Mental Modeling For Content Work: Contextual Inquiry, Personas and Planning

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Slides from my Confab 2014 workshop: Mental Modeling For Content Work. …

Slides from my Confab 2014 workshop: Mental Modeling For Content Work.

Anyone working in content strategy knows that dealing with messy web content is a difficult task. Creating effective, engaging content that’s relevant to potential users and customers while supporting a good information architecture is even more difficult.

Take some of the guesswork out of content by investing more time in the upfront planning and inquiry, getting to the bottom of who your users really are. Spend a day with Daniel Eizans and learn how to conduct contextual inquiry, develop more relevant personas, and mental model your way to a better content strategy.

Daniel will bring real, field-tested examples of personas and mental models that have impacted organizational content strategy and take attendees through a series of hands-on exercises that will immediately add value to content planning and production.

You will:

Learn about the fundamentals of contextual inquiry and how to conduct this type of research when creating personas
Understand how to create more effective personas for content creators and content planners
Plan content with others using a modified mental modeling technique driven by inquiry and persona data
Receive tools and templates for bringing this technique to your clients or organization.

More in: Internet , Education
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  • 1. Mental Modeling For Content Work CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY, PERSONAS AND PLANNING DANIEL EIZANS | CONFAB CENTRAL 5.7.14
  • 2. HI! I’m daniel Eizans. I’m an Information Architect ! ABOUT ME: I’ve been a journalist, student of neuroscience, a marketer and a strategist at two of the world’s largest advertising agencies. Now, I’m a senior information architect at The Understanding Group (TUG) ! CLIENT WORK: Automotive (Ford, Chevrolet), Government (EPA, CDC, FAFSA) Non-Profits (National Safety Council), Healthcare (Kaiser Permanente, McClaren Health, MetroHealth) and Consumer Products (Olympic) ! TWITTER: @danieleizans 2
  • 3. What we’ll cover today Part 2: Affinity Diagrams 1. Overview: Affinity Diagrams 2. Exercise: Group Affinity Diagrams 3. Review and Q/A Part 1: Contextual Inquiry 1. Overview: Contextual Inquiry 2. Exercise: Performing Inquiry 3. Exercise: Interview Interpretation Part 3: Developing Personas 1. Overview: Developing Personas 2. Group Work: Review Personas 3. Exercise: Cognitive Diagram Part 4: Mental Modeling 1. Overview: The Process 2. Exercise: Mental Modeling 3. Review and Q/A 3
  • 4. Part 1: Contextual inquiry
  • 5. Contextual inquiry: What it is Contextual inquiry is a structured form of interviewing that allows the research team to: • Gather interview data • Understand ethnographic insights • Capture physical behaviors and work patterns ! The data gathered helps inform everything from personas, to product design, to workflow/ workplace modification, to content strategy. 5
  • 6. Contextual inquiry: What it is User Interview (Influenced by Designer/Strategist) Contextual Inquiry (Influenced by designer, user and strategist) Observation (Influenced by end user) 6
  • 7. Conducting Interviews: needs Keys to a successful interview are: • An interviewer for formal questioning • An observer for recording physical behaviors, workflow models and note taking • Trust between interviewer and subject ! The interview is about building a relationship. Even if we feel like we have the right answers, our effort should focus on developing a shared interpretation of an activity or work. 7
  • 8. Conducting interviews: goals Key outputs of contextual inquiry should be: • Watching and probing to observe users as they work and inquire to understand motivations and strategies • Learn from the user perspective, even you feel like you know the “answers” • Look for gaps in what a user is leaving out and ask questions to fill them • Gather both concrete and abstract data to have them focus on actual artifacts and actions 8
  • 9. The interviewer role In traditional user interviews, the interviewer asks users a series of questions that relate to the business objectives or research goals. In contextual inquiry, interviewers must: • Be a facilitator of conversation AND of behavior • Make the participant feel like an expert, in whatever they’re doing • Ensure that the interview environment is contextually relevant to the research or tasks to be addressed • Ensure the participant articulates the processes and methods for work as he/she is doing it 9 Photo: Columbia Pictures
  • 10. The observer role The observers role in contextual inquiry is to do just that… observe. The goal of having an observer on hand is to • Document physical behaviors • Understand how the environment (context) affects the participants ability to complete a task or perform work • Note patterns that emerge from one interview to the next • Take photographs or video 10 Photo Mike Freedman: https://flic.kr/p/hvZwgb
  • 11. The Participant role Participants in contextual inquiry research are equally as responsible for the outcome as the interviewer and observers. Participants are responsible for: • Doing and answering • Showing the observer and interviewer complete tasks • Avoiding assuming that the interviewers will understand “why” something is being done • Talk to the researchers level of understanding (avoid jargon) 11 Photo - DG EMPL: https://flic.kr/p/7yh1oF
  • 12. Conducting the inquiry The most important thing to remember when doing contextual inquiry is to avoid things like conference rooms, Skype or usability centers. Participants must be in their own environment (home, office, workspace, etc.) • I typically send out an email to participants to outline goals, rules of engagement and profess my ignorance • On arrival, note ambient factors (lighting, temperature, time of day, layouts of things, observable culture, artifacts present, etc.) • Begin the session with a short questionnaire 12 Photo - Mark Hunter: https://flic.kr/p/aZdRXi
  • 13. Conducting the inquiry - continued • After your short questionnaire, note that you’ll be doing something completely different and set them to work • Ask questions that arise during the completion of task, keep the interview free flowing and adjust as needed • Ask specific questions relating to their thought process, task, and ensure that they feel like their the expert • Work up to an hour, be ready to move locations if necessary (e.g. workstation change or an environmental stimuli requirement) 13 Photo - Jeff Swaim: https://flic.kr/p/e5fATs
  • 14. Conducting the inquiry - continued • Document, document, document • Photograph, photograph, photograph • Ask, ask, ask • Ask again • Spend two hours on analysis for every one hour of inquiry 14 Photo - Marco Arment: https://flic.kr/p/411AnZ
  • 15. Preparing for interpretation During your interview be sure to: • Avoid lots of open ended questions that provide less chance for interpretation • Strike a balance between probing for what you sense as a pattern and allowing the participant to work freely • Cycle between observing, probing and interpreting • Be flexible but be consistent in the type of person you are so that trust will develop 15 Photo - Hans Splinter: https://flic.kr/p/5tWKPt
  • 16. Questions?
