A global perspectiveon integratedemergency responseDavid AlexanderUniversity College London
Emergencymedical andhealth responseVolunteersocietiesand NGOsOtherblue-lightservicesPeacekeeping,stabilisation,military he...
Mean annual totals 2001-2010Disasters: 707Natural disasters: 57%Technological disasters: 43%Deaths: 131,318Natural disaste...
Disaster riskreductionIncidentmanagementPopulation(community)protectionPlans,procedures,protocolsHumanand materialresource...
CascadingeffectsCollateralvulnerabilitySecondarydisastersInteractionbetween risksClimatechangeProbabilityIndeterminacy"Fat...
SUSTAINABILITYOF DISASTERRISK REDUCTIONDAILYRISKS(e.g. foodsecurity,poverty)EMERGINGRISKS(e.g. climatechange,pandemics)GEN...
DomesticcivilprotectionWorldwidehumanitarianassistanceEuropeanemergencyassistanceVolunteer groups Armed forcesDisasters an...
The international relief systemPUBLIC ANDCORPORATEDONORSINTERNATIONALNGOsDONOR COUNTRYGOVT. AGENCIESRECIPIENT COUNTRYGOVER...
UN Resident Co-ordinator (UN-RC)UN Humanitarian Aid Co-ordinator (UN-HC)Emergency Relief Co-ordinator (UN-ERC)(Undersecret...
Humanitarian assistance• direct: distribution of materials andservices directly to the beneficiaries• indirect: e.g. trans...
HumanitarianassistanceDomesticdisaster reliefDomestic civilinstitutions:• local• regional• nationalForeign civilinstitutio...
Stabilisation PeacekeepingHumanitarianassistance
UK Armed ForcesMilitary Assistanceto civil authoritiesMilitary Aidto otherGovernmentDepartments(MAGD)Work ofnationalimport...
Aceh (Indonesia)AfghanistanAfrica meridionaleAngolaBurundiCeceniaColombiaCorea del NordEritrea e EthiopiaGrandi Laghi Afri...
Complex emergency:"a humanitarian crisis ina country, region orsociety where there is anotable lack of governmentas a resu...
• social and economic disruption• military instability andthe need for stabilisation• recurrent natural disasters• persist...
www.sphereproject.orgHumanitarian forces need tobe sensitive to cultural normsand the dilemmas of neutrality
Publicperceptionof disasterscontinues to bedominated bymyths andinaccuraciesenthusiasticallypropagated bythe mass media.
"Myth" no.1: Disasters aretruly exceptional events.
"Myth" no.2: After disaster has struck,survivors tend to be dazed and apathetic.
"Myth" no.3: After disaster hasstruck, people will not make rationaldecisions and must thereforewait for guidance from aut...
"Myth" no.4: People will flee inlarge numbers from a disaster area.
"Myth" no.5:When disaster strikes panic andirrational behaviour are common reactions.
"Myth" no.6: Disasters usually giverise to widespread, spontaneousmanifestations of antisocial behaviour,including looting...
"Myth" no.7: Disaster requires theimposition of martial law to stopthe collapse of the social fabric.
"Myth" no.8: Emergency responderswill not report to work in a disaster,they will protect their families instead.
"Myth" no.9: Emergency responderswill not know what to do in a disaster.
"Myth" no.10: Any kind of aidand relief is useful after disasterproviding it is supplied quickly enough.
"Myth" no.11: To manage adisaster well it is necessary toaccept all aid that is offered.
"Myth" no.12: People can survivefor many days when trapped underthe rubble of a collapsed building.
0.5 1 3 12 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15Hours DaysSurvival time100500Percentageofpeoplebroughtoutalivefromundercollapsedbuilings
"Myth" no.13: Unburied deadbodies constitute a health hazard.
"Myth" no.14: Disease epidemics are analmost inevitable result of the disruptionand poor health caused by major disasters.
"Myth" no.15: Dead bodies, survivors,streets, rubble and other thingsshould be sprayed with disinfectantto stop the spread...
"Myth" no.16: Great quantitiesand assortments of medicinesshould be sent to disaster areas.
"Myth" no.17: In the aftermath ofdisaster mass vaccination is an excellentway of stopping the spread of diseases.
"Myth" no.18: Field hospitals areparticularly useful for treating peopleinjured by sudden impact disasters.
"Myth" no.19: The mass mediacreate an accurate picture of thedisasters on which they report.
