NATO-ATC: A Global Perspective on Integrated Emergency Response

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  • 1. A global perspectiveon integratedemergency responseDavid AlexanderUniversity College London
  • 2. Emergencymedical andhealth responseVolunteersocietiesand NGOsOtherblue-lightservicesPeacekeeping,stabilisation,military helpEmergentgroups andcivil societyEmergencymanagementand logisticsSpecificprofessionalservices
  • 3. Mean annual totals 2001-2010Disasters: 707Natural disasters: 57%Technological disasters: 43%Deaths: 131,318Natural disasters: 93%Technological disasters: 7%People affected by disaster: 268 millionNatural disasters : 99%Technological disasters: <1%Damage: US$107.2 billion
  • 4. Disaster riskreductionIncidentmanagementPopulation(community)protectionPlans,procedures,protocolsHumanand materialresourcesHazardforecasting,monitoring,etc.
  • 5. CascadingeffectsCollateralvulnerabilitySecondarydisastersInteractionbetween risksClimatechangeProbabilityIndeterminacy"Fat-tailed"distributionsof impacts
  • 6. SUSTAINABILITYOF DISASTERRISK REDUCTIONDAILYRISKS(e.g. foodsecurity,poverty)EMERGINGRISKS(e.g. climatechange,pandemics)GENERALSUSTAINABILITY(e.g. lifestyles, economicactivities, environment)MAJOR DISASTERRISKS(e.g. floods, drought,landslides, heatwaves)
  • 7. DomesticcivilprotectionWorldwidehumanitarianassistanceEuropeanemergencyassistanceVolunteer groups Armed forcesDisasters and crisesInternational NGOs
  • 8. The international relief systemPUBLIC ANDCORPORATEDONORSINTERNATIONALNGOsDONOR COUNTRYGOVT. AGENCIESRECIPIENT COUNTRYGOVERNMENT AGENCIESRECIPIENT COUNTRYDONORSLOCALNGOsAFFECTED POPULATION AND VICTIMSUNITED NATIONS AGENCIESUN Office for the Co-ordination ofHumanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA)UN Disaster Assistance Team (UNDAC)International SAR Advisory Group (INSARAG)UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)World Food Programme (WFP)Other UN AgenciesRAPID RESPONSE TEAMSInternational SAR teamsDisaster Assistance Response Teams (DARTs)RED CROSS-RED CRESCENTInternational Committee of the RC (ICRC)International Federation of RC Socs. (IFRC)National societies - donor countriesNational societies - recipient countries
  • 9. UN Resident Co-ordinator (UN-RC)UN Humanitarian Aid Co-ordinator (UN-HC)Emergency Relief Co-ordinator (UN-ERC)(Undersecretary General for Humanitarian Affairs)Inter-Agency Standing Committee (UN-IASC)[UN Humanitarian Agencies; UNHCR,Red Cross, World Bank, various NGOs]Civil-Military Humanitarian Co-ordinator (UN-CMCoord)Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-DHA)Office for the Co-ordination ofHumanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA)In the assisted country
  • 10. Humanitarian assistance• direct: distribution of materials andservices directly to the beneficiaries• indirect: e.g. transport ofrelief personnel and supplies• infrastructure support:general services such as roadrepairs, air traffic control,electricity generation.
  • 11. HumanitarianassistanceDomesticdisaster reliefDomestic civilinstitutions:• local• regional• nationalForeign civilinstitutions:• local• regional• nationalInternational organisations and NGOs:UN, IFRC, etc.Military aid to civilauthorities and communities
  • 12. Stabilisation PeacekeepingHumanitarianassistance
  • 13. UK Armed ForcesMilitary Assistanceto civil authoritiesMilitary Aidto otherGovernmentDepartments(MAGD)Work ofnationalimportance(e.g. duringstrikes)Military Aidto the CivilPower (MACP)Maintenanceof publicsafety andsecurity;Counter-terrorismactivitiesMilitaryAid tothe CivilCommunity(MACC)Search &rescue;Logistics;DisasterresponseCivildefenceMilitaryoperationsThe British model of military assistance
  • 14. Aceh (Indonesia)AfghanistanAfrica meridionaleAngolaBurundiCeceniaColombiaCorea del NordEritrea e EthiopiaGrandi Laghi AfricaniHaitiIl CaucasoIraqKenyaKosovo e i BalcaniLiberiaPakistan settentrionalePalestina e IsraeleRwandaSierra LeoneSomaliaSri Lankail SudanTimor OrientaleUgandaComplex emergencies: situations ofpolitical, economic and military collapseand damage to the fabric of society
  • 15. Complex emergency:"a humanitarian crisis ina country, region orsociety where there is anotable lack of governmentas a result of internal orexternal conflict, whichto be adequately resolvedneeds more resources thanthose provided by anysingle UN programme."