  • 17. Exercise: Contextual Inquiry Photo Hibb08: https://flic.kr/p/5NUGUW
  • 18. Questions?
  • 19. Let’s take a Short break! Photo: David Joyce- https://flic.kr/p/5AwR9z
  • 20. Overview: Interpreting Contextual Inquiry Photo - Peter Vlk: https://flic.kr/p/64K9LN
  • 21. FACT HYPOTHESIS IMPLICATION IDEA Most interactive projects jump from fact to idea immediately, missing work that should happen between research and ideation. The interpretation sessions are crucial in the content strategy process for persona development and content planning ! ! Interpretation: Moving beyond facts 21
  • 22. Interpretation sessions Team interpretation sessions bring a cross-functional team together to hear the whole story of an interview and capture the insights and learning relevant to the problem. These sessions should: • Be conducted within 48 hours of the interviews • Be moderated by an interviewer who discusses each interview for the benefit of the team • Assign roles: Moderator (interviewer), work modeler, recorder, task master 22
  • 23. Goals of the interpretation sessions Since the sessions are cross functional and collaborative, they’re particularly valuable for transfer of the knowledge that the interviewers and observers learned in the actual interviews. Teams should: • Listen and participate in conversation • Ask questions • Draw work models • Record issues, interpretations and ideas based on the interviews
  • 24. Models for observing work/tasks There are a variety of ways that observers can use to model work and tasks, depending on the goal of the research. These include: • Flow Models • Sequence Models • Artifact Models • Cultural Models • Physical Models 24
  • 25. Observation Modeling: Flow FLOW MODELS: • Show “actors” and their interactions during a process (e.g. A receptionist greeting a visitor upon entry to a hospital lobby) • Maps all the events that take place during work, process or task • Are NOT responsible for showing the sequence of events during a work process 25 Attempts To Save Configurtion KARYN Visits Rebel's website and researches several vehicles Schedules Appointment With Ambassador Configuration Cannot Be Saved
  • 26. Observation Modeling: Sequence SEQUENCE MODELS: • Document the steps taken to perform a task or work • Build from data captured in a flow model or are produced exclusively • Can include multiple actors if necessary 26 Intent: Configure A Vehicle Trigger: Reads reviews and clicks ad on sidebar Starts to build a small SUV using online tool Attempts to Save Configuration Share button appeared to have a save option that confused user
  • 27. Observation Modeling: Artifact ARTIFACT MODELS: • Provide a view of all artifacts, tools (e.g. mobile phone, tablet, reminder note etc.) used in the work process • Are typically forms of information, screenshots of how people use digital information • Are crucial for placemaking, in that they provide understanding where the digital and physical worlds should intersect 27
  • 28. Collector Visitor Book Cultural Model Ok, I will explain it to you [#39] Please explain so that I understand [#39]The page from 1493?[#55] Based on avor [#34] Book distracts by som ething else interesting [#71] Campaign buttons / current history [#60] Historic interests (1886) [#9] [#59] [#65] Flavor of reading: Eg Harry Potter [#33] Does not borrow/loan or give away [#39] Prefers hard copy books [#43] Try to preserve connection [#105] Likes to keep the collection alive [#133] Recreate the old German library [#140] Collector really likes old books [#158] Usually goes to book store to have a lot of fun [#160] Collects irony [#58] Likes to reminisce [#77] How to preserve old books? [#48] M akes it m ore real, easy to im agine [#63] Important to build context [#43] Plastic Jacket No physical use of book Another Collecter Book store owner It m akes collector to collect by size [#139] Visiting to take a look and nd a book [#2 1] Collector doesn’t keep notes [#127] Informsaboutnewerversions/ opinionsaboutabook[#195] Owner’sbookbuyingpreference[#162] Som etim escollectoraddsvaluebycom pleting sets[#150] Book’squality,age,andpriceareimportant[#189] Allbooksmustbekeptsafe Price matters more than quality Observation Modeling: Cultural CULTURAL MODELS • Document how environments and other actors in a given place influence the work being done • Are impacted by things like: • Socioeconomic status of the user • Open office vs. traditional offices • Vary significantly depending on participant background 28
  • 29. Observation Modeling: physical PHYSICAL MODELS • Show the work environment in which work or tasks occur • Highlight the physical structures, layouts and materials that take part in task completion • Will vary greatly from participant to participant and with ambient factors like time. 29
  • 30. Exercise: Interview interpretations
  • 31. Questions?
