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World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment

World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment






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World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment World History Unit8 Scirev And Enlightenment Presentation Transcript

  • The Scientific Revolution (16 th and 17 th century)
    • Nicholas Copernicus
      • Heliocentric model challenges both established science and the Church
      • Opens the door to the questioning of other realms
    • Francis Bacon
      • Scientific Method – man can now use reason to explain the world around him – no need for God in science
  • Bacon’s Scientific Method
  • Isaac Newton
    • Develops mathematical ideas that explain the physical universe
    • Laws of Motion
      • An object in motion will remain in motion
      • Force = mass X acceleration
      • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
  • 18 th century Enlightenment – The Age of Reason
    • Revolution in philosophy
    • Philosophers, inspired by scientists, started questioning God and God’s role in society
    • Particular emphasis was placed on criticizing government and the church
    • Paris, France was the hotbed of reason – rather ironically, it was also the center of Absolutism and Divine Right
    • Philosophers wrote the words that inspired revolutionaries, both in America and in France
  • John Locke and Jean Jacque Rousseau
    • Locke
      • English philosopher
      • Believed that men are entitled to life, liberty and PROPERTY
      • Inspiration for the American founding fathers (all were rich, white, educated men)
      • Government should protect us from us – first priority was to provide security and order
    • Rousseau
      • French Philosopher
      • Believed that all men are entitiled to life, liberty and EQUALITY
      • Inspiration for the French revolutionaries (many women and poor commoners)
      • Government should promote equality among all men
  • John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau
  • The “Social Contract”
    • Men form governments.
    • Governments must respond to the needs of men.
    • If a government does not respond to the needs of men, men have the right to change the government.
  • Views on the Social Contract
    • Who are the “men”? Who determines whether or not the government is serving the needs of men?
    • What does it mean to “change” the government?
    • There have been different answers to these questions from throughout history……………..
      • Locke
      • Rousseau
      • American Founding Fathers
      • French Revolutionaries
      • Karl Marx
      • Southern leaders in the US in 1861
      • Vladimir Lenin
      • Chairman Mao
      • What about today?
  • Voltaire
    • French philosopher who attacked the Church and the French government though his short novel, Candide and other works
    • Advocated freedom of religion and separation of church and state
    • Advocated the right of citizens to a fair and impartial trial
  • Adam Smith
    • English economist and philosopher who attacked the idea of government intervention in the economy
    • Advocated “laissez-faire” economics (hands off)
    • Believed in a pure capitalist system where the “law of supply and demand” would determine prices
  • David Hume
    • English philosopher who questioned the existence of God
    • Used a logical and scientific argument to question faith
    • Since faith itself is irrational, what makes one faith right for everyone?
    • Heavily criticized by the Anglican Church, of which he was a member, but never wavered in his views
  • Deism and the Watchmaker Theory
    • Enlightenment age religion that advocated a belief in God (even if that belief was irrational)
    • God was there in the beginning, and will be there in the end, but in between we’re on our own
    • Imagine an old style windup watch……God made the watch and wound it up, but then left it alone. He’ll be back when the watch needs to be rewound
    • No need for prayer or worship – it’s counterproductive – God’s not listening anyway
    • Humans have ultimate free choice and free will
    • Many of the American founding fathers believed in Deism – Thomas Jefferson was probably the most famous
    • Voltaire also advocated Deism and the right to freedom of religion
  • The American Revolution
  • The American Revolution
    • Not really a classic “revolution” in the sense that a social class did not revolt against the one above it
    • Really more of a war for independence, but it did incorporate rhetoric from the Age of Reason
    • American revolutionary LEADERS studied Locke and others – they certainly believed in the rhetoric, but the average “patriot” in the street paid little in the way of taxes, so “no taxation without representation” was little more than a slogan.
    • The new government formed after the revolution was at least outwardly based on enlightenment principles, although it would be decades before most of those principles were actually put into practice – think of how long it took women to receive the vote.
  • Declaration of Independence
    • Written by Thomas Jefferson
    • Restatement of the social contract
    • List of grievances – what King George III did to break the contract
    • Considered the first true government document containing enlightenment principles
    • Used as a pattern for revolutions around the world
    • Enlightened Despotism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • Enlightened Despotism
    • Idea found in Central and Eastern Europe whereby monarchs and emperors made changes to their societies in which modernized the states while the people earned some political and social rights
    • Monarchs still maintained absolute control, but instead of justifying their rule by divine right (God), they instead saw themselves at the head of the people
    • Most of the ideas were really designed to PREVENT revolution (governments must serve the needs of men)
    • Many of the reforms were eventually rescinded after the people tried to get even more rights (revolutions were often brutally repressed
  • Fredrick the Great of Prussia
    • Emperor of Prussia in the Northern Germanic Lands
    • Modernized the military and opened officer positions to middle and lower classes
    • Modernized the Prussian government and opened positions to people of merit instead of cronies
  • Catherine the Great of Russia
    • Modernized the Russian army and government
    • Studied in France during the Enlightenment
    • Tried to link Russia to the West through trade and diplomatic relations
    • Increased Russia’s territory, especially against the Ottomans (Turks) – sought to link Russia to its Slavic neighbors to the south
  • Maria Theresa and Joseph II of the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) Note – mother and brother to Marie Antoinette (Queen of France)
    • Serfdom abolished in the Hapsburg Lands
    • Granted freedom of religion (very radical idea, especially in a Catholic empire)
    • Established a national education system
    • Developed equality before the law, even for the nobility
    • Many of the reforms were rolled back after revolutions broke out among the minority populations of the Hapsburg Empire