"Myth" no.20:In disastersthere are heroesand villains.
Our image of disasters is conditionedfar too much by Hollywood!
War andconflictPovertyNaturaldisastersInsecurityVulnerability andmarginalisationMilitaryHumanitarian assistanceassistanceT...
What falls outof the sky?Cluster bombsHumanitarian rations
MilitaryassistanceHumanitarianassistanceCreationof poverty,marginalisation,precariousness"Capacitybuilding":creation ofres...
www.slideshare.net/dealexanderThank you foryour attention!
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NATO-ATC: A Global Perspective on Integrated Emergency Response

  1. 1. A global perspectiveon integratedemergency responseDavid AlexanderUniversity College London
  2. 2. Emergencymedical andhealth responseVolunteersocietiesand NGOsOtherblue-lightservicesPeacekeeping,stabilisation,military helpEmergentgroups andcivil societyEmergencymanagementand logisticsSpecificprofessionalservices
  3. 3. Mean annual totals 2001-2010Disasters: 707Natural disasters: 57%Technological disasters: 43%Deaths: 131,318Natural disasters: 93%Technological disasters: 7%People affected by disaster: 268 millionNatural disasters : 99%Technological disasters: <1%Damage: US$107.2 billion
  4. 4. Disaster riskreductionIncidentmanagementPopulation(community)protectionPlans,procedures,protocolsHumanand materialresourcesHazardforecasting,monitoring,etc.
  5. 5. CascadingeffectsCollateralvulnerabilitySecondarydisastersInteractionbetween risksClimatechangeProbabilityIndeterminacy"Fat-tailed"distributionsof impacts
  6. 6. SUSTAINABILITYOF DISASTERRISK REDUCTIONDAILYRISKS(e.g. foodsecurity,poverty)EMERGINGRISKS(e.g. climatechange,pandemics)GENERALSUSTAINABILITY(e.g. lifestyles, economicactivities, environment)MAJOR DISASTERRISKS(e.g. floods, drought,landslides, heatwaves)
  7. 7. DomesticcivilprotectionWorldwidehumanitarianassistanceEuropeanemergencyassistanceVolunteer groups Armed forcesDisasters and crisesInternational NGOs
  8. 8. The international relief systemPUBLIC ANDCORPORATEDONORSINTERNATIONALNGOsDONOR COUNTRYGOVT. AGENCIESRECIPIENT COUNTRYGOVERNMENT AGENCIESRECIPIENT COUNTRYDONORSLOCALNGOsAFFECTED POPULATION AND VICTIMSUNITED NATIONS AGENCIESUN Office for the Co-ordination ofHumanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA)UN Disaster Assistance Team (UNDAC)International SAR Advisory Group (INSARAG)UN High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR)World Food Programme (WFP)Other UN AgenciesRAPID RESPONSE TEAMSInternational SAR teamsDisaster Assistance Response Teams (DARTs)RED CROSS-RED CRESCENTInternational Committee of the RC (ICRC)International Federation of RC Socs. (IFRC)National societies - donor countriesNational societies - recipient countries
  9. 9. UN Resident Co-ordinator (UN-RC)UN Humanitarian Aid Co-ordinator (UN-HC)Emergency Relief Co-ordinator (UN-ERC)(Undersecretary General for Humanitarian Affairs)Inter-Agency Standing Committee (UN-IASC)[UN Humanitarian Agencies; UNHCR,Red Cross, World Bank, various NGOs]Civil-Military Humanitarian Co-ordinator (UN-CMCoord)Department of Humanitarian Affairs (UN-DHA)Office for the Co-ordination ofHumanitarian Affairs (UN-OCHA)In the assisted country
  10. 10. Humanitarian assistance• direct: distribution of materials andservices directly to the beneficiaries• indirect: e.g. transport ofrelief personnel and supplies• infrastructure support:general services such as roadrepairs, air traffic control,electricity generation.