  • 32. Let’s EAT! Photo: Jim Merithew | https://flic.kr/p/aEWJLp
  • 33. Part 2: Affinity Diagrams
  • 34. Consolidation of the work When combined with a consolidation of work models, affinity diagrams produce a reliable picture of who and what a design or content program should address. • The affinity diagram brings together issues and insights across all participants into a wall-sized, hierarchical diagram to reveal the scope of the problem and opportunities • Consolidated work models bring together each different model separately, to reveal common strategies and intents while retaining and organizing the individual differences 34
  • 35. THE affinity diagram process Materials needed: Sticky notes or cards, marking pens and a large work surface (table, wall or even the floor) Procedure: 1. Record each idea or pattern with a marking pen on a separate sticky note or card. Randomly spread the notes on the work surface so everyone involved can see. The entire team organizes. 35 Photo - Alex: https://flic.kr/p/8BsiCV
  • 36. The affinity diagram process (continued) 2. With minimal or no talking, identify relationships and group notes accordingly. You can move something someone has moved. If something belongs in two groups make another note. 3. Discuss the patterns as a group. Why did things move or not move. Create categories or headings for each group. Identify notes that capture the “meaning” of the groups. 36 Photo - Sean Munson: https://flic.kr/p/uEJQr
  • 37. the Affinity diagram process (continued) 4. Combine groups of notes into larger categories or supergroups if it’s appropriate. 5. Map interview data to the affinity diagrams if you can. Establish patterns among similar participants and begin to note where personas are emerging in relation to your project goals. 37 Photo - Sean Munson: https://flic.kr/p/uEJZB
  • 38. Exercise: Affinity Diagrams
  • 39. Questions?
  • 40. Welcome Back! Meet Rebel Motor Company
  • 41. Meet REBEL motor coMpany Rebel Motor Company is an emerging American automotive manufacture hoping to “change the way people buy cars.” The company is dedicated to selling as many cars online as possible, committing a minimal footprint to dealer networks. Rebel, is dedicated to selling smart, environmentally friendly vehicles that serve a variety of driver needs. The main focus of their website has been on vehicle customization and a smooth online ordering process. After spending time with their users and shoppers, Rebel’s team is hoping to expand its content offering to better meet the needs, behaviors and pain points of potential buyers. They need personas, they need a content strategy. They need YOUR help. Photo: Adrien Séné - https://flic.kr/p/5WcY3r 41
  • 42. RMC’s Goals Rebel Motor Company wants to use contextual inquiry, personas and planning to modify its content strategy and information architecture to better serve customers. Their primary goals in this initiative are: 1. To increase online-only sales by 20 percent 2. Improve the usability of the online build tool 3. Increase requests for test drives among conquests 4. Increase requests for online and in-person consultations 5. Improve peer-to-peer communication among Rebel owners 42 Photo: Audi PR
  • 43. Research plan Based on Rebel’s desired outcomes, our research goals should be to: 1. Identify gaps or breakdowns in the online ordering and process 2. Understand pain points, frustrations, barriers and successes of the build tool 3. Understand user desires and expectations for scheduling online, as well as the workflow of ambassador and dealers in the real world 4. Identify patterns and triggers for consultation requests 5. Identify social behaviors, sharing tendencies and triggers in current RMC owners. 43
  • 44. The plan: Contextual inquiry + Personas After reviewing Rebel’s goals and approving a research direction, we have established a plan to perform contextual inquiry with a series of owners, RCM intenders (in-market shoppers) and experienced shoppers of durable goods. We will schedule up to 20 one hour interviews followed by 40 hours of analysis to establish segments for persona planning. Outputs of research will be: • Affinity diagrams • Personas • A mental model for informing content strategy 44
  • 45. Let’s Review
  • 46. Part 3: PERSONAS (a.k.a “franken-people”) Photo: Universal Pictures
  • 47. Why Franken-People? Personas are made up of real pieces of user research, composited together to form an amalgamated “person” who represents a broader target. 47 Photo: Universal Pictures
  • 48. Personas: Research approach 48 1 2 3 7Carlos Matt Brad Austin Nate Tim User Interviews CONSIDERERS ONLINE CONQUESTS Robert 8 9 10 Jennifer*15 12 Eric Blake* Marcy* 13 14 * PURCHASED ITEM $10,000+ ITEM ONLINE Gary11 4 5 6 OWNERS Aaron Julia Lynn 3 1 2 Personas CONSIDERER Cindy Marco Michael ONLINE CONQUESTS 5 Kristopher OWNER 4 Shannon
  • 49. Personas: Research approach Extracted patterns allow us to map personas to the people we interview and observe. We then plot them against the business objectives and segment them appropriately DIGITAL STOREFRONT BRICK & MORTAR COMMUNITY FOCUSED COMMUNITY INDIFFERENT 2 Marco 3MICHAEL 1CINDY 5 KRISTOPHER 4SHANNON 1 2 3 7 Carlos Matt Brad Austin Nate Tim Robert 8 9 10 Jennifer*15 12 Eric Blake* Marcy* 13 14 Gary 11 4 5 6 Aaron Julia Lynn 49
  • 50. Personas: Segmentation 50 Cindy: Competitive Owner/Considerer Marco: First Time Buyer/Considerer Shannon: Hard Sell/Conquest Overcome fear "I want to avoid the dealership but I'm nervous about making a purchase this large online." Customizing for my family "I need an environmentally friendly vehicle that allows us to do the hobbies that are important to us. " Finding people like me "My co-worker has had a great experience with Rebel Motor Company, but I want to be sure that other's like me are equally happy." Sense of pride "I like talking with other people who have the same type of vehicle as me. I want to be involved with RMC's community of ambassadors." Compare vehicles/manufacturers "I want something that is going to last. I like the design and green touches that RMC offers but I want something that's proven." Buy with confidence I've had lots of hand me downs and I'm ready to buy my first car. I want to be sure I'm getting a good deal and get something that feels like me." Michael: Online Buyer/Conquest Flexible times and appointments "I'm a busy guy. I want a company that can accommodate my schedule during the purchase AND service process Bottom line "I don't like hidden fees, and loathe dealers. I want to know what I'm going to pay out the door." Win my business "I'm a long time Chevy driver. I'm unhappy about a slew of recalls on my last vehicle. Why should I chose Rebel?" Post Sale Attention "My Lexus dealer always knows my name when I arrive and understands what I expect from them. I want that experience with my next car." Style focused I really like the styling of Rebel Motor Company, what are my other options as far as customization goes?" Overcome fear "I like RMC vehicles but there are so few dealers. Who will service my car if I have a problem?" Kristopher: RMC Vehicle Owner Sharing my story "I want to share my experience with key contacts and prospective Rebel buyers. I also would consider being an ambassador and helping spread the word about RMC. Keep me informed "I always want to know what's coming for my SUV. It's important to me to connect with others and know what the company is up to. Reaffirm purchase "I love being involved in the Rebel community. It means a lot that they invited me to events, and touched base with me after I bought my car."
