Ch 18 & 19


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Ch 18 & 19

  1. 1. Ch 18: Between Two Fires<br />Ch 19: Nationalism <br />and Revolution <br />Around the World<br />(1910–1939)<br />
  2. 2. Section 1: The Postwar World<br />Section 2: Western Democracies<br />Section 3: Fascist Dictatorships<br />Section 4: The Soviet Union<br />Ch 18: Between Two Fires<br />
  3. 3. The Roaring Twenties<br />The Period Between the Wars<br />
  4. 4. Gertrude Ederle Swims the English Channel <br />Gertrude Ederle (1906 - ), who was born on October 23, 1906, was a superb swimmer. Not only did she win three Olympic medallions and break several records, but to top it all off, she went on to become the first woman to swim across the English Channel. When she swam the 21 miles on August 6, 1926, Ederle was only nineteen. Her time: 14 hours and 31 minutes - good enough <br />to beat the previously set men's record. <br />
  5. 5. The Great Bambino<br />Babe Ruth Breaks Home Run Record (1927)<br />George Herman Ruth (1895 - 1948), often known to his fans as Babe Ruth, hit a total of 60 home runs in 1927. This record-breaker would remain a record itself until 1961, when Roger Eugene Maris (1934 - 85) hit 61 home runs. The record has since then been broken by Sammy Sosa of the Chicago Cubs with 66 homers in 1998 and Mark McGwire of the St. Louis Cardinals with 70 in the same year.<br />Ruth was born on February 6, 1895, in Baltimore, Maryland. He first committed to professional baseball at age 20 by playing with the minor-league Baltimore Orioles. He would later sign with the Boston Red Sox and the New York Yankees. In 1919, as a player for the Red Sox, he hit 29 homers. He joined the Yankees in 1920 and hit 54 home runs that year. The next year, he increased to 59. He finally broke the old record in 1927 with 60.<br />Babe Ruth, who earned more than $2 million in his career, was known by several other names as well. These included: the Bambino, the Behemoth of Bust, the Blunderbuss, the Colossus of Clout, the Mammoth of Maul, the Mauling Mastodon, the Mauling Monarch, the Prince of Powders, the Rajah of Rap, the Sultan of Swat, and the Wazir of Wham. Among all of his other accomplishments, this southpaw pitcher was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1936.<br />
  6. 6. PopularRadio Shows<br />
  7. 7. Albert Einstein is Awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics (1921)<br />Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) was born on March 14, 1879, in Germany. In 1905, Einstein published his theory of relativity in "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies." Among his other publications included The Meaning of Relativity. His research eventually earned him worldwide fame and a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1921. <br />Despite the fact that he was born in Germany, he would not stay in his mother country forever. Einstein, who was a patent clerk and Jewish, immigrated to the U.S. in 1933 after Adolf Hitler seized control of Germany. In the U.S. he taught at Princeton University in New Jersey. In 1939, Einstein helped to inform Franklin Roosevelt, then President of the U.S., that Germany was possibly creating atomic weapons. The Advisory Committee on Uranium was created and the Manhattan Project, as the plan to develop atomic bombs was code-named, went into effect. <br />
  8. 8. F. Scott Fitzgerald Publishes The Great Gatsby (1925)<br /> Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald (1896 - 1940), an American writer and screenwriter, was born on September 24, 1896, and published his book The Great Gatsby in 1925. His first novel, This Side of Paradise had been made available to the public in 1920. His writings often portrayed people who became successful in the social and financial worlds, but did not share the same prosperity in their morals. As a perfect reference to the times, Fitzgerald married a flapper named Zelda Sayre. Before his death in Hollywood on December 21, 1940, his many writings included over 150 stories and 5 novels. <br />
  9. 9. The Jazz Age and Louis Armstrong (The 1920's)<br />The Roaring Twenties was alternatively known as The Jazz Age. This "movement" in which jazz music grew in popularity by immense standards in the U.S., also influenced other parts of the world. Following World War I, around 500,000 African Americans in search of better employment opportunities moved to the northern part of the United States. With them, they brought their culture and in New York, the start of the Harlem Renaissance. During this period of time, the works of African Americans in fields such as writing and music escalated. Styles of music including Dixieland and blues became popular as well. The Charleston, a lively dance with origins in South Carolina and African American styles, became immensely popular. The dance, which can be done solo, with two, or in a group, received attention after being shown in Runnin' Wild, a 1923 musical. One man, John Giola, from New York managed to do the Charleston for 22 hours and 30 minutes! This particular dance was introduced to Europeans in 1925. Other dances of the era included the Cake-Walk, the Turkey Trot, the Black Bottom, and the Bunny Hug. With the increased popularity of dances, events such as dance marathons were also created. Throughout the 1920's many people took an interest in music. They owned pianos, played sheet music, and listened to records. One name, arguably one of the most famous jazz musicians of all time, is worth mentioning. Louis Daniel Armstrong (1901 - 1971), from New Orleans, Louisiana, displayed his amazing talents as a trumpeter, cornet player, and singer during the Jazz Age. He studied and played with a famed cornet player named Joseph "King Oliver" Oliver (1885 - 1938). Afterwards, he became a member of Fletcher Henderson's group. In 1925, "Satchmo," who had learned to play cornet at the age of twelve, started The Hot Fives. The band would later gain two more musicians and was appropriately renamed The Hot Sevens. His wife, Lil, was also a member of the group and played the piano. The following year, Armstrong recorded "Heebie Jeebies". "Pops" did not restrict his talents to just music, however. He also starred in films such as Pennies from Heaven. He continued working in the last three years of his life, most of which was spent in hospitals. He died at home on July 6, 1971. Some of the many great artists of that time also included Duke Ellington (1899 - 1974), Joseph "King Oliver" Oliver (1885 - 1938), Bessie Smith (1894? - 1937), Benny Goodman (1909 - 1986), and Ma Rainey. <br />
