Survive in a disaster


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Survive in a disaster

  1. 1. Earthquake. • • Fire. Tornado. • • Flood. Hurricane.SURVIVE A DISASTER ALIVE, WE SHALL TRY PROBLEM SOLVING
  2. 2. In 1948, all the world’s governments made a firmcommitment – in the form of Article 3 of theUniversal Declaration of Human Rights – tosafeguard all people’s rights to life and security.But for human rights to have meaning, it is notenough for them simply to exist. In the aftermathof conflicts and disasters, affected communitiesare all too often left without the assistancerequired to save life and protect livelihoods. 2
  3. 3. Geneva: India ranks second in the world fornatural disasters after China, a top UN officialhas said. It was underlined that• unplanned urbanization and• failure to address the issue of climate change pose a grave threat worldwide.The two rapidly growing countries in the world, Chinaand India, rank first and second in the number ofreported natural disasters. While China witnessed 22natural disasters, India came second with 16. 3
  4. 4. A disaster is "a situation or event whichoverwhelms local capacity, necessitatinga request to a national or internationallevel of external assistance" and "anunforeseen and often sudden event thatcauses great damage, destruction andhuman suffering." 4
  5. 5. LOSS OF PEOPLE & $About 373 natural disasters killed over 296,800people in 2010.The estimated costs of natural disasters in 2010,in which an earthquake in Haiti killed over222,500 people and the Russian heat wavecaused around 56,000 fatalities, is around $ 110billion. 5
  6. 6. Other than the Haiti earthquake and the heatwave in Russia, other major disasters include theearthquake in China (estimate number ofdeaths 2,968), floods in Pakistan (1985 deaths),landslides in China (1765 people killed) andfloods in China.Floods, drought, earthquake, and extremetemperatures are the major sources for risingwave natural disasters. 6
  7. 7. NATURAL DISASTERS: PREPARE, MITIGATE, MANAGE• Disaster preparedness includes all of the activities that are carried out prior to the advance notice of a catastrophe in order to facilitate the use of available resources, relief, and rehabilitation in the best possible fashion.• Disaster preparedness starts at the local community level; if local resources were insufficient, it would branch out to the national level, and if needed, the international level. 7
  8. 8. Many governments fail to cope with threats likestorms, floods and earthquakes. They fail to act• effectively enough in response to these events, or• to take preventative action to reduce unnecessary deaths and suffering. A GOVT. CAN BE CHANGED ONCE IN 5 YEARS ONLY! Discuss the types of disasters that are most likely to happen to U. Explain what to do in each case to your own group. 8
  9. 9. Indeed, the very actions of• some governments and their• national elitesplace marginalised people at risk from disasters bydiscriminating against them, like those who live inflimsy slum housing easily destroyed by floods andlandslips.‘We didn’t ask them to be there. God help them.’ Meet your family and discuss why you needto prepare for disaster. Explain the dangers offire, severe weather, and earthquakes tochildren. Plan to share responsibilities and worktogether as a team. 9
  10. 10. Disaster mitigation is the ongoing effort tolessen the impact disasters have onpeople and property.Fewer people and communities would beaffected by natural disasters with the useof this process. Because of the varyingdegree of each natural disaster, there aredifferent mitigation strategies for each. 10
  11. 11. Even in daunting economic times, the world canafford to meet the humanitarian needs of everyperson struggling to survive a disaster.It is possible to reduce the threats from climate-related catastrophes.It is possible for governments to provide good-quality aid to their citizens. The governments ofdeveloping countries must take greaterresponsibility for responding to disasters andreducing people’s vulnerability to them. 11
  12. 12. NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT(NPDM) INDIAIndia is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to a largenumber of natural as well as man-madedisasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is proneto earthquakes of moderate to very highintensity; over 40 million hectares (12 per cent ofland) is prone to floods and river erosion; of the7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km isprone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent ofthe cultivable area is vulnerable to drought andhilly areas are at risk from landslides andavalanches. 12
  13. 13. NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT(NPDM)• Heightened vulnerabilities to disaster risks_ related to expanding population, urbanization and industrialization, development within high-risk zones, environmental degradation and climate change. The economically and socially weaker segments of the population are most seriously affected. Elderly persons, women rendered destitute and children orphaned on account of disasters and the differently abled persons are exposed to higher risks. 13