  • 16. • social and economic disruption• military instability andthe need for stabilisation• recurrent natural disasters• persistent poverty and inequality.Complex emergenciesare distinguished by:-
  • 17. www.sphereproject.orgHumanitarian forces need tobe sensitive to cultural normsand the dilemmas of neutrality
  • 18. Publicperceptionof disasterscontinues to bedominated bymyths andinaccuraciesenthusiasticallypropagated bythe mass media.
  • 19. "Myth" no.1: Disasters aretruly exceptional events.
  • 20. "Myth" no.2: After disaster has struck,survivors tend to be dazed and apathetic.
  • 21. "Myth" no.3: After disaster hasstruck, people will not make rationaldecisions and must thereforewait for guidance from authority.
  • 22. "Myth" no.4: People will flee inlarge numbers from a disaster area.
  • 23. "Myth" no.5:When disaster strikes panic andirrational behaviour are common reactions.
  • 24. "Myth" no.6: Disasters usually giverise to widespread, spontaneousmanifestations of antisocial behaviour,including looting and violence.
  • 25. "Myth" no.7: Disaster requires theimposition of martial law to stopthe collapse of the social fabric.
  • 26. "Myth" no.8: Emergency responderswill not report to work in a disaster,they will protect their families instead.
  • 27. "Myth" no.9: Emergency responderswill not know what to do in a disaster.
  • 28. "Myth" no.10: Any kind of aidand relief is useful after disasterproviding it is supplied quickly enough.
  • 29. "Myth" no.11: To manage adisaster well it is necessary toaccept all aid that is offered.
  • 30. "Myth" no.12: People can survivefor many days when trapped underthe rubble of a collapsed building.
  • 31. 0.5 1 3 12 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15Hours DaysSurvival time100500Percentageofpeoplebroughtoutalivefromundercollapsedbuilings
  • 32. "Myth" no.13: Unburied deadbodies constitute a health hazard.
  • 33. "Myth" no.14: Disease epidemics are analmost inevitable result of the disruptionand poor health caused by major disasters.
  • 34. "Myth" no.15: Dead bodies, survivors,streets, rubble and other thingsshould be sprayed with disinfectantto stop the spread of disease.
  • 35. "Myth" no.16: Great quantitiesand assortments of medicinesshould be sent to disaster areas.
  • 36. "Myth" no.17: In the aftermath ofdisaster mass vaccination is an excellentway of stopping the spread of diseases.
  • 37. "Myth" no.18: Field hospitals areparticularly useful for treating peopleinjured by sudden impact disasters.
  • 38. "Myth" no.19: The mass mediacreate an accurate picture of thedisasters on which they report.
  • 39. "Myth" no.20:In disastersthere are heroesand villains.
  • 40. Our image of disasters is conditionedfar too much by Hollywood!
  • 41. War andconflictPovertyNaturaldisastersInsecurityVulnerability andmarginalisationMilitaryHumanitarian assistanceassistanceThe "Military Cross"
  • 42. What falls outof the sky?Cluster bombsHumanitarian rations
  • 43. MilitaryassistanceHumanitarianassistanceCreationof poverty,marginalisation,precariousness"Capacitybuilding":creation ofresilienceGlobalexploitationInformal andblack economyScienceThe international community
  • 44. you foryour attention!