  10. 10. The Jazz Singer Becomes the First Talkie (1927)<br />The first film featuring spoken words was The Jazz Singer. Warner Brothers produced the talkie in 1927. Al Jolson (1886 - 1950), who was later in The Singing Fool, spoke the first words. In the previous year, the company had created a film with music. In 1928, Warner Brothers moved film making a step further. The Lights of New York became the first film to feature speech throughout the entire movie. The arrival of talkies hurt many silent film stars, but others like Charlie Chaplin were able to continue their work. <br />
  11. 11. The Jazz Age was a time of great change.<br />Harding died in 1923 Calvin Coolidge became President. Coolidge would do nothing to control how the money was being spent by business. “The business of America is business.”<br />On January 16, 1029 the Eighteenth Amendment became law. It made it unlawful to make or sell any alcoholic drink except for medical, industrial, or religious reasons. The sale of alcohol went to gangsters such as Al Capone of Chicago. This caused some major problems. <br />Many companies dealing in alcohol went out of business. <br />People openly broke the law <br />Judges and police became corrupt because they took bribes from bootleggers. <br />In 1933 the Eighteenth Amendment was repealed.<br />Some other changes were:<br />1. The Ku Klux Klan came back to life. This was an organization that had begun after the Civil War to frighten and even kill black freemen. <br />2. Companies began to advertise. Many chain stores grew.<br />3. Women called Flappers began wearing short dresses, bobbing their hair, and smoking cigarettes in public.<br />
  12. 12. 4. Art and literature blossomed in the 20’s.<br />5. Sports became popular. <br /> Jack Dempsey won the world heavyweight boxing<br /> championship. Babe Ruth hit more home runs for the New York Yankees<br /> than any other man in history. Gertrude Ederle swam the English Channel in 14 hours.<br />6. Many people enjoyed silly entertainment.<br /> A man named "Shipwreck" Kelly sat on top of a fifty-foot high<br /> flagpole for two weeks.<br /> Some entered marathon dances.<br /> College students ate goldfish and stuffed themselves into<br /> closets and other small places.<br />
  13. 13. 7. The 20's was the time for art & literature.Ernest Hemingway,F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Sinclair Lewis<br /> were great writers of the time.<br />
  14. 14. 8. Charles Lindbergh flew his plane The Spirit of St. Louis from New York to Paris in just over 33 hours. <br />
  15. 15. 9. In 1929 higher tariff on goods from other countries was passed in Congress. <br /> This hurt farmers because they were not able to sell their goods overseas. Companies could not sell their products. Many people lost money they had invested in companies. <br /> The stock market crashed and the Great Depression started.<br />
  16. 16. Charles Lindbergh<br />The Public Hero<br /> America has rarely given its heroes the stature it accorded Charles Lindbergh following the completion of his flight across the Atlantic. The image of a fearless pilot, master of one of the world's newest and most promising technologies, acting alone to risk all in his attempt to set a world record was simply irresistible. The "Lone Eagle" was exalted above all other modern-day heroes as a living example of the nation's greatest values. No greater symbol of all that was uniquely great about America could have been created by or for a public so sorely in need of a hero. Whether he enjoyed it or not, the adulation he inspired would achieve an intensity well beyond anything previously experienced by his contemporaries. Not until recent times would a trial be more widely followed, incite more passion, or do more to unite a people in their desire for retribution, than did the trial of Bruno Hauptmann, the nondescript man who stood accused of kidnapping and killing the hero's son. <br />
  17. 17. The Lindbergh Baby Kidnapping<br />On 1 March 1932 the country was stunned by the news that the twenty-month-old child of Charles and Anne Lindbergh had been abducted from his home in New Jersey. A search for the child was begun immediately and soon encompassed a five-state area. Kings and presidents sent their condolences, and people prayed for the safe return of the child as hundreds of press representatives from all over the world descended upon the Lindbergh home. Governor Roosevelt of New York offered to place the New York State police at the disposal of New Jersey's state police superintendent Norman Schwartzkopf. The police discovered few clues, and, as time passed, the absence of any news concerning the progress of the investigation left people feeling increasingly angry, frustrated, and vengeful. The outrage and disgust that had characterized the public's reaction to the news of the abduction was too real to be dissipated by the passage of time and would remain oddly disturbing to many. <br />
  18. 18. Chapter 19: Nationalism and <br />Revolution Around the World<br />(1910–1939)<br />Section 1: New Forces in Africa <br /> and the Middle East<br />Section 2: India’s Struggle for<br /> Independence<br />Section 3: China’s Drive for <br /> Modernization<br /> Section 4: Militarism in Japan<br /> Section 5: Nationalism in Latin America <br />
  19. 19. The Evidence<br />The evidence against Hauptmann raised as many questions as it did inferences of guilt: Dr. Condon described his meeting with the kidnapper in convincing detail despite the fact that he was terribly nearsighted and, though unbeknownst to the jury, had been inconsistent in the statements he had offered the investigators over the length of the investigation; Lindbergh saw no one but did hear a voice say "Hey, Doc," a voice he connected with that of the defendant some three years after the fact; the ladder used by the kidnapper to gain access to the Lindbergh's house was a ramshackle affair, suggesting it had been assembled by someone unfamiliar with the carpenter's trade. Hauptmann's defense team suffered its moments of failure: no effort was made to exploit the disagreements that arose among handwriting experts respecting the authorship of the ransom notes. Documentary evidence showing that Hauptmann was at his place of employment around the time of the kidnapping was ignored and eventually misplaced. Hearsay evidence was permitted; other evidence was intentionally suppressed. It all made little difference. At the conclusion of the trial the jury acted quickly to condemn the defendant. Those errors that were identified after the trial were eventually found to be insignificant. In an atmosphere in which Hauptmann's guilt was so completely evident in the eyes of so many as to be beyond question, his request for a new trial was barely given consideration. Hauptmann maintained his innocence until he was executed on 3 April 1936.<br />