  14. 14. On 23 December, 2005, the Government of India (GoI)took a defining step by enacting the DisasterManagement Act, 2005, (hereinafter referred to as theAct) which envisaged the creation of the NationalDisaster Management Authority (NDMA), headed by thePrime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities(SDMAs) headed by the Chief Ministers, and DistrictDisaster Management Authorities (DDMAs) headed bythe Collector or District Magistrate or DeputyCommissioner as the case may be, to spearhead andadopt a holistic and integrated approach to DM. 14
  15. 15. There will be a paradigm shift, from the erstwhilerelief-centric response to a proactive prevention,mitigation and preparedness-driven approach forconserving developmental gains and also tominimise losses of life, livelihoods and property.VISION: To build a safe and disaster resilient Indiaby developing a holistic, proactive, multi-disasteroriented and technology driven strategy through aculture of prevention, mitigation, preparedness andresponse. 15
  16. 16. The growth in localised climate-related shocks willhit people in developing countries hardest,because their homes and livelihoods will be mostvulnerable.So developing countries will need to enableregional authorities and civil society to respondeffectively. Whether or not there is sufficient will todo this will be one of the defining features of ourage, and will dictate whether millions live or die. 16
  17. 17. In India, the National Rural EmploymentGuarantee Act (NREGA) has created 900 millionperson-days of employment for rural peopleliving in poverty, the advent of social protectionmechanisms offers the hope that the cycle ofdisaster and poverty can be broken. The state isthe principal guarantor of its citizens’ right to life.And the impetus to make the state deliver betterlifesaving assistance is often the action of citizensholding their governments to account. 17
  18. 18. The NREGA came about because Indiannational legislators had the political will tochallenge rural vulnerability.With strong rights-based legislation and clearmechanisms of accountability, the NREGA hasthe potential to improve government servicesso that they meet the demands of active andempowered citizens. 18
  19. 19. The humanitarian challenge of the twenty-firstcentury is this:• an increasing total of largely local catastrophic events, increasing numbers of people vulnerable to them,• too many governments failing to prevent or respond to them, and• an international humanitarian system unable to cope.• Humanitarian emergencies are caused by conflict, other human-made crises, and environmental hazards. 19
  20. 20. These cause immense suffering. For those whodo not immediately lose their lives, many willlose loved ones, experience catastrophicdamage to their homes and livelihoods, witnessthe destruction of their communities, and sufferthe dangers and humiliations of displacementand destitution. For them, the aftermath of acatastrophe becomes a daily struggle forsurvival, for dignity and for a future. 20
  21. 21. As the twenty-first century progresses,humanity will face a greater threat fromcatastrophic events.Let us estimate what is the growth inhumanitarian need between now and 2020.Take a look at some of the reasons why so manymore people will feel the impact of thesecatastrophic events in the coming decades. 21
  22. 22. In particular, let us look at how vulnerability,defined by• who one is,• where one lives, and• how one makes a living, will have a direct bearing on the chances of surviving the immediate effects or longer-term impact of catastrophes with health and livelihood intact. 22
  23. 23. Ask what can realistically be done to help those affectedby the vast and seemingly overwhelming forces of climatechange, population growth, displacement, andvulnerability.The necessary skills, knowledge, and financial resourcescan be mobilised to radically reduce the numbers ofpeople who will die or be made destitute by catastrophesFor this to happen, all parties – governments, the UN, civil-society organisations, and ordinary citizens – mustacknowledge and respond to the growing threat. 23
  24. 24. Mumbai is one of the world’s most populous cities. Builton a narrow, low lying promontory jutting into theArabian Sea, it is also one of the most vulnerable cities inthe world to coastal and rainwater flooding.• Some 54 per cent of the city’s population live in slums, many of them built on reclaimed swamp-land to the north and east of the centre.• In July 2005, widespread flooding in Mumbai caused the deaths of around 900 people, most killed not by drowning but by landslips and collapsed buildings. 24
