Revolutions In Latin America


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Revolutions In Latin America

  1. 1. Revolutions in Latin America 1804-1828 The Breakdown of the Imperial Order
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. The economic superiority of the colony of </li></ul><ul><li>Saint-Dominique was based on: </li></ul><ul><li>A) fertility of the soil – producing two tons </li></ul><ul><li>of sugar per acre which require less </li></ul><ul><li>labor </li></ul><ul><li>B) capital investment </li></ul><ul><li>C) work the slaves to death </li></ul><ul><li>2. In 1783 the colony contained: 800 sugar </li></ul><ul><li>plantations, 3,000 coffee, 800 cotton, </li></ul><ul><li>2,950 indigo. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The colony supplied half of Europe with </li></ul><ul><li>tropical produce. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>4. France favorable balance of trade came from the re-export of colonial products. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Of the 424 million livres exported in </li></ul><ul><li>Europe, colonial produce accounted for </li></ul><ul><li>152 million. </li></ul><ul><li>5. French colonies were the principal market for French manufactures. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Colonial imports France employed </li></ul><ul><li>33,400 seamen, fleet carry more than </li></ul><ul><li>164.081 tons of shipping. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Saint-Dominique was absorbing 40,000 </li></ul><ul><li>slaves per year. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Haitian Revolution 1804-1810 <ul><li>The old order in Haiti: Historical Background </li></ul><ul><li>France had gained control Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) in 1671. </li></ul><ul><li>In was the wealthiest colony in the Western Hemisphere. It produced 60% of the world’s coffee and about 40% of the sugar (white gold) </li></ul><ul><li>imported by France and Britain. It accounted for about 40% of France’s overseas trade. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Following mercantilism policies France used the colony to increased its wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>France imposed strict laws on Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>forbidding to have trade with other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>There were five major groups involved in Haiti’s revolution: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The European French </li></ul><ul><li>2. The 40,000 white Creole settlers on the island </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>1. The wealthy elite planters (grand blancs) </li></ul><ul><li>dominated the economy, politics, and </li></ul><ul><li>culture of Haiti. Frustrated with mercan- </li></ul><ul><li>tilist laws and after US independence </li></ul><ul><li>hoped for a slave nation controlled by </li></ul><ul><li>whites. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The petite blancs who did not own large </li></ul><ul><li>numbers of slaves but supported slavery </li></ul><ul><li>and were anti-black. The petit blanc </li></ul><ul><li>support was based in part out of fear of </li></ul><ul><li>a slave rebellion. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>3. Gens de couleur approximately 30,000 </li></ul><ul><li>free persons of color about half were mulatto the other half were black ex-slaves. Members of this group were often </li></ul><ul><li>wealthy. They owned a large portion of the island’s slaves. They were pro-slavery. They were not French citizens and were banned from certain professions, from marrying whites, wearing European clothing, carrying firearms, or attending social functions with whites. They imitated white culture; they spoke French and Catholicism. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>They were unhappy with the social order </li></ul><ul><li>and were a source of stress in society. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Maroons runaway slaves that lived in the </li></ul><ul><li>mountains. They raided white-owned </li></ul><ul><li>plantations for provisions, weapons, and </li></ul><ul><li>new recruits. Constant threat to social </li></ul><ul><li>order. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Slaves 500,00 to 700,000. Majority </li></ul><ul><li>were Africans since most slaves were </li></ul><ul><li>worked to death. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The problem of Haiti suggest the following </li></ul><ul><li>questions: How were the groups in society </li></ul><ul><li>coalesce or relate to each other ; would the </li></ul><ul><li>old order survive; would new groups </li></ul><ul><li>emerge? </li></ul><ul><li>* Maintaining social order is always crucial </li></ul><ul><li>and critical in any society. In the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>social order has always been prompted to </li></ul><ul><li>instability and disintegration. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The French Revolution and St. Domingue <ul><li>The French Revolution precipitated the events that led to the abolition of slavery and independence in Haiti, as the National Assembly (France) extended political rights to the mulattos. </li></ul><ul><li>Without planning it the French Revolution ignited a new revolution in the Americas. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In 1789 the National Assembly ordered the </li></ul><ul><li>white colonials to grant suffrage to the gens </li></ul><ul><li>de couleur. The Colonial Assembly refused and in 1790 a rebellion of mulattos began. </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands were killed the rebellion leaders </li></ul><ul><li>were captured and executed. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1791 another rebellion erupted the “Night of Fire”. This rebellion caused the free people of color and all white people to unite. The Colonial Assembly recognized the French citizenship of all </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Conflict Increases <ul><li>The Colonial Assembly recognized the French citizenship of all free people regardless of color. At this stage of the rebellion it was free people against the slaves and the maroons. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time there were rumors that Spain and Britain were planning to divide the island between them. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>General Toussaint Louverturer’s who had organized a black army agreed to help the French. Spain and Britain stop their attacks. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1796 mulatto force under Gen. Andre Rigaud captured Leveaux Governor and </li></ul><ul><li>commander of the French army. Louverture’s troops rescue Leveaux in return he appointed Louverture, Lieutenant-Governor of Saint-Domingue. </li></ul>.