  20. 20. The Scopes Trial (1925)<br />During the 1920's, a courtroom case in the United States changed the public's view of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution forever. This particular trial would also be the first-ever to be broadcast live on radio. <br />In 1925, a Tennessee biology teacher named John Thomas Scopes was put on trial for teaching evolution. In the previous two years, Tennessee had been among several states in the U.S. to have fundamentalists propose laws to make teaching evolution illegal. The American Civil Liberties Union, with Clarence Seward Darrow (1857 - 1938) as its lawyer decided to defend Scopes. On the opposing side, William Jennings Bryan fought for Tennessee and against evolution in the classroom. Despite the fact that Scopes eventually lost a trial that he never testified at and was charged $100.00, Darrow was seen as the superior lawyer. Bryan, a three-time presidential candidate was humiliated and outsmarted. Only five days after the trial had ended, Bryan passed away. The outcome of the "Monkey Trial" was later changed; a technicality was found. <br />
  21. 21. Evolutionary Cartoons<br />
  22. 22. Evolutionary Cartoons<br />
  23. 23. Flapper style<br />An advert for lipstick <br />
  24. 24. The Flapper<br />The flapper, whose antics were immortalized in the cartoons of John Held Jr., was the heroine of the Jazz Age. With short hair and a short skirt, with turned-down hose and powdered knees - the flapper must have seemed to her mother (the gentle Gibson girl of an earlier generation) like a rebel. No longer confined to home and tradition, the typical flapper was a young women who was often thought of as a little fast and maybe even a little brazen. Mostly, the flapper offended the older generation because she defied conventions of acceptable feminine behavior. The flapper was "modern." Traditionally, women's hair had always been worn long. The flapper wore it short, or bobbed. She used make-up (which she might well apply in public). And the flapper wore baggy dresses which often exposed her arms as well as her legs from the knees down. However, flappers did more than symbolize a revolution in fashion and mores - they embodied the modern spirit of the Jazz Age. <br />
  25. 25. Fundamentalists vs. the Flappers<br />
  26. 26. O’Hare and Capone Part 1<br />A short history lesson, and a good one about life. Read both of these. They're very good...<br /> World War II produced many heroes. One such man was Lieutenant Commander Butch O'Hare. He was a fighter pilot assigned to an aircraft carrier Lexington in the South Pacific. One day his entire squadron was sent on a mission. After he was airborne, he looked at his fuel gauge and realized that someone had forgotten to top off his fuel tank. He would not have enough fuel to complete his mission and get back to his ship. His flight leader told him to return to the carrier. Reluctantly he dropped out of formation and headed back to the fleet.<br /> As he was returning to his mother ship, he saw something that turned his blood cold. A squadron of Japanese bombers was speeding their way toward the American fleet. The American fighters were gone on a sortie and the fleet was all but defenseless. He couldn't reach his squadron and bring them back in time to save the fleet. Nor, could he warn the fleet of the approaching danger. There was only one thing to do. He must somehow divert them from the fleet. He dove into the formation of Japanese planes. Wing-mounted 50 caliber's blazed as he charged in, attacking one surprised enemy plane and then another. Butch weaved in and out of the now broken formation and fired at as many planes as possible until finally all his ammunition was spent.<br /> Undaunted, he continued the assault. He dove at the planes, trying to at least clip off a wing or tail, in hopes of damaging as many enemy planes as possible and rendering them unfit to fly. He was desperate to do anything he could to keep them from reaching the American ships.<br /> Finally, the exasperated Japanese squadron took off in another direction. Deeply relieved, Butch O'Hare and his tattered fighter limped back to the carrier. Upon arrival he reported in and related the event surrounding his return. The film from the camera mounted on his plane told the tale. It showed the extent of Butch's daring attempt to protect his fleet. He had destroyed five enemy bombers. That was on February 20, 1942, and for that action he became the Navy's first Ace of WWII and the first Naval Aviator to win the congressional Medal of Honor. <br /> A year later he was killed in aerial combat at the age of 29. His hometown would not allow the memory of that heroic action die.<br /> And today, O'Hare Airport in Chicago is named in tribute to the courage of this great man. So the next time you're in O'Hare visit his memorial with his statue and Medal of Honor. It is located between terminal 1 and 2.<br />
  27. 27. O’Hare and Capone Part 2<br />Story number two:<br /> Some years earlier there was a man in Chicago called Easy Eddie. At that time, Al Capone virtually owned the city. Capone wasn't famous for anything heroic. His exploits were anything but praiseworthy. He was, however, notorious for enmeshing the city of Chicago in everything from bootlegged booze and prostitution to murder. Easy Eddie was Capone's lawyer and for a good reason. He was very good! In fact, his skill at legal maneuvering kept Big Al out of jail for a long time. To show his appreciation, Capone paid him very well. Not only was the money big; Eddie got special dividends. For instance, he and his family occupied a fenced-in mansion with live-in help and all of the conveniences of the day. The estate was so large that it filled an entire Chicago city block. Yes, Eddie lived the high life of the Chicago mob and gave little consideration to the atrocities that went on around him.<br /> Eddy did have one soft spot, however. He had a son that he loved dearly. Eddy saw to it that his young son had the best of everything--clothes, cars, and a good education. Nothing was withheld. Price was no object. And, despite his involvement with organized crime, Eddie even tried to teach him right from wrong. Yes, Eddie tried to teach his son to rise above his own sordid life. He wanted him to be a better man than he was. <br /> Yet, with all his wealth and power, Eddie couldn't give his son everything. Two things that Eddie sacrificed to the Capone mob that he could not pass on to his beloved son: a good name and a good example.<br /> One day, Easy Eddie reached a difficult decision. Offering his son a good name was far more important than all the riches he could lavish on him. He had to rectify all the wrong that he had done. He would go to the authorities and tell the truth about Scar-face Al Capone. He would try to clean up his tarnished name and offer his son some semblance of integrity. To do this he must testify against The Mob, and he knew that the cost would be great. But more than anything, he wanted to be an example to his son. He wanted to do his best to make restitution and hopefully have a good name to leave his son. So, he testified. <br /> Within the year, Easy Eddie's life ended in a blaze of gunfire on a lonely Chicago street. He had given his son the greatest gift he had to offer at the greatest price he would ever pay.<br /> What do these two stories have to do with one another?<br /> Well, you see, Butch O'Hare was Easy Eddie's son.<br />