  • 51. Let’s Meet Them
  • 52. Rebel motor Company’s personas: MARCO 52 Marco: First Time Buyer/Considerer Sense of pride "I like talking with other people who have the same type of vehicle as me. I want to be involved with RMC's community of ambassadors." Compare vehicles/manufacturers "I want something that is going to last. I like the design and green touches that RMC offers but I want something that's proven." Buy with confidence I've had lots of hand me downs and I'm ready to buy my first car. I want to be sure I'm getting a good deal and get something that feels like me."
  • 53. Rebel motor Company’s personas: Michael 53 Michael: Online Buyer/Conquest Flexible times and appointments "I'm a busy guy. I want a company that can accommodate my schedule during the purchase AND service process Bottom line "I don't like hidden fees, and loathe dealers. I want to know what I'm going to pay out the door." Win my business "I'm a long time Chevy driver. I'm unhappy about a slew of recalls on my last vehicle. Why should I chose Rebel?"
  • 54. Rebel motor Company’s personas: Shannon 54 Shannon: Hard Sell/Conquest Post Sale Attention "My Lexus dealer always knows my name when I arrive and understands what I expect from them. I want that experience with my next car." Style focused I really like the styling of Rebel Motor Company, what are my other options as far as customization goes?" Overcome fear "I like RMC vehicles but there are so few dealers. Who will service my car if I have a problem?"
  • 55. Rebel motor Company’s personas: KRISTOPHER 55 Kristopher: RMC Vehicle Owner Sharing my story "I want to share my experience with key contacts and prospective Rebel buyers. I also would consider being an ambassador and helping spread the word about RMC. Keep me informed "I always want to know what's coming for my SUV. It's important to me to connect with others and know what the company is up to. Reaffirm purchase "I love being involved in the Rebel community. It means a lot that they invited me to events, and touched base with me after I bought my car."
  • 56. Rebel motor Company’s personas: Cindy 56 Cindy: Competitive Owner/Considerer Overcome fear "I want to avoid the dealership but I'm nervous about making a purchase this large online." Customizing for my family "I need an environmentally friendly vehicle that allows us to do the hobbies that are important to us. " Finding people like me "My co-worker has had a great experience with Rebel Motor Company, but I want to be sure that other's like me are equally happy."
  • 57. Cindy has a heightened awareness and care for the world around her. She has taken steps to ensure that her family is able to recycle as much as possible. She uses re-usable shopping bags and their family uses a single, energy efficient vehicle (a Toyota Prius). Cindy wants another energy efficient vehicle but one that offers more space for her family, pets and hobbies. She is very open to potentially purchasing a vehicle online. She spends a lot of time in her kayak and considers herself to be a conservationist. In her spare time she likes up cycling, hiking and being with family. Cindy is a current Hybrid owner that is dissatisfied with the utility of the vehicle. She and her husband want desperately to find an environmentally friendly vehicle that will meet the needs of her growing family and their "outdoorsy" activities. Cindy has made major purchases online in the past and her husband purchased a motorcycle sight unseen from eBay Motors last year. One of her co-workers used the online concierge service from Rebel and has raved about it. She has started browsing on the Rebel Motor Company website and has been customizing a mid-size environmentally-friendly small SUV and uses their mobile site to share her inspiration with her husband. Cindy and her husband have decided to use the online tools and have chatted with ambassadors on Rebel's website. They ask a local dealer to visit them at their home to compare a small Hybrid SUV with their Prius. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household Relationship with RMC: Unhappy with her current vehicle, Cindy has taken it upon herself to gather information from her friends, family and co-workers to learn more about the vehicles in RMC's lineup. She has been impressed by the feedback and has spent time configuring several vehicles on the RMC website. She likes the company's small carbon footprint and cavalier business model. Cindy's Digital Life: Cindy considers herself pretty adept at technology and uses a wide range of different devices at work and at home. She keeps a strong separation of her technology between work and home and has a different computer and cell phone that she uses for each. Daily Technological Diet: ▪ IBM Thinkpad Used for communicating marketing plans, sending emails and working at her daily job. ▪ iPhone Work issued and used for email, texting and phone application ▪ Macintosh Laptops Both she and her husband, have MacBook Airs for personal use. ▪ Samsung Android Smartphone Personal Android phone, used for text messaging, email, social networking ▪ iPad Both personal and business use. Preferred when traveling, used for reading, email, browsing and research About Cindy Consideration Prob. Brand Aware Mobile Use 57
  • 58. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household 58
  • 59. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household Consideration Prob. Brand Aware Mobile Use 59