  11. 11. HumanitarianassistanceDomesticdisaster reliefDomestic civilinstitutions:• local• regional• nationalForeign civilinstitutions:• local• regional• nationalInternational organisations and NGOs:UN, IFRC, etc.Military aid to civilauthorities and communities
  12. 12. Stabilisation PeacekeepingHumanitarianassistance
  13. 13. UK Armed ForcesMilitary Assistanceto civil authoritiesMilitary Aidto otherGovernmentDepartments(MAGD)Work ofnationalimportance(e.g. duringstrikes)Military Aidto the CivilPower (MACP)Maintenanceof publicsafety andsecurity;Counter-terrorismactivitiesMilitaryAid tothe CivilCommunity(MACC)Search &rescue;Logistics;DisasterresponseCivildefenceMilitaryoperationsThe British model of military assistance
  14. 14. Aceh (Indonesia)AfghanistanAfrica meridionaleAngolaBurundiCeceniaColombiaCorea del NordEritrea e EthiopiaGrandi Laghi AfricaniHaitiIl CaucasoIraqKenyaKosovo e i BalcaniLiberiaPakistan settentrionalePalestina e IsraeleRwandaSierra LeoneSomaliaSri Lankail SudanTimor OrientaleUgandaComplex emergencies: situations ofpolitical, economic and military collapseand damage to the fabric of society
  15. 15. Complex emergency:"a humanitarian crisis ina country, region orsociety where there is anotable lack of governmentas a result of internal orexternal conflict, whichto be adequately resolvedneeds more resources thanthose provided by anysingle UN programme."
  16. 16. • social and economic disruption• military instability andthe need for stabilisation• recurrent natural disasters• persistent poverty and inequality.Complex emergenciesare distinguished by:-
  17. 17. www.sphereproject.orgHumanitarian forces need tobe sensitive to cultural normsand the dilemmas of neutrality
  18. 18. Publicperceptionof disasterscontinues to bedominated bymyths andinaccuraciesenthusiasticallypropagated bythe mass media.
  19. 19. "Myth" no.1: Disasters aretruly exceptional events.
  20. 20. "Myth" no.2: After disaster has struck,survivors tend to be dazed and apathetic.
  21. 21. "Myth" no.3: After disaster hasstruck, people will not make rationaldecisions and must thereforewait for guidance from authority.
  22. 22. "Myth" no.4: People will flee inlarge numbers from a disaster area.
  23. 23. "Myth" no.5:When disaster strikes panic andirrational behaviour are common reactions.
  24. 24. "Myth" no.6: Disasters usually giverise to widespread, spontaneousmanifestations of antisocial behaviour,including looting and violence.
  25. 25. "Myth" no.7: Disaster requires theimposition of martial law to stopthe collapse of the social fabric.
  26. 26. "Myth" no.8: Emergency responderswill not report to work in a disaster,they will protect their families instead.
  27. 27. "Myth" no.9: Emergency responderswill not know what to do in a disaster.
  28. 28. "Myth" no.10: Any kind of aidand relief is useful after disasterproviding it is supplied quickly enough.
  29. 29. "Myth" no.11: To manage adisaster well it is necessary toaccept all aid that is offered.
  30. 30. "Myth" no.12: People can survivefor many days when trapped underthe rubble of a collapsed building.
  31. 31. 0.5 1 3 12 1 2 3 4 5 7 10 15Hours DaysSurvival time100500Percentageofpeoplebroughtoutalivefromundercollapsedbuilings
  32. 32. "Myth" no.13: Unburied deadbodies constitute a health hazard.
  33. 33. "Myth" no.14: Disease epidemics are analmost inevitable result of the disruptionand poor health caused by major disasters.
  34. 34. "Myth" no.15: Dead bodies, survivors,streets, rubble and other thingsshould be sprayed with disinfectantto stop the spread of disease.
  35. 35. "Myth" no.16: Great quantitiesand assortments of medicinesshould be sent to disaster areas.
  36. 36. "Myth" no.17: In the aftermath ofdisaster mass vaccination is an excellentway of stopping the spread of diseases.
  37. 37. "Myth" no.18: Field hospitals areparticularly useful for treating peopleinjured by sudden impact disasters.
  38. 38. "Myth" no.19: The mass mediacreate an accurate picture of thedisasters on which they report.
  39. 39. "Myth" no.20:In disastersthere are heroesand villains.
  40. 40. Our image of disasters is conditionedfar too much by Hollywood!
  41. 41. War andconflictPovertyNaturaldisastersInsecurityVulnerability andmarginalisationMilitaryHumanitarian assistanceassistanceThe "Military Cross"
  42. 42. What falls outof the sky?Cluster bombsHumanitarian rations
  43. 43. MilitaryassistanceHumanitarianassistanceCreationof poverty,marginalisation,precariousness"Capacitybuilding":creation ofresilienceGlobalexploitationInformal andblack economyScienceThe international community
  44. 44. www.slideshare.net/dealexanderThank you foryour attention!
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