  28. 28. Al Capone<br />Al Capone was one of the most famous and powerful gangsters in United States history. During the 1920's, he built a criminal empire in Chicago that became the model for present-day organized-crime operations. Capone was known as Scarface because his left cheek once had been slashed in a fight. In spite of his reputation, Capone was treated as a celebrity. He was often seen riding in an armored limousine to theaters and sports arenas, where he entertained guests in private boxes.<br />Alphonse Capone was born on Jan. 17, 1899, in Brooklyn, New York, to poor Italian immigrants. The original family name was sometimes spelled Caponi. About 1920, Capone came to Chicago to work for a racketeer. A series of gangland shootings soon left the violent and clever Capone in control of much of the city's large-scale criminal activities. His gang dominated liquor, gambling, and prostitution rackets. It fought off rival gangs with submachine guns, and corrupted police and politicians with bribes.<br />Capone gunmen were blamed for the murder of seven members of the Bugs Moran gang in the St. Valentine's Day Massacre of 1929, but this charge was never proved. In 1931, a federal jury convicted Capone of income tax evasion. The IRS had been gathering tax evasion information on Capone for some time through a hired agent, Eddie O'Hare. O'Hare ran Capone's dog and race tracks and told the IRS where they could find Capone's financial records. On November 24, Al Capone was sentenced to 11 years in Federal prison, fined $50,000, charged $7692 for court costs, and $215,000 in back taxes for tax evasion. The agent in charge of the case was Melvin Purvis. After eight years in prison, Capone retired to his mansion near Miami, Florida. Capone died in Florida on Jan. 25, 1947, from complications due to syphilis.<br />
  29. 29. St. Valentine’s Day Massacre<br /> With the age of telephone and radio communication dawning as it was during the Jazz Age, it spawned not only convenience for everyday life, but for the organizing of crime syndicates as well. Chicago's bloody history during the Jazz Age, is a testimony to the failure of prohibition laws introduced in 1919. The St. Valentine's Day massacre is not noteworthy for its uniqueness of gangland murder, for these syndicate 'hits' were common throughout the 1920s, especially in Chicago. What makes the murders so special on this occasion was the effect it had on the entire Unites States public, and the outrage that followed emphatically pronounced that something had to be done.<br />In the modern era, Chicago is one of the world's great cities, and does have better historical moments outside of the times of 1920s. Sitting on the toe of Lake Michigan, it is the Illinois corner which Indiana and Wisconsin meet. Chicago contains some of the world's most famous architecture, arts, airport, sports teams, and all manner of metropolitan delight. The passing of time has healed the wounds of the gang wars, and Chicago's history in the 20s and 30s is treated with fascination, and while not arrogantly celebrated, is certainly regarded as important Americana. It has a retrospect to the gangster era, growing much in the same way Tombstone, Arizona celebrates the gunfighters of the O.K. Corral. Al Capone has become legend, albeit eras apart, as similar to those gunfighters of the old west.<br />The Al Capone story is really a study of power, where power corrupt is turned to power absolute. It isn't entirely necessary to understand Al Capone's history to appreciate the gangland politics of the St. Valentine's Day Massacre. However, the events leading up to it are intertwined with Capone's history. <br />
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Quick Facts<br />
  32. 32. Langston Hughes‘ Mother to Son<br />Well, son, I'll tell you:Life for me ain't been no crystal stair.It's had tacks in it,And splinters,And boards torn up,And places with no carpet on the floor --Bare.But all the timeI'se been a-climbin' on,<br /> And reachin' landin's,And turnin' corners,And sometimes goin' in the dark<br /> Where there ain't been no light.So boy, don't you turn back.Don't you set down on the steps'Cause you finds it's kinder hard.Don't you fall now --For I'se still goin', honey,I'se still climbin',And life for me ain't been no crystal stair.<br />Pastel drawing of Hughesby Winold Reiss<br />
  33. 33. Zora Neale Hurston1891 - 1960<br />It was a spring afternoon in West Florida. Janie had spent most of the day under a blossoming pear tree in the back-yard. She had been spending every minute that she could steal from her chores under that tree for the last three days. That was to say, ever since the first tiny bloom had opened. It had called her to come and gaze on a mystery. From barren brown stems to glistening leaf-buds; from the leaf-buds to snowy virginity of bloom. It stirred her tremendously. How? Why? It was like a flute song forgotten in another existence and remembered again. What? How? Why? this singing she heard that had nothing to do with her ears. The rose of the world was breathing out smell. It followed her through all her waking moments and caressed her in her sleep. It connected itself with other vaguely felt matters that had struck her outside observation and buried themselves in her flesh. Now they emerged and quested about her consciousness.<br />- Their Eyes Were Watching God<br />
  34. 34. The “It” Girl<br />
  35. 35. Charlie Chaplin<br />The Little Tramp <br />