  14. 14. <ul><li>In 1799 a civil war broke out between Louverture’s black forces and Rigaud’s mulatto army. With aid from Pres. </li></ul><ul><li>John Adams, L’Ouverture defeated Rigaud. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1801 a new constitution made L”Ouverture Governor –General- For- Life and gave him the opportunity to choose his successor. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>L’Overture restores order and the economy, but Napoleon wanted to restore slavery in the island. This time blacks and mulattos joined their forces and defeated the French forces. </li></ul><ul><li>Two of L’Ouverture associates Dessalines and Christophe turned L’Ouverture to the French. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Haiti’s Independence <ul><li>L’Ouverture is taken to France were he was imprisoned and died few years later. </li></ul><ul><li>With the betrayal of Louverture and the </li></ul><ul><li>restoration of slavery in Martinique General Dessalines fearing the return of slavery organized a rebellion. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>In May of 1803 war between France and Britain resumed and the British took the opportunity to provide arms and supplies to the rebel forces to continue their fighting. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1804 Dessalines proclaimed Haiti’s independence. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Spanish America Wars of Independence 1810 -1828
  19. 19. Causes for the wars of Independence <ul><li>The discord between Creoles and Penin- sulares with the Creoles at a social, political, and economic disadvantage. </li></ul><ul><li>Creoles were not able to hold political and judicial positions that Spain reserve only for Peninsulares. The barrier to upward and economic social mobility created stress in the Spanish colonial order. The heavy taxes on colonial goods that benefited Spain and not the colonies. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>2. The influence of the Enlightenment Period </li></ul><ul><li>- the ideas of Montesquieu, Rousseau (man was born free), Locke ( right to property), and Voltaire. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The ideas of the French Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>( liberty, equality, and fraternity ) </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Influences of United States indepen- </li></ul><ul><li>dence. [ translation of the Declaration of </li></ul><ul><li>Independence and Common Sense]. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The expulsion of the Jesuits the majority of them Americans. Attempt of the Crown </li></ul><ul><li>to reassert its control over the Church. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>6.The consolidación de vales reales a decree which ordered the confiscation of charitable Church funds and their missions to Spain. Mexico was hurt because the church acted as informal financial institution. [upper and middle class depend on this loans]. Many lower clergy lived on the interest of this loans. </li></ul><ul><li>7. The colonists did not depend on Spain for </li></ul><ul><li>security. The were responsible for paying </li></ul><ul><li>for the expenses of the military. The vast </li></ul><ul><li>majority of the forces were Creoles but the </li></ul><ul><li>higher officers were Peninsulares. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>8. The French and British navy blockade in </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish ports preventing Spanish ships from reaching the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>The blockade diminish Spanish authority in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>9. The Bourbon Reforms – many Creoles were dissatisfied with the results of the reforms in the colonies. Specially with the political reforms that excluded them from holding political positions. </li></ul>
  23. 23. 10. The Napoleonic Wars – in 1808 Napoleon replaced the Spanish king Fernando VII with his brother Joseph. In Spanish America since everything was done in the name of the king the Creoles argued that the removal of the king shifted sovereignty to themselves. These wars brought the collapsed of traditional monarchical power in Spain. In the colonies the Creoles organized Juntas de Gobierno. The Creoles gained legitimacy by supporting the ousted Fernando VII.