  • 60. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household Consideration Prob. Brand Aware Mobile Use Cindy has a heightened awareness and care for the world around her. She has taken steps to ensure that her family is able to recycle as much as possible. She uses re-usable shopping bags and their family uses a single, energy efficient vehicle (a Toyota Prius). Cindy wants another energy efficient vehicle but one that offers more space for her family, pets and hobbies. She is very open to potentially purchasing a vehicle online. She spends a lot of time in her kayak and considers herself to be a conservationist. In her spare time she likes up cycling, hiking and being with family. Cindy is a current Hybrid owner that is dissatisfied with the utility of the vehicle. She and her husband want desperately to find an environmentally friendly vehicle that will meet the needs of her growing family and their "outdoorsy" activities. Cindy has made major purchases online in the past and her husband purchased a motorcycle sight unseen from eBay Motors last year. One of her co-workers used the online concierge service from Rebel and has raved about it. She has started browsing on the Rebel Motor Company website and has been customizing a mid-size environmentally-friendly small SUV and uses their mobile site to share her inspiration with her husband. Cindy and her husband have decided to use the online tools and have chatted with ambassadors on Rebel's website. They ask a local dealer to visit them at their home to compare a small Hybrid SUV with their Prius. About Cindy 60
  • 61. Cindy has a heightened awareness and care for the world around her. She has taken steps to ensure that her family is able to recycle as much as possible. She uses re-usable shopping bags and their family uses a single, energy efficient vehicle (a Toyota Prius). Cindy wants another energy efficient vehicle but one that offers more space for her family, pets and hobbies. She is very open to potentially purchasing a vehicle online. She spends a lot of time in her kayak and considers herself to be a conservationist. In her spare time she likes up cycling, hiking and being with family. Cindy is a current Hybrid owner that is dissatisfied with the utility of the vehicle. She and her husband want desperately to find an environmentally friendly vehicle that will meet the needs of her growing family and their "outdoorsy" activities. Cindy has made major purchases online in the past and her husband purchased a motorcycle sight unseen from eBay Motors last year. One of her co-workers used the online concierge service from Rebel and has raved about it. She has started browsing on the Rebel Motor Company website and has been customizing a mid-size environmentally-friendly small SUV and uses their mobile site to share her inspiration with her husband. Cindy and her husband have decided to use the online tools and have chatted with ambassadors on Rebel's website. They ask a local dealer to visit them at their home to compare a small Hybrid SUV with their Prius. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household Relationship with RMC: Unhappy with her current vehicle, Cindy has taken it upon herself to gather information from her friends, family and co-workers to learn more about the vehicles in RMC's lineup. She has been impressed by the feedback and has spent time configuring several vehicles on the RMC website. She likes the company's small carbon footprint and cavalier business model. Cindy's Digital Life: Cindy considers herself pretty adept at technology and uses a wide range of different devices at work and at home. She keeps a strong separation of her technology between work and home and has a different computer and cell phone that she uses for each. Daily Technological Diet: ▪ IBM Thinkpad Used for communicating marketing plans, sending emails and working at her daily job. ▪ iPhone Work issued and used for email, texting and phone application ▪ Macintosh Laptops Both she and her husband, have MacBook Airs for personal use. ▪ Samsung Android Smartphone Personal Android phone, used for text messaging, email, social networking ▪ iPad Both personal and business use. Preferred when traveling, used for reading, email, browsing and research About Cindy Consideration Prob. Brand Aware Mobile Use 61
  • 62. Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations Find A Person Like Me On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Visits competitive sites Reads online reviews Reads Industry Article Looks into forums Looks for sponsors from bloggers she follows Reads lifestyle content Seeks Out Current Owners For Chat Performs Web Searches Customize for my family On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Investigates Dealer Locations Wishes She Could Ask Directly Uses Car Configuration Tool Reviews Dealer Info Overcome fear On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Visits Industry Financing Pages Uses Site Search Schedules to talk with an Ambassador and Dealer Looks for Knowledge Base Finds introductory ownerships information Unable to Find What She Needs Polls friends on Facebook and Pinterest Watches Online Videos Chats with Concierge Cannot Find Content She Needs Wants more detailed info Reads Owner Documents Reads Reviews of Online Ordering Strongly Considering Online Buy Shares Configuration with Sister and Husband Schedules Online Consultation Schedules in person meeting with Ambassador 62
  • 63. Cindy has a heightened awareness and care for the world around her. She has taken steps to ensure that her family is able to recycle as much as possible. She uses re-usable shopping bags and their family uses a single, energy efficient vehicle (a Toyota Prius). Cindy wants another energy efficient vehicle but one that offers more space for her family, pets and hobbies. She is very open to potentially purchasing a vehicle online. She spends a lot of time in her kayak and considers herself to be a conservationist. In her spare time she likes up cycling, hiking and being with family. Cindy is a current Hybrid owner that is dissatisfied with the utility of the vehicle. She and her husband want desperately to find an environmentally friendly vehicle that will meet the needs of her growing family and their "outdoorsy" activities. Cindy has made major purchases online in the past and her husband purchased a motorcycle sight unseen from eBay Motors last year. One of her co-workers used the online concierge service from Rebel and has raved about it. She has started browsing on the Rebel Motor Company website and has been customizing a mid-size environmentally-friendly small SUV and uses their mobile site to share her inspiration with her husband. Cindy and her husband have decided to use the online tools and have chatted with ambassadors on Rebel's website. They ask a local dealer to visit them at their home to compare