  36. 36. When the stock market crashes on October 24,1929, it signals the beginning of the Great Depression.<br />There are several causes of the depression: <br />No. 1 -- -- over-production of goods<br />No. 2-- -- over-speculation & the overuse of credit, like buying on margin and installment buying<br />No. 3 -- --widening gap between rich and poor<br />No. 4 -- --loans to Europe, especially Germany<br />No. 5 -- --Dust Bowl/farmers overextended/no markets/highest Hawley-Smoot tariff<br />No. 6 -- --Stock Market Crashed<br />
  37. 37. Causes/Effects of the Depression<br />Causes<br />Government failure to regulate the stock market.<br />Decrease in consumer spending.<br />Uneven distribution of goods.<br />Overproduction of goods.<br />Huge farm surpluses.<br />High tariffs and insistence on collecting war debts.<br /> Effects<br />1. Allowed skyrocketing prices to continue unrestrained.<br />Led to under consumption of goods & services.<br />Limited the income of most families and worsened the problem of under consumption.<br />Led to falling prices and hardships of manufacturers and lay off workers.<br />5. led to drop in farm prices and a prolonged slump in agriculture (Dust Bowl).<br />Interfered with world trade and destroyed foreign markets for American products (global Depression).<br />
  38. 38. The Great Depression<br />100,000 companies went out of business; the number of unemployed people rose sharply; with so many Americans out of work, the demand for goods and services dropped even farther. There were runs on the banks. Without FDIC and reserve requirements, the banks had no money. Thousands of depositors lost their savings. Private charities such as the Red Cross and the Salvation Army opened bread lines and soup kitchens.<br />
  39. 39. The philanthropist<br />The Great Depression devastated the United States in the 1930s, leaving as much as 25 percent of the workforce unemployed. People who lost their jobs began selling five-cent apples on the streets of American cities, providing a symbol of the economic hardships of the era.<br />The philanthropist, December 5, 1930Ink and blue pencil over blue pencil underdrawing with mechanical tone shading on layered paper Published in the Chicago Daily News (2) LC-USZ62-127206 <br />
  40. 40. Blame Hoover!<br />Hoover did too little, too late. He called for business to take voluntary actions to cut production and limit unemployment. There was little in the way of relief. Farmers and the poor were hit the hardest. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was supposed to loan out money, but did not for fear of too high risks.<br />As a result, the RFC did nothing.<br />Hawley-Smoot tariff of 1930—highest so far <br /> Hoover got all of the blame for the depression. Thousands became unemployed and homeless. Many people became homeless hoboes. Many farmers lost their land and those who didn’t got to see it blow away in the horrific and deadly dust storms of the dust bowl in the 1930s. Many Okies and Arkies packed their goods onto trucks and headed for California as migrant workers. The grapes of wrath—the Joad family.<br />
  41. 41. Blame Hoover!<br />20,000 veterans of World War I marched on Washington and demanded their bonus. Hoover sent the Army headed by Douglas MacArthur, his aide-de-camp Dwight “Ike” David Eisenhower, and tanks led by George Patton to remove these people.<br />Hoover blankets—newspapers<br />Hoovervilles—shantytowns<br />Hoover flags—empty pockets turned out.<br />
  42. 42. Walt Disney<br /> WaltDisney(1901-1966), was one of the most famous motion-picture producers in history. Disney first became known in the 1920's and 1930's for creating such cartoon film characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck. He later produced feature-length cartoon films, movies about wild animals in their natural surroundings, and films starring human actors. Disney won 32 Academy Awards for his movies and for scientific and technical contributions to filmmaking. He also gained fame for his development of theme parks.<br />
  43. 43. Shirley Temple<br /> In 1934 alone, Temple made nine features, most notably Little Miss Marker and Bright Eyes, the latter launching her hit song "On the Good Ship Lollipop"; as a result of her success that year -- just her first as a feature actress -- she was even given a special miniature Academy Award. Through it all, Temple remained so poised that rumors swirled that she was not even really a child at all, but a dwarf. As the Depression raged on, her films emerged as compulsory escapist fare for audiences of all ages, and soon she was making upwards of $300,000 annually, with a vast array of dolls, coloring books, clothes and other products bearing her likeness. As the 1930s wore on, Temple's star continued to ascend; each of her films was more profitable than the one which preceded it, and included such hits as 1935's The Littlest Rebel, 1936's Poor Little Rich Girl, and 1937's Heidi. Her pictures also generated a number of hit songs, among them "Animal Crackers in My Soup," "When I Grow Up," "Curly Top" and "Swing Me an Old-Fashioned Love Song."<br />
  44. 44. Woody Guthrie<br />Woody was the second-born son to Charles and Nora Belle Guthrie. His father was a cowboy, land speculator, and local politician. His Kansas-born mother profoundly influenced Woody in ways which would become apparent as he grew older. Slightly built, with an extremely full and curly head of hair, Woody was both a precocious and unconventional boy from the start. A keen observer of the world around him, during his early years in Oklahoma, Woody experienced the first in a series of tragic personal losses - the death of his older sister, Clara - would haunt him throughout his life. This followed by the financial and physical ruin, and the institutionalization of his mother would devastate Woody's family and home, forming a uniquely wry and rambling outlook on life.<br />  <br /> In 1931, when Okemah's boomtown period went bust, Woody left for Texas. In the panhandle town of Pampa, he fell in love and married Mary Jennings in 1933, the younger sister of a friend and musician named Matt Jennings. Together, Woody and Mary had three children, Gwen, Sue and Bill. It was with Matt Jennings and Cluster Baker that Woody made his first attempt at a career, forming The Corn Cob Trio. However, if the Great Depression made it hard to support his family, the Great Dust Storm, which hit the Great Plains in 1935, made it impossible. Due to the lack of work, and driven by a search for a better life, Woody headed west along with the mass migration of "dust bowl refugees" known as "Okies." These farmers and unemployed workers from Oklahoma, Kansas, Tennessee, and Georgia had also lost their homes and land, and so set out with their families in search of opportunities elsewhere. Moneyless and hungry, Woody hitchhiked, rode freight trains, and even walked to California, developing a love for traveling on the open road --a practice which he would repeat often. <br />