  24. 24. Generalizations for Latin America Independence <ul><li>Failed Imperial Reforms ( Bourbon Reforms ) </li></ul><ul><li>External Factors </li></ul><ul><li>a) French Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>b) Haiti’s Independence </li></ul><ul><li>c) France ( Napoleon ) invasion to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>d) French support for the American </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution </li></ul>
  25. 25. Generalizations <ul><li>e) British support for Latin America’s </li></ul><ul><li>independence </li></ul><ul><li>3. Internal Factor </li></ul><ul><li>a) Widespread discontent with the </li></ul><ul><li>Imperial Order </li></ul>
  26. 26. Differences and similarities between Latin America and US <ul><li>Differences </li></ul><ul><li>The independence movement in Spanish </li></ul><ul><li>America lacked the coherence of ideology and leadership manifested in the American </li></ul><ul><li>Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast geographical area of the Spanish American colonies and its diversity explains the lacked of unity among the colonies in their struggle for independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Whereas, the American colonies fought united </li></ul><ul><li>under the military command of Washington </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>against the British. </li></ul><ul><li>The Latin American movement for independence lacked the popular support </li></ul><ul><li>[exception of Haiti and Mexico]. The creole elites that led the revolution were part of the exploitative minority in the colonies. In the US there was a strong popular support provided by the diverse sectors of population in a more democratic society. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Similarities <ul><li>Latin America and United States movements of independence were led by </li></ul><ul><li>a well educated elite. </li></ul><ul><li>In both segments of the population sided with the mother country. </li></ul><ul><li>In both final success was due in part to foreign assistance. ( United States- France </li></ul><ul><li>and Spain and in Latin America – British ) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Liberation of South America <ul><li>Liberation of Venezuela,Colombia,Ecuador, and Panamá ( Gran Colombia ) </li></ul><ul><li>1.In 1810 a Creole Junta took power in </li></ul><ul><li>Caracas. Creoles were divided one group </li></ul><ul><li>want immediate independence the other </li></ul><ul><li>group want to postpone it by temporally </li></ul><ul><li>acting in the name of the dethrone king </li></ul><ul><li>Ferdinand VII. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Liberation of South America <ul><li>2. Bolivar is sent to Great Britain to seek the </li></ul><ul><li>recognition and support that country. </li></ul><ul><li>Bolívar was not successful in his mission but he brought with him Francisco de Miranda to take over the patriot army. </li></ul><ul><li>3. In 1811 Venezuela proclaimed its independence. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>and framed a republican constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>a) abolished Indian tribute, special privileges, but retained black slavery and </li></ul><ul><li>did not provided full citizenship for the mu- </li></ul><ul><li>latto population. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Fighting broke out between patriots and </li></ul><ul><li>royalists who gained the support of free </li></ul><ul><li>blacks and mulattos. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Miranda attempted to negotiate a treaty </li></ul><ul><li>with the royalist but failed. As he was leaving the country he took with him part </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>of the republic’s treasure. Miranda is turned over to the Spaniards and died in a Spanish prison four years later. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Bolivar left and went to New Granada </li></ul><ul><li>(Colombia) and urged the liberation of Ve- </li></ul><ul><li>nezuela for Colombia’s security. A victory </li></ul><ul><li>in Cúcuta gave him the rank of general. </li></ul><ul><li>7. In Trujillo , Bolívar proclaimed a war of terror against all Spaniards. The Spanish forces left the capital, Bolívar received the </li></ul><ul><li>title of liberator and dictatorial powers. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>8. Bolívar could not unify the country. </li></ul><ul><li>a) slaves continue to fight for their freedom </li></ul><ul><li>b) royalist continued fighting when Ferdinand VII regained his throne </li></ul><ul><li>c) the Llaneros under the leadership of </li></ul><ul><li>José Tomás Boves reached Caracas where hedied in battle. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Bolívar returned to Colombia which was on a verge of chaos. Spanish Gen. Pablo </li></ul><ul><li>Morillo reconquest Colombia and Vene- </li></ul><ul><li>zuela. Bolívar exiled to Jamaica. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>10. With the support of José Antonio Páez </li></ul><ul><li>( leader of the Llaneros ) and the “British Legion” a new attack was planned for the liberation of Venezuela and Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>11. By 1819 Colombia was liberated and in </li></ul><ul><li>1821, Bolívar and Páez; crushed the last important Spanish force at the battle of Carabobo. Venezuela was free and part of the Gran Colombia. </li></ul><ul><li>12. With the helped of Antonio Jose Sucre Ecuador and Panama were free. Ecuador, </li></ul><ul><li>Venezuela, Colombia and Panamá formed </li></ul><ul><li>the Gran Colombia. </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Liberation of Argentina, Chile, Perú </li></ul><ul><li>1.Argentina was governed by a Creole party </li></ul><ul><li>since the defeat of the British invasion in </li></ul><ul><li>1806-07. When the French took power in </li></ul><ul><li>Spain, the Argentine congress deposed </li></ul><ul><li>the viceroy and established a Junta. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In 1814 the Argentine Junta subdued </li></ul><ul><li>Montevideo, but met the resistance of the </li></ul><ul><li>gauchos led by José Gervasio Artigas </li></ul><ul><li>who demanded an autonomy. The resistance ended when Artigas fled to </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Paraguay after Brazilian forces claimed </li></ul><ul><li>Uruguay for Brazil. Uruguay did not achieve </li></ul><ul><li>independence until 1828. </li></ul><ul><li>3. In Paraguay Dr. José Francisco Francia led the Creole party that deposed the Spanish forces. He became the country’s </li></ul><ul><li>first president and dictator. </li></ul><ul><li>4. In Argentina a national assembly enacted </li></ul><ul><li>a series of reforms as the abolition of mita, </li></ul><ul><li>encomienda, titles of nobility, and the In- </li></ul><ul><li>quisition (1813). Independence was </li></ul><ul><li>declared in 1816. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>5. In 1816, José de San Martín proposed a </li></ul><ul><li>marched over the Andes to liberate Chile, </li></ul><ul><li>where the Spanish had toppled the revo- lutionary regime established by Bernardo O’Higgins </li></ul><ul><li>6. After training and recruiting many blacks and mulatto volunteers in 1817 he crossed the Andes. With the defeat of the Spanish army in Chacabuco and Maipú, O’Higgins asummed his position and San Martín began to prepare an attack by sea on Lima. </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>7. He secured ships from England and the United States and Lord Thomas Cochrane </li></ul><ul><li>organized the patriot navy. </li></ul><ul><li>8. In 1821 San Martín entered Lima and proclaimed the independence of Perú but </li></ul><ul><li>victory was not completed due to factional </li></ul><ul><li>opposition. </li></ul><ul><li>9. In 1822 he met with Bolívar in Guayaquil after their meeting San Martín retired from public life. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>a) differences – San Martín favored monar- </li></ul><ul><li>chy as a solution to the chaos in Perú; Bolívar favored a republican – oligarchical </li></ul><ul><li>government. </li></ul><ul><li>10. All Spanish resistance ends in 1824, when Juan Antonio de Sucre defeated the Spanish forces in the final battle of </li></ul><ul><li>Ayacucho. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish South America was liberated. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Independence of Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>1.With the fall of the king Ferdinand VII in Spain, peninsulares in Mexico took political control and the Creoles did not respond to their actions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. In the industrial center of Querétaro, a </li></ul><ul><li>priest Miguel Hidalgo, organized an up- </li></ul><ul><li>rising against the Spanish rulers. This is </li></ul><ul><li>called the Grito de Dolores.(Sept.16,1810) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hidalgo mobilized popular support but did </li></ul><ul><li>not take Mexico City. As he was trying to </li></ul><ul><li>flee, he was captured, tried and killed. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>4. Another priest Jose María Morelos assumed command of the revolutionary army. Sensitive to the problems of the rural areas he ordered an end of slavery and tribute, the end of the rental communi- </li></ul><ul><li>ty lands. </li></ul><ul><li>5, In 1813 he convened a congress at Chil- </li></ul><ul><li>pancingo and declared Mexico’s indepen- </li></ul><ul><li>dence. ( Nov.6,1813) </li></ul><ul><li>6. With the returned of Ferdinand VII to power the Spanish forces reorganized </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>and in 1815 Morelos was captured and executed. </li></ul><ul><li>7. In 1814 Ferdinand VII was restored to the </li></ul><ul><li>thrown. In Mexico people were divided some wanted to continue the fight for inde- </li></ul><ul><li>dendence others wanted to seek an acco- </li></ul><ul><li>modation with Spain. In 1820 as an army of 14,000 was bound for L.A. to put down </li></ul><ul><li>the rebel forces a new liberal government </li></ul><ul><li>took control in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The liberal government wanted to nego- </li></ul><ul><li>tiate a settlement with the rebel forces. </li></ul>
  43. 44. <ul><li>9. Most creoles perceived that the new government could not offer them any new benefits they could not achieve by themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Rebel forces in Mexico were under the leadership of Vicente Guerrero. The Loyalist Creole General Agustín Iturbide combined his forces with Guerrero and together issued the Plan de Iguala in February 1821. According to </li></ul><ul><li>the Plan, Mexico would become a monarchy, Catholicism would remain as the only official religion, and all Mexicans </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>would enjoy equality under the law. </li></ul><ul><li>11. In September of 1821 Guerrero and Iturbide’s forces declared Mexico’s inde- </li></ul><ul><li>pendence. In May 1822 Congress proclai- </li></ul><ul><li>med Iturbide emperor of Mexico with the </li></ul><ul><li>title of Agustín I. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Iturbide was not able to unify the country </li></ul><ul><li>13. Wealthy Creoles and the army resented his power, and Spaniards wanted a prince with royal bloodline. </li></ul><ul><li>14. He resorted to repressive to enforce his </li></ul><ul><li>authority causing more hostility to his </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>regime. In December of 1822 Colonel </li></ul><ul><li>Antonio López de Santa Anna moved against Iturbide and in March 1823 he ab- </li></ul><ul><li>dicated his thrown. </li></ul><ul><li>15. He agree to leave the country and never </li></ul><ul><li>to return. He would be shot when he tried to return to Mexico from exile. </li></ul><ul><li>16. Mexico would become a federal republic </li></ul><ul><li>with General Guadalupe Victoria as its first president. </li></ul>
  46. 47. Results of the Latin America Wars for Independence. What changed in anything? <ul><li>1. The emergence of new nations. National unity </li></ul><ul><li>was not achieved because of regional/ national </li></ul><ul><li>rivalries, jealousy, geography, lack of </li></ul><ul><li>economic contacts, and political and ideological </li></ul><ul><li>rivalries from the colonial capitals ( particularly </li></ul><ul><li>the capitals of Mexico and Lima). </li></ul><ul><li>Nor there was any significant prospect of </li></ul><ul><li>obtaining better terms of trade or </li></ul><ul><li>investment by presenting a united front </li></ul><ul><li>against the Europeans or the United States. </li></ul>
  47. 48. <ul><li>2. Considerable loss of live and destruction of property and changes in the social </li></ul><ul><li>environment. The flight of Peninsular Spaniards and Creole loyalists changed the social and political structure and allowed for confiscated property to be sold or given to deserving patriots. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Legal discrimination on the basis of race </li></ul><ul><li>ended but social and economic discrimina- </li></ul><ul><li>tion remained, but there was up mobility to </li></ul><ul><li>those successful “generals” of any class. </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>4. Economic power remained concentrated </li></ul><ul><li>in the hands of the Creole upper class. This </li></ul><ul><li>dominant minority would now make political </li></ul><ul><li>decisions in terms of national class interest. </li></ul><ul><li>5. The new nations were still dependent on external economic forces because of the lack of capital. Creole national leaders </li></ul><ul><li>continued producing and exporting primary commodities [sugar, coffee]. </li></ul><ul><li>6. A fundamental change was the establishment of free trade. [ shift from </li></ul><ul><li>Spain to Great Britain ] </li></ul>