a small Hybrid SUV with their Prius. “I'm always looking for an opportunity to lessen my impact on the environment. I want a car that meets my family's needs and aligns with my values” Age: 40 Location: San Diego, CA Work Life: Marketing Director at Whole Foods. Home Life: Married to David and has two children, Josiah (14) and Nathan (12). Personal Income: $350k / $550k Household Relationship with RMC: Unhappy with her current vehicle, Cindy has taken it upon herself to gather information from her friends, family and co-workers to learn more about the vehicles in RMC's lineup. She has been impressed by the feedback and has spent time configuring several vehicles on the RMC website. She likes the company's small carbon footprint and cavalier business model. Cindy's Digital Life: Cindy considers herself pretty adept at technology and uses a wide range of different devices at work and at home. She keeps a strong separation of her technology between work and home and has a different computer and cell phone that she uses for each. Daily Technological Diet: ▪ IBM Thinkpad Used for communicating marketing plans, sending emails and working at her daily job. ▪ iPhone Work issued and used for email, texting and phone application ▪ Macintosh Laptops Both she and her husband, have MacBook Airs for personal use. ▪ Samsung Android Smartphone Personal Android phone, used for text messaging, email, social networking ▪ iPad Both personal and business use. Preferred when traveling, used for reading, email, browsing and research About Cindy Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations Find A Person Like Me On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Visits competitive sites Reads online reviews Reads Industry Article Looks into forums Looks for sponsors from bloggers she follows Reads lifestyle content Seeks Out Current Owners For Chat Performs Web Searches Customize for my family On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Investigates Dealer Locations Wishes She Could Ask Directly Uses Car Configuration Tool Reviews Dealer Info Overcome fear On the Web On the Rebel Motors Site Visits Industry Financing Pages Uses Site Search Schedules to talk with an Ambassador and Dealer Looks for Knowledge Base Finds introductory ownerships information Unable to Find What She Needs Cindy's Scenarios Consideration Prob. Brand Aware Mobile Use Polls friends on Facebook and Pinterest Watches Online Videos Chats with Concierge Cannot Find Content She Needs Wants more detailed info Reads Owner Documents Reads Reviews of Online Ordering Strongly Considering Online Buy Shares Configuration with Sister and Husband Schedules Online Consultation Schedules in person meeting with Ambassador Cindy Key Scenarios Finding A Person Like Me Cindy is fed up with the limitations of her Toyota Prius. She loves that the car is environmentally friendly and she does all she can to lessen her impact, but living the suburbs makes having personal transportation a necessity. She's in market for a new Green vehicle to meet her expanding family and her active lifestyle. Her co-worker, Danny, recently purchased a small SUV, the Foxhound, from Rebel Motor Company. She shares Danny's passion for kayaking and has another child on the way so she decides to visit RMC's website to see if others with her life situation are finding Rebel vehicles to have good utility. She begins her search by looking for online reviews. During her process she starts to use filtering to narrow reviews down to people in California and a passion for outdoor activities. She does her best to sort these reviews but struggles to find some details that are important to her (like how many children a reviewer has, or if they have pets). After reading three positive reviews from women in her state, she reads a few articles on Edmunds.com and visits a few forums to see the passion behind RMC. She also notices that one of her favorite food bloggers has RMC as a sponsor of a recipe competition. That night, Cindy uses her iPad to investigate the RMC website. She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsRobin's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Robin's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations Cindy Key Scenarios Finding A Person Like Me Cindy is fed up with the limitations of her Toyota Prius. She loves that the car is environmentally friendly and she does all she can to lessen her impact, but living the suburbs makes having personal transportation a necessity. She's in market for a new Green vehicle to meet her expanding family and her active lifestyle. Her co-worker, Danny, recently purchased a small SUV, the Foxhound, from Rebel Motor Company. She shares Danny's passion for kayaking and has another child on the way so she decides to visit RMC's website to see if others with her life situation are finding Rebel vehicles to have good utility. She begins her search by looking for online reviews. During her process she starts to use filtering to narrow reviews down to people in California and a passion for outdoor activities. She does her best to sort these reviews but struggles to find some details that are important to her (like how many children a reviewer has, or if they have pets). After reading three positive reviews from women in her state, she reads a few articles on Edmunds.com and visits a few forums to see the passion behind RMC. She also notices that one of her favorite food bloggers has RMC as a sponsor of a recipe competition. That night, Cindy uses her iPad to investigate the RMC website. She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsRobin's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Robin's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations Cindy Key Scenarios Finding A Person Like Me Cindy is fed up with the limitations of her Toyota Prius. She loves that the car is environmentally friendly and she does all she can to lessen her impact, but living the suburbs makes having personal transportation a necessity. She's in market for a new Green vehicle to meet her expanding family and her active lifestyle. Her co-worker, Danny, recently purchased a small SUV, the Foxhound, from Rebel