There are growing arguments that linked data technologies can be utilised to enable user-oriented exploratory search systems for the future Internet. Recently, search over linked data has been studied in different domains and contexts. However, there is still limited insight into how conventional semantic browsers over linked data can be extended to empower exploratory search, which is open-ended, multi-faceted and iterative in nature. Empirical user studies in representative domains can identify problems and elicit requirements for innovative functionality to assist user exploration. This paper presents such an approach – a user study with a uni-focal semantic data browser over several da-tasets linked via domain ontologies is used to inform what intelligent features are needed in order to assist exploratory search through linked data. We report main problems experienced by users while conducting exploratory search tasks, based on which requirements for algorithmic support to address the observed issues are elicited. A semantic signposting approach for extending a semantic data browser is proposed as a way to address the derived requirements.

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  • 1. School of something FACULTY OF OTHER D Thakker et al, Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data 1 School of Computing FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study Dhavalkumar Thakker, Vania Dimitrova, Lydia Lau, Fan Yang-Turner, Dimoklis Despotakis
  • 2. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 2 Semantic-enriched intelligent support to make sense of user generated content Linked dataOntologies Content Data User model Semantic Linking Semantic tagging EnrichmentUser model update Semantic querying Reasoning Nudging engineViewpoints engineDialogue planner comparing reflecting connecting selectingorganising Interface dialogue search browse explorevisualise Sensemaking Support Framework
  • 3. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 3 Interactive exploration of linked semantic data Pinta: Semantic Data Browser Shell Ontologies Content Data User model Semantic Linking Semantic tagging EnrichmentUser model update Semantic Querying Reasoning Nudging engineViewpoints engineDialogue planner comparing reflecting connecting selectingorganising Interface dialogue search browse explorevisualise Linked data
  • 4. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 4 Multimedia ………Textual Description of the entity ……….. FOCUS ENTITY Facet 1 Facts about ‘focus entity’ <‘focus entity’, predicate, object> . . . . Facet 2 Terms related to ‘focus entity’ <subject, predicate, ‘focus entity’ > . . . . Facet 3 Content related to ‘focus entity’ <content entry annotated with ‘focus entity’> . . . . Layout of Pinta: Uni-focal exploration
  • 5. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 5 Examine exploratory search interaction MusicPinta DBPedia Music ontology Data User model Semantic Linking Gate & OWLIM EnrichmentUser model update Sesame SPARQL Reasoning Nudging engineViewpoints engineDialogue planner comparing reflecting connecting selectingorganising Interface dialogue search browse explorevisualise DBTune MusicBrainz
  • 6. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 6 Text & Multimedia Facts MusicPinta: I Focus Entity
  • 7. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 7 Related Terms Content with Semantic Tags MusicPinta: II
  • 8. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 8 User Study with MusicPinta Q1: How well can users without domain knowledge perform exploratory search tasks using MusicPinta, and what is the benefit/drawback of its features? Q2: Does browsing with MusicPinta support learning (which is traditionally associated with exploratory search), and does semantics play a role in this? Q3: What further improvements have to be addressed to make MusicPinta (and semantic data browsers in general) suitable for exploratory search tasks? 12 users, voluntary participation, within subjects design Pre-test Profile Schema association 5 min Training Explore tenor saxophone 10 min Task 1 Characteristics of an instrument NASA-TLX 15+5 min Task 2 Usage of an instrument NASA-TLX 15+5 min Post-test Schema association Usability 10 min Feed back Subjective perception 5 min
  • 9. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 9 Task 1: Compare & Differentiate The music shop is extending its collection of instruments with international musical instruments. You work in an advertising agency which has been asked to prepare an advertisement script for some of the new instruments that will appear in the shop. A key part of the preparation of the advertisement script is the research of the product. You have been asked to conduct a research of one of the new instruments, called bouzouki, using the information available in MusicPinta. You have to identify: •the main characteristics of bouzouki; •up to five similar instruments to bouzouki; •features that make bouzouki distinctive from the similar ones you have chosen. Go to ‘Semantic Search’ in MusicPinta and type bouzouki. Browse the content and follow links. Complete the provided form.
  • 10. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 10 Task 1: Compare & Differentiate
  • 11. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 11 Task 2: Select & Summarise The music shop wants to increase the sales of its traditional musical instruments, such as electrical guitars. It intends to do this by adding links to creative commons album recordings with electric guitars, together with some interesting information about these albums to inspire customers to play/buy electric guitars or other musical instruments. Furthermore, when displaying its electric guitar items, the shop wants to highlight key features people look for when purchasing electric guitars. You are asked is to conduct the research to address the above requirements by using information provided in MusicPinta. You have to review the information about electric guitar and identify: •three interesting album recordings that include electric guitars and specify what is interesting; •key features that people look for when purchasing an electric guitar. Go to ‘Semantic Search’ in MusicPinta and type electric guitar. Browse the content and follow links. Complete the provided form.
  • 12. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 12 Task 2: Select & Summarise
  • 13. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 13 Task Performance and Difficulty Task 1 - 70% vs Task 2 - 48% Task 2 significantly poorer performance significantly more frustrating Task 2 used less ontology entities and required mainly content exploration
  • 14. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 14 Learning Effect Users acquired new facts about focus and context entities Significantly more facts related to Task 1 than to Task 2 Positive correlation between the number of new facts added in the word association test and the number of clicks on classification level links
  • 15. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 15 Observations Observations about user behaviour Requirements for nudging engine
  • 16. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 16 Conclusions Semantics enables seamless exploration of heterogeneous content Semantic facets facilitate explorative search tasks Semantics empowers serendipitous learning Semantics nudges can be provided to improve task success and user experiences Measures of ‘value’ and ‘newness’ are needed considering both ontology and content Context should be considered
  • 17. D. Thakker et al. Assisting User Browsing over Linked Data: Requirements Elicitation with a User Study (ICWE 2013) 17 School of Computing FACULTY OF ENGINEERING Thank You Dr. Dhavalkumar Thakker (Dhaval) Research Fellow, University of Leeds, UK Do you research semantic data exploration ? Checkout & take part in Intelligent Exploration of Semantic Data(IESD) workshop series @ http://imash.leeds.ac.uk/event/iesd.html