Students should try to think up their own list of causes.
The French Revolution, 1789-1799
Map of Atlantic Revolutions: Where is Europe? France?
One approach to studying historyCausesProcessConsequences
What were the causes of theFrench Revolution? QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Causes of the French RevolutionThe Enlightenment Ideas: Liberty Equality Reason Progress Philosophes: Locke defended private property, limited sovereignty and fair government Voltaire attacked noble privileges and the Church’s authority
Causes (continued)The American Revolution,1775-1783: showed the ideas of Enlightenment in action French soldiers (i.e. Lafayette) who helped came home inspired Put Louis XVI in deep debt
Causes (continued)French Economy was failing National debt: four billion livres 50 percent of government’s income went to interest on debt no central bank or paper currency Inefficient and uneven taxation system (varied by region and estate)
Causes (continued)Feudal system Estate System outdated posed many difficulties to rising middle class of Third Estate difficult to move upward in QuickTimeª and a society, unless very rich TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Less well-off commoners resented the inequality of the three estates
Causes (continued)Harvest failures in1787-1788: less food higher prices businesses failed unemployment in cities QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Periodization of the FrenchRevolutionModerate stage: 1789–1792Radical stage: 1792–1794The Directory: 1794–1799Napoleon: 1799–1815
Outbreak of the RevolutionTHE SPARK: Fiscal crisis forced Louis XVI tocall the Estates-General, summer, 1788 (firsttime since 1614) The three estates elected delegates: First Estate represented about 100,000 clergymen Second Estate represented about 400,000 noble men and women Third Estate represented about 24.5 million people
Outbreak (contd.) Main disagreement: representation Should the estates vote by estate or by individual? Third Estate argued that all delegates should sit together and vote as individuals Third Estate demanded as many delegates as the First and Second Estates combined: “Doubling the Third” Louis opposed, then changed his position
Who were the Third Estatedelegates?Represented theoutlook of the elite25 percent lawyers43 percentgovernment officialsStrong sense ofcommon grievanceand common purpose(cahiers dedoleances)
Outbreak (contd.) May 5, 1789: Estates General convened at Versailles June 17, 1789: the delegates of the Third Estate declared themselves to be the National Assembly
the Oath of the Tennis Court(June 20, 1789) QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Outbreak (Contd.) Public attention to the events in Paris was high Price of bread soared Rumors circulated that Louis was about to stage a coup d’état Parisian workers (sans-culottes) organized a militia of volunteers
Outbreak (Contd.) July 14, 1789: the Storming of the Bastille Bastille was symbol of royal authority Its fall symbolized of the people’s role in revolutionary change
The Storming the Bastille QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Outbreak (Contd.) The Great Fear Rumors that the king’s armies were on their way Peasants attacked and burned manor houses Destroyed manor records
The Great Fear QuickTimeª and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
ResponseAugust 4, 1789: National Assembly voted toabolish all noble and other privileges Church tithe the corvée hunting privileges tax exemptions and monopolies Obliterated the remnants of feudalism
Declaration of the Rights of Man and theCitizen (August 26, 1789; issued in Sept.)
The National Assembly and theliberal revolution The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen Declared natural rights Private property Liberty, security, and resistance to oppression Declared freedom of speech, religious toleration, and liberty of the press to be inviolable Equality before the law
The masses take theinitiative: October Days Brought on by economic crisis Parisian women marched to Versailles (October 5) and demanded to be heard
The masses take theinitiative: October Days Women demanded Louis and his family return to Paris Women with the help of the National Guard forced Louis (and the National Assembly) to move to Paris
Women and the revolutiono General participation in the Revolution o Took leading roles in mass actions o Joined clubs, demonstrations, and debates o Women as citizenso Olympe de Gouges, Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Citizen (1791) o Women should have the same rights as men
Religion and the revolutionThe most divisive issue National Assembly confiscated church property (November 1789) The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (July 1790) Bishops and clergy subject to the laws of the state Salaries to be paid from public treasury Church reforms polarized France Many resented the privileged position of the church Parish church an institution of great local importance