Motor Company. She shares Danny's passion for kayaking and has another child on the way so she decides to visit RMC's website to see if others with her life situation are finding Rebel vehicles to have good utility. She begins her search by looking for online reviews. During her process she starts to use filtering to narrow reviews down to people in California and a passion for outdoor activities. She does her best to sort these reviews but struggles to find some details that are important to her (like how many children a reviewer has, or if they have pets). After reading three positive reviews from women in her state, she reads a few articles on Edmunds.com and visits a few forums to see the passion behind RMC. She also notices that one of her favorite food bloggers has RMC as a sponsor of a recipe competition. That night, Cindy uses her iPad to investigate the RMC website. She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsRobin's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Robin's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations 63
  • 64. Scenarios: User Engagement & Questions Finding A Person Like Me Cindy is fed up with the limitations of her Toyota Prius. She loves that the car is environmentally friendly and she does all she can to lessen her impact, but living the suburbs makes having personal transportation a necessity. She's in market for a new Green vehicle to meet her expanding family and her active lifestyle. Her co-worker, Danny, recently purchased a small SUV, the Foxhound, from Rebel Motor Company. She shares Danny's passion for kayaking and has another child on the way so she decides to visit RMC's website to see if others with her life situation are finding Rebel vehicles to have good utility. She begins her search by looking for online reviews. During her process she starts to use filtering to narrow reviews down to people in California and a passion for outdoor activities. She does her best to sort these reviews but struggles to find some details that are important to her (like how many children a reviewer has, or if they have pets). After reading three positive reviews from women in her state, she reads a few articles on Edmunds.com and visits a few forums to see the passion behind RMC. She also notices that one of her favorite food bloggers has RMC as a sponsor of a recipe competition. That night, Cindy uses her iPad to investigate the RMC website. She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsRobin's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Robin's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations 64 ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsCindy's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Cindy's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations
  • 65. Scenarios: User Engagement & Questions 65 Finding A Person Like Me Cindy is fed up with the limitations of her Toyota Prius. She loves that the car is environmentally friendly and she does all she can to lessen her impact, but living the suburbs makes having personal transportation a necessity. She's in market for a new Green vehicle to meet her expanding family and her active lifestyle. Her co-worker, Danny, recently purchased a small SUV, the Foxhound, from Rebel Motor Company. She shares Danny's passion for kayaking and has another child on the way so she decides to visit RMC's website to see if others with her life situation are finding Rebel vehicles to have good utility. She begins her search by looking for online reviews. During her process she starts to use filtering to narrow reviews down to people in California and a passion for outdoor activities. She does her best to sort these reviews but struggles to find some details that are important to her (like how many children a reviewer has, or if they have pets). After reading three positive reviews from women in her state, she reads a few articles on Edmunds.com and visits a few forums to see the passion behind RMC. She also notices that one of her favorite food bloggers has RMC as a sponsor of a recipe competition. That night, Cindy uses her iPad to investigate the RMC website. She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain PointsCindy's Questions ▪ How can I be sure that this car will suit my family's needs? ▪ Can I find information on traveling with pets in an RMC vehicle? Are their options for towing/hauling? ▪ How will owning an RMC vehicle impact my daily life? Cindy's Goal "I want to understand the experience of RMC owners who are similar to me." Motivators FACT FEEL SLOW FAST Process / Workflow Social / Relational Content / Research Finding People / Locations
  • 66. 66 She looks at overview pages for the Foxhound for several minutes and starts to configure a few trim levels. An online chat offer pops up and she meets Mike, a concierge for RMC's website. Intrigued with this level of service, she starts a dialogue and begins asking a series of questions to fill gaps that she was missing in her initial search. While the concierge is helpful and gives her a few videos and user submitted articles to check out, it isn't really what she's looking for. Still, intrigued by RMC's design, support and strong reviews, she attempts to find owners in the online community to chat with. How can Rebel best support Cindy? Providing Cindy with better filters for content would go a long way in helping her find someone she can identify with. Additionally, arming concierge team with general statistics on ownership (how many owners have pets, how many are female owners and other available information, etc.) benefits conquests like Cindy. Streamlining the experience and offering more owner testimonials and a feed of peer to peer communication mixed in with sales and promotional material increase Cindy's opportunity for way finding and a concierge's probability of being helpful in assisting someone like Cindy. ▪ Doesn’t feel like the content she sees on RMC's site is relevant for her. ▪ Needs third party or peer validation before purchase can occur. ▪ Concierge didn't provide external resources. ▪ Would like additional insight from the owners group. Potential Pain Points
  • 67. Questions?