  45. 45. This Land Is Your Land<br />This land is your land This land is my landFrom California to the New York island; From the red wood forest to the Gulf Stream waters This land was made for you and Me. <br /> As I was walking that ribbon of highway, I saw above me that endless skyway: I saw below me that golden valley: This land was made for you and me. I've roamed and rambled and I followed my footsteps To the sparkling sands of her diamond deserts; And all around me a voice was sounding: This land was made for you and me. When the sun came shining, and I was strolling, And the wheat fields waving and the dust clouds rolling, As the fog was lifting a voice was chanting: This land was made for you and me. As I went walking I saw a sign there And on the sign it said "No Trespassing." But on the other side it didn't say nothing, That side was made for you and me. <br /> In the shadow of the steeple I saw my people, By the relief office I seen my people; As they stood there hungry, I stood there asking Is this land made for you and me? Nobody living can ever stop me, As I go walking that freedom highway; Nobody living can ever make me turn back This land was made for you and me. <br />
  46. 46. Another Prize Trophy<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48. The New Deal<br />Great Depression deepens<br />Banking system nears collapses<br />Million of people are jobless<br />Many businesses are bankrupt<br />FDR becomes President<br />Democratic Congress passes programs for relief, recovery, and reform<br />Supreme Court strikes down some programs<br />Unions grow and become more powerful<br />Social Security program is established<br />Role of gov’t in the economy increases<br />
  49. 49. Eleanor Roosevelt<br />EleanorRoosevelt(1884-1962), the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, became a distinguished public figure in her own right. She was one of the most active first ladies in American history. Roosevelt, a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, won fame for her humanitarian work and became a role model for women in politics and public affairs.<br />Eleanor Roosevelt was born in New York City. She was christened Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, but her family called her Eleanor, and she rarely used her real first name. In 1905, she married Franklin D. Roosevelt, a distant cousin. The couple had six children. They were Anna Eleanor (1906-1975), James (1907-1991), Franklin Delano, Jr. (died in infancy, 1909), Elliott (1910-1990), Franklin Delano, Jr. (1914-1988), and John (1916-1981). James and Franklin, Jr., both served in the United States House of Representatives.<br />Eleanor Roosevelt began to work politically on behalf of her husband after polio crippled him in 1921. During Franklin Roosevelt's terms as governor of New York and, later, as president, she frequently made fact-finding trips for him. While first lady, she traveled nationwide on lecture tours, held 350 press conferences for women reporters only, and wrote a daily newspaper column and many articles for magazines. She also worked with young people and the underprivileged, and fought for equal rights for minority groups.<br />
  50. 50. 2<br />Resistance to Colonial Rule<br />Opposition to imperialism grew among Africans. Resistance took many forms.<br />Those who had lost their lands to Europeans sometimes squatted, or settled illegally, on European-owned plantations. <br />In cities, workers began to form forbidden labor unions.<br />Western-educated Africans criticized the injustice of imperial rule. <br />Socialism found a growing audience.<br />In Kenya, the Kikuyu protested the loss of their land, forced labor, heavy taxes, and required identification cards.<br />In Nigeria, Ibo women denounced British policies that threatened their rights and their economic role. <br />In South Africa, a vital nationalist movement demanded rights for black South Africans. <br />
  51. 51. Amelia Earhart<br />Birth Name: Amelia Mary Earhart<br />Born: July 24, 1897<br />Birthplace: Atchison, Kansas<br />Died: July 2, 1937, en route from Lae, New Guinea to Howland Island <br />Married: February 7, 1931, to George Putnam<br />Despite having to attend six different high schools, she was able to graduate on time. <br />Earhart was called "Lady Lindy" because her slim build and facial features resembled that of Charles Lindbergh. <br />Earhart refused to don typical flying gear -she wore a suit or dress instead of the "high-bread aviation togs," a close-fitting hat instead of a helmet, didn't put on her goggles until she taxied to the end of the field and removed them immediately upon landing. <br />She developed a friendship with Eleanor Roosevelt, who wanted to learn how to fly. Earhart had planned to teach her, for which the First Lady even got her student permit. <br />Earhart met Orville Wright at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in 1937, the same year she disappeared. <br />Earhart had such an impression on public that people often wrote and told her about naming babies, lakes and even homing pigeons "Amelia." <br />The United States government spent $4 million looking for Earhart, which made it the most costly and intensive air and sea search in history at that time. <br />She was the first woman to receive a pilot's license from the FAI. <br />
  52. 52. Amelia pix<br />
  53. 53. Amelia Earhart, 1897-1937<br />
  54. 54. 2<br />The Middle East, 1920s<br />
  55. 55. Modernization in Turkey and Iran<br />2<br />IRAN<br />TURKEY<br />Atatürk forced through an ambitious program of radical reforms. His goals were to modernize Turkey along western lines and separate religion from government. He:<br />replaced Islamic law with a European-style law code<br />replaced the Muslim calendar with the western calendar<br />forced people to wear western dress—no more fez<br />opened state schools<br />encouraged industrial expansion<br />outlawed polygamy and gave rights to women <br />Shah Reza Khan rushed to modernize Iran and make it fully independent. He: built factories, roads, and railroads and strengthened the army <br />adopted the western alphabet<br />forced Iranians to wear western clothing<br />set up modern, secular schools. <br />replaced Islamic law with secular law<br />encouraged women to take part in public life<br />