  49. 50. <ul><li>7. Descapitalization. Most liquid capital fled </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America with the Loyalists. Foreign </li></ul><ul><li>investment declined significantly but there was an increased in foreign loans. English </li></ul><ul><li>and other foreign merchants brought in </li></ul><ul><li>consumer goods that created deficit. </li></ul><ul><li>8. An increase in the power and prestige of the military. The military assumed a central role and became a way of upward mobility for people of lesser economic status. </li></ul>
  50. 51. <ul><li>A reduction in the power of the Church. The Inquisition was ended. </li></ul><ul><li>10. The decline of slavery. Several factors contributed to this: the recruitment of slaves for military service during the wars </li></ul><ul><li>for independence, the abolition of slave trade, and the introduction of the principle of free birth [except in Paraguay and Brazil]. </li></ul><ul><li>New freedmen gain little with the introduc- </li></ul><ul><li>tion of debt peonage. </li></ul>
  51. 52. Brazilian Independence - 1822 <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>1. In 1808, two days before the French cap- </li></ul><ul><li>ture Lisbon, the King Joao VI and the entire </li></ul><ul><li>royal court of 15,000 transferred to Brazil with the </li></ul><ul><li>escort of the British navy. Rio de Janeiro was </li></ul><ul><li>turned into the capital of the Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Empire. After the defeat of Napoleon, King </li></ul><ul><li>Joao remained in Brazil. In 1816 Brazil was </li></ul><ul><li>elevated to a kingdom co-equal with Portugal. </li></ul>
  52. 53. <ul><li>2. In 1820 a liberal revolution took place in </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal and the Cortes ( the Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament) demanded that the King retur- </li></ul><ul><li>ned home or risk losing his throne. In 1821 </li></ul><ul><li>he returned leaving his 22 years old son </li></ul><ul><li>Dom Pedro as Prince Regent of Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>3. In 1822, when Portugal threatened to re- </li></ul><ul><li>turn Brazil to its colonial status and </li></ul><ul><li>ordered Dom Pedro to return to Portugal- </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil moved to independence. </li></ul><ul><li>4. This political decision of the Cortes bought together all Brazilian political </li></ul>
  53. 54. <ul><li>factions.[ conservatives, moderates, </li></ul><ul><li>liberals and radicals]. Brazilians withdrew </li></ul><ul><li>their allegiance from King Joao VI and </li></ul><ul><li>transferred it to Prince Regent Dom Pedro. </li></ul><ul><li>5. A letter with 8,000 signatures presented by José Clemente Pereira and the president of the Senado da Camara of Rio </li></ul><ul><li>de Janeiro convinced Dom Pedro to stay. </li></ul><ul><li>6. On September of 1822 on the banks of the River Ipiranga Dom Pedro shouted, </li></ul><ul><li>“ Long live independence, liberty, and the </li></ul><ul><li>separation of Brazil”. (Grito de Ipiranga) </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>7. In December of 1822 Dom Pedro was crowned Emperor of Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>8. The Brazilian movement of independence from Portugal had drawn its strength from </li></ul><ul><li>the most important provinces of the centre- </li></ul><ul><li>south- Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo. Mina Gerais. Pernambuco, where the Brazilian dominant class was anti-Portuguese quickly recognized the independence of the Brazilian empire. </li></ul><ul><li>9. To incorporate under the empire some of the northern provinces who were pro- Por- </li></ul><ul><li>tugal Dom Pedro enlisted the service of </li></ul>
  55. 56. <ul><li>Lord Thomas Cochrane </li></ul><ul><li>to organized a Brazilian naval squadron for </li></ul><ul><li>the blockade of Bahia. A Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>convoy of war- ships and troops had been in Bahia before Brazil’s independence. With Lord Cochrane forces and the British South American Squadron the Portuguese navy and troops left Bahia. Bahia was now under the control of Brazil. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Days later the provinces of Maranhao </li></ul><ul><li>and Pará became part of the empire. </li></ul>
  56. 57. <ul><li>11. In 1824 Portuguese troops left Montevi- </li></ul><ul><li>deo and the Cisplatine ( Uruguay) province joined the independent Brazilian empire. </li></ul><ul><li>12. Britain persuaded Brazil to officially abo- </li></ul><ul><li>lish the importation of slaves in 1830 (the </li></ul><ul><li>law was not enforced and Brazil would not abolish slavery until 1888). Brazil also signed a highly favorable commercial treaty with Britain. </li></ul>