  25. 25. Mumbai …The impact of unusually high rainfall wascompounded by failure to invest in replacingMumbai’s crumbling early twentieth-centurydrainage network, the uncontrolleddevelopment of the city’s poorer suburbs, andthe destruction of rainwater sinks (in particular,the mangrove swamps that had oncesurrounded the city).Mumbai- kars coped well. 25
  26. 26. OVER 200 FERRY PASSENGERS STILL MISSINGOver 200 passengers of a ferry that capsized in theBrahmaputra, near Medartary in lower Assams Dhubridistrict, during a cyclonic storm on 30 April are still missing.Search made by divers of the National Disaster ResponseForce (NDRF), the Army and the Border Security Force(BSF) till Tuesday morning. According to the survivors,more than 400 passengers, including women andchildren, were on board when the tragedy occurred.While about 350 tickets were issued to adult commuters,there were many children without tickets. 17 bodies were recovered, there were 10 injured and 35were missing. About 100 people swam to safety or wererescued. 26
  27. 27. Alas, the Assam Transport Minister has nowpromised to introduce a new and better ferryservice across the river.Was the government sleeping so far?Unfortunately, in our country, the administrationrises from its slumber only when a disaster strikes!When will Indians get governments that actspro-actively ? _a commentator on the boat disaster. 27
  28. 28. Two killed, two others injured, 1.000 houses damaged aswind, rain wreak havoc in Pathanamthitta, April 24, 2012A fierce whirl wind, accompanied by heavy summershowers wreaked havoc in many parts of Adoor andKozhencherry taluks of Pathanamthitta (Kerala) onMonday evening.As per an official survey conducted by the Revenuedepartment, 403 houses have been partially damagedand 113 houses fully destroyed in the natural calamity.The official survey has estimated loss worth Rs 2.12 crorein the natural calamity. 28
  29. 29. Sudden shocks such as flooding andearthquakes are not the only risks for poorurban populations. Other risks are:• People live close to each other,• without adequate housing,• water and sanitation,• health services, or education,leading to the increased risk of epidemics ofcommunicable disease. 29
  30. 30. BUILDING STATE RESPONSIBILITY AND EMPOWERING AFFECTED PEOPLE• Governments must reinforce national and local capacity to respond in emergencies and to reduce people’s vulnerability; donor governments and others must substantially increase their support to help them do that;• • Communities must be empowered to demand that governments and others fulfil their obligations to safeguard their lives, as well as to respond to and prepare for disasters themselves; and ….. 30
  31. 31. BUILDING STATE RESPONSIBILITY AND EMPOWERING AFFECTED PEOPLE• Continued…• • The international community, including regional organisations, must use mediation and diplomacy far more robustly to press states to assist their own citizens. 31
  32. 32. Poor people in urban settings are often highlyvulnerable to conflict and violence too. In conflict aswell as disasters, civil-society organisations caninfluence the way affected people are treated, andsupport them in demanding that governments upholdtheir rights. Humanitarian organisations, both localand international, regularly demonstrate enormousskill, commitment and courage in delivering essentialaid to those who need it most. 32
  33. 33. In rural areas, high population density, theincreasing stress on productive land, soildegradation, and increasing aridity due toclimate change are making hundreds of millionsof rural livelihoods vulnerable.People are being forced to eke out a precariousliving on land that is becoming more and morearid and degraded, with the result that food isgetting harder and harder to come by. 33
  34. 34. People affected by emergencies deserve aidthat is more than just an empty gesture ofsupport. They deserve aid that:1 Saves lives (that is relevant, good quality, andwell-managed);2 is delivered impartially on the basis of need;3 is accountable, with mechanisms to challengefailure and abuse;4 builds durable solutions; and5 is sufficiently resourced. 34
  35. 35. A continuous and integrated process ofplanning, organizing, coordinating andimplementing measures which are necessary orexpedient for:• Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster.• Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences.• Capacity building including research and knowledge management. 35
  36. 36. • Preparedness to deal with any disaster.• Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster.• Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster.• Evacuation, rescue and relief.• Rehabilitation and reconstruction. 36
  37. 37. There is nothing inevitable about a future inwhich greater numbers of people die and aremade destitute by natural hazards and conflict.In a future of climate change, rising hazard anda proliferation of disasters, the world can stillmitigate threats and reduce people’svulnerability to them.Many governments, humanitarian organisations,and communities are already doing this – but notnearly enough. 37