  56. 56. European Mandates and Arab Nationalism<br />2<br />During World War I, Arabs had been promised independence in exchange for helping the Allies against the Central Powers. <br />Instead, the Paris Peace Conference had set up mandates — territories administered by European nations, which outraged the Arabs. <br />In 1917, the British issued the Balfour Declaration, which supported the idea of creating a Jewish homeland in Palestine. Palestine was already the home to many Arab communities. This set the stage for conflict between Arab and Jewish nationalists. <br />Arabs felt betrayed by the West — a feeling that has endured to this day. During the 1920s and 1930s, their anger erupted in frequent protests and revolts against western imperialism.<br />
  57. 57. India Seeks Self-Rule<br />What Sparked the Indian Independence Movement After World War I?<br />The Amritsar massacre was a turning point for many Indians. It convinced them of the evils of British rule.<br />The British had promised India greater self-rule in exchange for sending more than a million troops to fight in World War I. <br />However, after the war, Britain proposed only a few minor changes. <br />In the 1920s, a new leader, Mohandas Gandhi, emerged and united all Indians.<br />
  58. 58. Mohandas Gandhi<br />3<br />Gandhi adopted the weapon of nonviolent (passive) resistance and embraced Hindu traditions. <br />During the 1920s and 1930s, Gandhi launched a series of nonviolent actions against British rule. <br />He called for boycotts of British goods, especially textiles.<br /> He urged Indians to wear only cotton grown and woven in India. <br /> He worked to restore pride in India’s traditional industries. <br /> He inspired Indians to “get rid of helplessness.”<br />
  59. 59. The Salt March<br />3<br />While natural salt was available in the sea, Indians were forced by the British to buy salt sold by the British government.<br />To Gandhi, the British salt monopoly was a symbol of British oppression. To mobilize mass support, Gandhi set out to end the British salt monopoly.<br />During the Salt March, Gandhi picked up a lump of the forbidden salt and declared, “With this, I am shaking the foundations of the British empire.”<br />
  60. 60. Challenges to the Chinese Republic<br />When Yuan Shikai tried to make himself emperor, the military objected, and opposition divided the nation.<br />In the provinces, warlords seized power.<br />During the upheaval, foreign powers were able to increase their influence over Chinese affairs. <br />Student protests set off a cultural and intellectual ferment known as the May Fourth Movement. <br />Some Chinese turned to the revolutionary ideas of Marx and Lenin. <br />
  61. 61. 4<br />Mao Zedong<br />Jiang Jieshi<br />Sun Yixian<br />Revolutionary of peasant origins.<br />Believed the Communists should seek support among the large peasant masses.<br />With his Guomindang, or Nationalist party, established a government in South China.<br />Turned to the Russians when western powers ignored his pleas for help in building a democratic China. <br />Took over the Guomindang after Sun’s death.<br />Led the Guomindang in a series of “extermination campaigns” against the Communists.<br />Leaders for a New China<br />
  62. 62. 4<br />Civil War in China, 1925 – 1935<br />
  63. 63. Japanese Invasion<br />4<br />In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria, adding it to the growing Japanese empire.<br />In the face of Japanese aggression, Jiang was forced to form a united front with the Communists against Japan.<br />In 1937, Japanese troops attacked again, overrunning eastern China, including Beijing and Guangzhou.<br />Jiang retreated to the interior and set up his capital at Chongqing.<br />Japanese troops marched into Nanjing.<br />After the city’s surrender, the Japanese killed hundreds of thousands of soldiers and civilians in what came to be known as the “rape of Nanjing.”<br />
  64. 64. Empire of the Rising Sun<br />5<br />The Nationalist Reaction<br />In 1929, the Great Depression rippled across the Pacific, striking Japan with devastating force.<br />Economic disaster fed the discontent of the leading military officials andultranationalists, or extreme nationalists. They condemned politicians for agreeing to western demands to stop overseas expansion.<br />Japanese nationalists were further outraged by racial policies in the United States, Canada, and Australia that shut out Japanese immigrants.<br />As the economic crisis worsened, nationalists demanded renewed expansion.<br />In 1931, a group of Japanese army officers provoked an incident that would provide an excuse to seize Manchuria from China. <br />
  65. 65. 5<br />Japan’s Expanding Empire to 1934<br />
  66. 66. Postwar Issues in Europe<br />1<br />Postwar Europe faced grave problems:<br />Returning veterans needed jobs.<br />War-ravaged lands needed to be rebuilt. <br />Many nations owed huge debts because they had borrowed heavily to pay for the war.<br />Economic problems fed social unrest and made radical ideas more popular.<br />The peace settlements dissatisfied many Europeans, especially in Germany and Eastern Europe.<br />Europe lacked strong leaders just when they were most needed. <br />
  67. 67. 1<br />The Great Depression<br />Long-Term Causes<br />Immediate Causes<br />Worldwide interrelationship of governments and economies<br />Huge war debts<br />American loans to Europe<br />Widespread use of credit<br />Overproduction of goods<br />Industrial wages rise as farm earnings fall<br />New York stock market crash <br />Farmers unable to repay loans<br />Banks demand repayment of loans<br />American loans to other countries dry up<br />Without capital, businesses and <br />factories fail<br />Long-Term Effects<br />Immediate Effects<br />Rise of fascism and Nazism<br />Governments experiment with <br />social programs<br />People blame scapegoats <br />World War II begins<br />Vast unemployment and misery<br />Protective tariffs imposed <br />Loss of faith in capitalism and <br />democracy<br />Authoritarian leaders emerge<br />
  68. 68. 1<br />Unemployment, 1928 – 1938<br />
  69. 69. Britain and France in the Postwar Era<br />1<br />BRITAIN<br />FRANCE<br />The French economy recovered fairly quickly. <br />Many political parties competed for power and France was ruled by a series of coalition governments. <br />France created the Maginot Line to secure its borders against Germany.<br />The government strengthened the military and sought alliances with other countries, including the Soviet Union.<br />The Great Depression intensified existing economic problems. <br />Britain set up a coalition government made up of leaders from all three major parties.<br />The government provided some unemployment benefits. <br />British leaders wanted to relax the Versailles treaty’s harsh treatment of Germany. <br />