  • 68. Exercise: Review Persona Segments Photo: Tom Carley: https://flic.kr/p/e2sdtx
  • 69. Exercise: COGNITIVE DIAGRAMS
  • 70. Kudos to Kissane • Now that we understand business needs, understand persona needs and pain points, we can think about content strategy (6 hours later!) • This cognitive diagram will help you start to frame what a user needs in order to take action on your site OVERCOME FEAR (Via testimonial, Use Cases, Financial Examples) PLAN AND IMMERSE (Browse an expert, Understand Tools) EXPLORE OPTIONS (Browse options and understand qualifications TAKE ACTION (Apply for pin, Download Forms, Contact Advisor) 70
  • 71. Let’s take a Short break! Photo: David Joyce- https://flic.kr/p/5AwR9z
  • 72. chat with a counsellor EXPLORE OPTIONS understand federal aid am I eligible? what are my financial impacts? PLAN & IMMERSE OVERCOME FEAR TAKE ACTION are there different kinds of federal aid? apply for aid how do I apply? what forms do I need? what education do I need to apply? what happens after I apply? understand repayment understand private aid what are my financial impacts? understand student aid what is a grant? what is a loan? what is a scholarship? can I apply for admittance without aid? what are the payment schedules? can i postpone repayment? what happens if i miss a payment? self assesment what tests do I need to take? repayment calculators chat with a counsellor account management what colleges should I apply to? how often do I have to apply for aid? identify with others am I eligible? how does private aid differ from federal aid? apply for financial aid/pin what are my application options? how soon do I need to apply? get answers decision tree process online application aren't most students in their 20s? can you go back to school and still be a good parent? will I still be able to work? new student checklists adult student testimonials read/create forum topics 'getting started' materials adult student testimonials overview content overview content contact forms online application connect to representative plan examples when do I start repaying? how long will it take? who has to pay if I die? who has to pay if I die? outreach services testimonials and timelines checklists and overview create accountoverview content Part 4: Mental Modeling
  • 73. What is a mental model? A representation of the thought, and actionable processes, used to achieve a set of goals in a narrowly defined scope 73 chat with a counsellor EXPLORE OPTIONS understand federal aid am I eligible? what are my financial impacts? PLAN & IMMERSE OVERCOME FEAR TAKE ACTION are there different kinds of federal aid? apply for aid how do I apply? what forms do I need? what education do I need to apply? what happens after I apply? understand repayment understand private aid what are my financial impacts? understand student aid what is a grant? what is a loan? what is a scholarship? can I apply for admittance without aid? what are the payment schedules? can i postpone repayment? what happens if i miss a payment? self assesment what tests do I need to take? repayment calculators chat with a counsellor account management what colleges should I apply to? how often do I have to apply for aid? identify with others am I eligible? how does private aid differ from federal aid? apply for financial aid/pin what are my application options? how soon do I need to apply? get answers decision tree process online application aren't most students in their 20s? can you go back to school and still be a good parent? will I still be able to work? new student checklists adult student testimonials read/create forum topics 'getting started' materials adult student testimonials overview content overview content contact forms online application connect to representative plan examples when do I start repaying? how long will it take? who has to pay if I die? who has to pay if I die? outreach services testimonials and timelines checklists and overview create accountoverview content
  • 74. Starting with a hypothesis The cognitive diagrams we finished in the last exercise will serve as a base for a content plan. The four points we need to address before action can occur are “engagements” that require content OVERCOME FEAR (Via testimonial, Use Cases, Financial Examples) PLAN AND IMMERSE (Browse an expert, Understand Tools) EXPLORE OPTIONS (Browse options and understand qualifications TAKE ACTION (Apply for pin, Download Forms, Contact Advisor)
  • 75. Find your Base One of the most important parts of a communication focused mental model is understanding the engagement that you want to influence with the content. This gives your content a reason for being and something to measure against. EXPLORE OPTIONS BASE (Engagement)
  • 76. Below the line: The Roots Remember all those content inventories content strategists keep telling you to have? Dig em out and plug it into your model EXPLORE OPTIONS BASE (Engagement) chat with a counsellor decision tree process overview content overview content plan examples overview content ROOTS (Existing Systems & Content)
  • 77. From inquiry: Mapping intentions Intentions should come directly from your personas, which are based on your inquiry! Intentions relate directly to the engagement and should further qualify why you need or don’t need a piece of content. EXPLORE OPTIONS BASE (Engagement) chat with a counsellor decision tree process overview content overview content plan examples overview content ROOTS (Existing Systems & Content) understand federal aid understand private aid understand student aid SUPPORT STRUCTURE (Intentions)
  • 78. The New things: tasks New content builds upon intentions and serve as the towers for our mental models. I tend to frame tasks as questions because it allows me to use the persona’s frame of reference to talk about a content need. When we focus on tasks, we probably have content that is useable for humans and search engines. EXPLORE OPTIONS BASE (Engagement) chat with a counsellor decision tree process overview content overview content plan examples overview content ROOTS (Existing Systems & Content) understand federal aid understand private aid understand student aid SUPPORT STRUCTURE (Intentions) am I eligible? what are my financial impacts? are there different kinds of federal aid? how do I apply? what are my financial impacts? what is a grant? what is a loan? what is a scholarship? am I eligible? how does private aid differ from federal aid? TOWER (Tasks)
  • 79. And we keep going chat with a counsellor EXPLORE OPTIONS understand federal aid am I eligible? what are my financial impacts? PLAN & IMMERSE OVERCOME FEAR TAKE ACTION are there different kinds of federal aid? apply for aid how do I apply? what forms do I need? what education do I need to apply? what happens after I apply? understand repayment understand private aid what are my financial impacts? understand student aid what is a grant? what is a loan? what is a scholarship? can I apply for admittance without aid? what are the payment schedules? can i postpone repayment? what happens if i miss a payment? self assesment what tests do I need to take? repayment calculators chat with a counsellor account management what colleges should I apply to? how often do I have to apply for aid? identify with others am I eligible? how does private aid differ from federal aid? apply for financial aid/pin what are my application options? how soon do I need to apply? get answers decision tree process online application aren't most students in their 20s? can you go back to school and still be a good parent? will I still be able to work? new student checklists adult student testimonials read/create forum topics 'getting started' materials adult student testimonials overview content overview content contact forms online application connect to representative plan examples when do I start repaying? how long will it take? who has to pay if I die? who has to pay if I die? outreach services testimonials and timelines checklists and overview create accountoverview content
  • 80. Exercise: Mental Modeling
  • 81. Questions?
  • 82. http://understandinggroup.com | http://facebook.com/TUGroup | @undrstndng