  70. 70. The United States in the Postwar Era<br />1<br />The country emerged from World War I in excellent shape.<br />The United States stayed out of the League of Nations. However, the nation took a leading role in international diplomacy during the 1920s.<br />During a “Red Scare” in 1919 and 1920, police rounded up suspected foreign-born radicals and expelled a number of them from the United States. <br />Congress passed laws limiting immigration from Europe.<br />The 1929 stock market crash shattered American prosperity. <br />President Franklin Roosevelt introduced the New Deal, a massive package of economic and social programs, to help combat the Great Depression. <br />
  71. 71. 2<br />A Culture in Conflict<br />How did new views revolutionize modern science and thought?<br />What artistic and literary trends emerged in the 1920s?<br />How did western society change after World War I?<br />
  72. 72. 2<br />New ideas and scientific discoveries challenged long-held ideas about the nature of the world.<br />PSYCHOLOGY<br />RELATIVITY<br />RADIOACTIVITY<br />Sigmund Freud suggested that the subconscious mind drives much human behavior.<br />Freud pioneered psychoanalysis, a method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders. <br />Marie Curie and other scientists experimented with radioactivity. They found that:<br />atoms of certain elements release charged particles.<br />radioactivity could change atoms of one element into atoms of another. <br />Albert Einstein advanced his theories of relativity:<br />Measurements of space and time are not absolute. <br />New Views of the Universe<br />
  73. 73. Artistic and Literary Trends<br />2<br />ART<br />LITERATURE<br />ARCHITECTURE<br />Architects rejected classical traditions and developed new styles to match an industrial, urbanized world.<br />The Bauhaus school blended science and technology with design.<br />Frank Lloyd Wright’s work reflected the belief that the function of a building should determine its form.<br />In the early 1900s, many western artists rejected traditional styles.<br />Instead of trying to reproduce the real world, they explored other dimensions of color, line, and shape.<br />Cubism, abstract art, and surrealism were some of the styles that developed.<br />Writers exposed the grim horrors of modern warfare. <br />To many postwar writers, the war symbolized the breakdown of western civilization.<br />Some writers experimented with stream of consciousness.<br />
  74. 74. A Changing Society<br />2<br />After World War I, many people yearned to return to life as it had been before 1914. But rapid social changes would make it hard to turn back the clock.<br />New technologies helped create a mass culture shared by millions in the world’s developed countries.<br />The war changed social values and the class system itself.<br />Affordable cars gave middle-class people greater mobility.<br />Rebellious young people rejected<br />the moral values of the Victorian<br />age and chased excitement. <br />Labor-saving devices freed women from many time-consuming household chores. Women pursued careers in many arenas. <br />Radios brought news, music, and sports into homes throughout the western world.<br />
  75. 75. What Is Fascism?<br />3<br />In the 1920s and 1930s, fascism meant different things in different countries. All forms of fascism, however, shared some basic features:<br /> extreme nationalism<br /> glorification of action, violence, discipline, and, above all, blind loyalty to the state<br /> rejection of Enlightenment faith in reason and the concepts of equality and liberty<br /> rejection of democratic ideas<br /> pursuit of aggressive foreign expansion<br /> glorification of warfare as a necessary and noble struggle for survival<br />
  76. 76. Mussolini’s Italy<br />3<br />POLITICAL STRUCTURE<br />ECONOMIC POLICY<br />SOCIAL POLICIES<br />The individual was unimportant except as a member of the state.<br />Men were urged to be ruthless warriors.<br />Women were called on to produce more children. <br />Fascist youth groups toughened children and taught them to obey strict military discipline. <br />Mussolini brought the economy under state control. <br />Unlike socialists, Mussolini preserved capitalism. <br />Workers received poor wages and were forbidden to strike.<br />By 1925, Mussolini had assumed the title Il Duce, “The Leader.”<br />In theory, Italy remained a parliamentary monarchy. In fact, it became a dictatorship upheld by terror.<br />The Fascists relied on secret police and propaganda.<br />
  77. 77. Adolf Hitler’s Rise to Power<br />4<br />Hitler fought in the German army in World War I.<br />In 1919, he joined a small group of right-wing extremists.<br />Within a year, he was the leader of the National Socialist German Workers, or Nazi, party.<br />In 1923, he made a failed attempt to seize power in Munich. He was imprisoned for treason.<br />In prison, Hitler wrote Mein Kampf (“My Struggle”). It would later become the basic book of Nazi goals and ideology. <br />Nazi membership grew to almost a million.<br />In 1933, Hitler was made chancellor of Germany.<br />Within a year, Hitler was master of Germany. He made Germany a one-party state and purged his own party.<br />
  78. 78. The Third Reich <br />4<br />ECONOMIC POLICIES<br />POLITICAL POLICIES<br />Hitler repudiated, or rejected, the hated Treaty of Versailles.<br />Hitler organized a system of terror, repression, and totalitarian rule.<br />Hitler launched a large public works program.<br />Hitler began to rearm Germany, in violation of the Versailles treaty.<br />CULTURAL POLICIES<br />SOCIAL POLICIES<br />The Nazis indoctrinated young people with their ideology.<br />Hitler spread his message of racism. <br />The Nazis sought to limit women’s roles. <br />School courses and textbooks were written to reflect Nazi racial views.<br />The Nazis sought to purge, or purify, German culture.<br />Hitler sought to replace religion with his racial creed. <br />
  79. 79. 4<br />Hitler’s Campaign Against the Jews<br />Hitler set out to drive Jews from Germany. <br />In 1935, the Nuremberg Laws placed severe restrictions on Jews.<br />Many German Jews fled Germany and sought refuge in other countries.<br />In 1938, Nazi-led mobs attacked Jewish communities all over Germany in what came to be called Kristallnacht, or the “Night of Broken Glass.”<br />Hitler sent tens of thousands of Jews to concentration camps, detention centers for civilians considered enemies of the state.<br />Hitler planned the “final solution”—the extermination of all Jews.<br />